WAU No Child Left Behind Act Moral Development & Montessori Education Discussion

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Washington Adventist University


week 1 Part 2.

200 words As discussed in our textbook, Locke and Rousseau were ahead of their time in terms of formulating educational methods. The “No Child Left Behind” Educational Act of 2002 mandates yearly standardized testing in reading and math in grades 3-8.

Please link to and read the following description of the objectives of the NCLB Act: http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/execsumm.html

If Locke and Rousseau read this summary of the NCLB Act, how do you believe that they would respond? What portions would each support and what might portions would they find objectionable? Please discuss both theorists in your response.

Please be sure to keep the discussion academic, and not to focus on how you may feel about current or past Presidential administrations in general. Thanks!

week 2

400 words

Forum Two: Montessori Education-Theory and Applications 0 unread of 0 messagesView Full Description

General instructions and the rubric for discussion forums are found by clicking on the "View Full Description" link area under each forum's main heading. The same requirements apply for each week.

Week 2 Forum

Topic: Montessori Education

Our text discusses many of the pros and some of the cons of Montessori education.

If any of you have personal experience with the Montessori Method, please comment upon it here.

Based upon what you now know about child development, can you think of any particular type of child for whom Montessori would not be a good fit?

Are there any empirical data available to help answer this question (e.g., which children are suitable for a Montessori education)?

Do a little research on your own to see what the experts think and then form your own opinion.

  • WEEK 2
  • This week's studies include a focus on educational philosophy and organismic and comparative theory, the pros and cons of Montessori education, developed by Maria Montessori, and career opportunities in the field of developmental psychology. Although there are thousands of Montessori schools across our nation and the world at large, what evidence exists to support the Montessori method? Some parents may be hesitant to consider Montessori education because it seems much “looser” than regular education methods (e.g., which requires children to sit at desks and all listen to one lesson at the same time). Some may argue that if a child is allowed to choose what s/he wishes to study, s/he may elect to never study certain subjects.Do the benefits of Montessori education outweigh any of the potential costs? Are there any types of children for whom a Montessori setting would not be appropriate?The Montessori method has had its critics, including John Dewey, who felt that it under-emphasized a young child’s ability and need to engage in creative and unstructured fantasy-type play. In addition, Dewey felt that children were not prepared to learn to read until approximately age 8, whereas Montessori believed children learned at their own pace, but could typically begin reading at age 4 or 5. Dewey also did not believe that certain prescribed materials (such as those used by Montessori) were needed in order for children to learn; they should be allowed to play with whatever their imaginations allowed.Others feel that she under-emphasized the importance of social interaction between young children. Montessori believed that “passive listening,” as in the case of listening to fairy tales, is “a state in which they merely receive impressions from adults” (Crain, 2005, p. 86). Others disagree, stating that fairy tales help to develop a child’s imagination and reasoning skills.Although there are thousands of Montessori schools across our nation and the world at large, what evidence exists to support the Montessori method? Some parents may be hesitant to consider Montessori education because it seems much “looser” than regular education methods (e.g., which requires children to sit at desks and all listen to one lesson at the same time). Some may argue that if a child is allowed to choose what s/he wishes to study, s/he may elect to never study certain subjects. Proponents of Montessori education argue that the method will help to develop many important life skills in children. For example, Howell, Sulak, Bagby, Diaz, and Thompson (2013) assert that Montessori education helps children to develop executive functioning skills, including planning, organization, and time management skills. It is important to note, however, that no hypotheses were empirically tested in this review article, so these assertions remain theoretical at this time. Has anyone actually empiricially tested the claims of Montessori proponents?Recently, Lillard and Else-Quest (2006) published an innovative study putting Montessori education to the test. They used a sample of children from Milwaukee (families averaging $20,000 to $50,000 income per year and mostly African-American). Half of the children (the experimental group) were accepted into the school system’s Montessori school via random lottery and the other half (the control group) were children who entered the lottery but did not “win” a spot (therefore, all parents wished for their children to attend the Montessori school).Lillard and Else-Quest (2006) compared two cross-sectional groups at age 5 years and 12 years. At age 5 years, Montessori students showed better performance on several measures of academic achievement, including word decoding abilities and math skills. Montessori children also showed superior performance on a test of executive functioning skills. In addition, Montessori children used higher level moral reasoning skills and were more likely to be involved in positive peer play than the non-Montessori children.Twelve year old Montessori children wrote more creative stories and used better writing skills. However, the Montessori children did not perform significantly better on the academic achievement measures. The 12-year old Montessori children expressed a greater sense of community, and seemed more likely to choose positive assertive solutions when facing social problems. These authors conclude that Montessori education provides advantages in terms of both academic achievement and social development. The authors state that the lottery recruitment strategy should cancel out any parental influences, bolstering their case that it was, in fact, the Montessori education that made the difference (Lillard & Else-Quest, 2006). To counter the above study, a study conducted by Lopata, Wallace, and Finn (2005) compared mostly minority, low-income students enrolled in a public Montessori program were compared with others attending either magnet programs or traditional public school classrooms. In this study, the hypothesis that Montessori students would display higher academic achievement in the areas of math or Language Arts than the other groups was not supported. In particular, 8th grade Montessori students had significantly lower scores in Language Arts than students in the other programs.The data collected by Lillard and Else-Quest (2006) certainly provide support for Montessori education. But what of the critiques, especially that of Montessori stifling children’s ability to engage in fantasy play and other creative outlets such as free drawing? Another author (Gussin Paley, 2004) discusses the importance of such play and the fact that educators are providing less and less time for such play. This author asserts that making even kindergarten highly academic is backfiring on us, and that some may be blaming television when, in actuality, these children are being pushed too soon to read and write. The time spent engaging in such academic teaching may not actually be harmful, but it does take away from the time in which the child can engage in creative play. She sees this shrinking of time as a major cause of the increasing amounts of restlessness and fatigue seen in young children in the early elementary years (Gussin Paley, 2004).Another criticism of Montessori education lies in the expense required to get the classroom up and running. The Montessori Method requires the use of the same wooden toys that Montessori herself developed. These can be quite expensive. For that reason, it is quite difficult to use the Montessori method in anywhere other than private school settings where parents pay tuition, such as public schools or in developing countries.In addition, some critics have pointed out that, while Montessori preferred experimental and sometimes non-systematic use of her materials, teachers training in the modern Montessori method are trained in a highly structured, methodical approach. Teachers also have to undergo extensive training (at either their own or their employer’s expense) in order to become certified. Some have to train for three consecutive summers to become certified!Other critics have asserted that Montessori education can discourage social interaction between children, whether intentionally or not. Children generally work with materials individually as opposed to participating in small group or cooperative activities, as they might do in a traditional preschool setting.

    Finally, schools calling themselves “Montessori” may vary in quality and adherence to Montessori methodology. There is no central accrediting agency, although one can be assured that those accredited by the American Montessori Society had to meet certain standards. Some schools may resemble Montessori’s methodology in name only, and may have teachers who have not been extensively trained. The onus is, therefore, on the parent to do the research.

    Do the benefits of Montessori education outweigh any of the potential costs? Are there any types of children for whom a Montessori setting would not be appropriate?References
    Gussin Paley, V. (2004). A child’s work: The importance of fantasy play. Chicago: University of Chicago

    Howell, L., Sulak, T. N., Bagby, J., Diaz, C., & Thompson, L. W. (2013). Preparation for life: How the
    Montessori classroom facilitates the development of executive function skills. Montessori Life, (Spring,

    Lillard, A., & Else-Quest, N. (2006). The early years: Evaluating Montessori education. Science, 313(5795),
    pp. 1893-1894.

    Lopata, C., Wallace, N. V., & Finn, K. V. (2005). Comparison of academic achievement between
    Montessori and traditional education programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20,

week 3 400 words

Forum Three: Moral Development-Schiavo Case Application 0 unread of 0 messagesView Full Description

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Week 3 Forum

Topic: Schiavo Case Relationship to Moral Development

There have been many difficult medical cases that have sparked controversy regarding ethical issues. The case of Terri Schiavo is one of the most controversial in recent memory. Please link to and read the following summary/timeline of the Schiavo case:

https://bioethics.miami.edu/clinical-and-research-ethics/terri-schiavo-project/timeline-of-key-events/part-1/index.htmlBased upon Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development, where do you believe that the Schindlers (Terri’s parents) fall? What about Michael Schiavo?

  • WEEK 3
  • This week's studies include Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Kohlberg’s theory stems from the Piagetian tradition. Piajet's theory of Cognitive Development touched upon moral development primarily in the Formal Operational period. He believed that moralistic thinking, including liberty, justice, and love developed during the Formal Operational Period. Expanding on Piajet's view was Kohlberg's view that it is the individual, rather than society, who determines what is right and wrong. Kohlberg's viewpoints represented a move away from the behaviorism of the early 20th century and toward a more cognitive view.In addition to studying different age groups to determine where they stood on morality, Kohlberg also attempted some longitudinal studies on subjects to determine how their views changed over time. Like Piaget, he collected data by working with individual subjects; in his case, he posed moral dilemmas and asked the subjects to explain what they would do in that situation and why.Although it is certainly an influential theory, it is not without critics or criticisms. One criticism is that the theory may not apply to other cultures, particularly non-Western cultures (Simpson, 1974; Tronto, 1987). Kohlberg argued that there are certain concepts that are so basic to groups or societies of humans that they should transcend culture, such as affection between people, exchanging of favors, trading, and the presence of social norms in all societies.In 2007, Gibbs, Basinger, Grime, and Snarey conducted a meta-analysis examining Kohlberg’s claims of universality across cultures for moral values across culture and moral judgment stage development across cultures. Although missing and incomplete data in many of the studies was an issue, they concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support Kohlberg’s claims. However, they also acknowledged that there are significant limitations and shortfalls to Kohlberg’s work that need to be addressed in future research studies in the area.Others, Carol Gilligan in particular, state that the stages may work differently for women. Gilligan (1982) believes that women are more motivated by compassion and care than by rights and rules. She asserts that if Kohlberg were to reconceptualize his thinking to make it better fit women’s interpersonal orientation, more women would score higher than Stage 3.Gilligan (1982) developed the idea of the “ethic of care,” which includes the concepts of caring for self, caring for others, and understanding the connection between self and other. Gilligan believes that Kohlberg accepted the male view of life as a norm, and denies that this viewpoint should be accepted as such.Gilligan’s ideas have also been criticized. Women have been shown in some situations to be concerned about situational details as opposed to mercy and justice, as Gilligan would have predicted. But, as with Kohlberg’s original research, Gilligan’s constructs regarding moral development have proven difficult to test empirically.
    Another interesting criticism of Kohlberg’s stages is that he does not do enough to separate moral decisions from moral actions. One can theoretically know the moral thing to do, yet not do it. There have been some interesting findings in which juvenile delinquents scored higher than non-delinquents. One possible explanation was that the delinquents might be able to think more abstractly, although they typically do not behave more “morally” (Daeg de Mott, 2001). In a 2006 meta-analysis, Jan Stams, Brugman, Dekavic, van Rosmalin, van der Laan, and Gibbs found that the moral judgment of juvenile delinquents was significantly lower than that of non-delinquents. They also determined that, by late adolescence, the self-centeredness and lack of moral judgment might lead to attitudes similar to that of lifetime criminal offenders.
    So, how do Kohlberg’s stages apply to everyday life? There are many medical ethics situations where it might be relevant. What about Dr. Jack Kevorkian? Obviously, assisted suicide is not legal in the United States, and he spent 8 years in prison for his role in some of those deaths. Although he swore not to help in any more assisted suicides, he also pledged to lobby legislators to make it legal. Kevorkian maintained that the right to die is a fundamental human right.One recent example of someone who took action to end her own life when it was apparent she would not recover from her illness was Brittany Maynard. Maynard was a young, newlywed woman who was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer. After her condition worsened and she began having seizures and crippling headaches, she took her fate into her own hands, moving from California to Oregon in order to take advantage of the “Death with Dignity” Act. In her last days, Maynard became an advocate for the right-to-die movement. She made a series of videos in which she pled for other states to consider similar legislature so that families would not have to be uprooted during such a stressful time. She also advocated for it to become legal for physicians to be able to prescribe life-ending medication should the person’s suffering become unendurable.The irony of this discussion is that Kohlberg himself committed suicide in 1987. He had contracted a tropical disease while doing research in Belize many years prior, and had suffered much pain over the years. He also suffered with bouts of depression over the years. Kohlberg went into the water in the Boston Harbor in the middle of the winter and apparently drowned himself.
    But what if the injured person cannot make their wishes known after the fact, as with the Schiavo case? Standards provided by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Cruzan case (Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, 1990) indicate that casual conversations (as attested to after the fact by friends/relatives) regarding a person’s desire not to be kept alive via artificial means do not constitute “clear and convincing evidence” of the person in question’s desires. A written Advance Directive would count as “clear and convincing evidence,” but many times (as with Schiavo), this does not exist.
    Although the Schiavo case is discussed in detail this week, other cases have emerged. At the time this Lesson was written, Bobbi Kristina Brown, the daughter of famed singers Bobby Brown and the late Whitney Houston, remained in a comatose state after having been found face-down in a bathtub (eerily like her mother’s death) months prior. Although details were not made publicly available, it appeared that her father and his family were prepared to let her linger on life support indefinitely, hoping that a miracle would occur.

    What might Kohlberg say about the actions of these family members, who understandably do not wish to let their loved one go without exhausting all possible options? What if the family was not wealthy? Would a person without means be permitted to use up medical resources in the same way and for the same length of time (keeping in mind that life support and palliative care can cost hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars per day)?

    Can family members override the wishes of the patient when an Advance Directive indicates that no heroic measures should be taken? Although there’s little hard data out there asking this question, some have suggested that physicians may at times override a “Do Not Resuscitate” order. Reasons include the following: when complications from treatment caused the cardiac arrest rather than the underlying condition itself, when the cardiac arrest occurred due to medical provider error, or even to avoid harming the physician’s “quality metrics” (which are measured and used to evaluate physicians in some settings). This should be alarming news.So what is the moral thing to do in a situation such as the Schiavo case? If a loved one was in a persistent vegetative state and had no hope of recovery? What if the possibility existed, but was very unlikely? What stage of Kohlberg's would you be at if you elected to keep the loved one alive via artificial means? What stage would you be at if you elected to remove them from life support or withdraw a feeding tube? How might Kohlberg's stages of moral development compare/contrast with Piajet's Formal Operational Period?Keep in mind that, without an Advanced Directive, you or your loved one’s fate may wind up in the hands of feuding family members, judges, or even law-makers. ReferencesCruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health. 497 U.S. 261, 1990.Daeg de Mott, D. (2001). Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning. Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Gibbs, J. C., Basinger, K. S., Grime, R. L., & Snarey, J. (2007). Moral development judgment across cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg’s universality claims. Developmental Review, 27, 443-500.Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Simpson, E. L. (1974). Moral development research: A case study of scientific cultural bias. Human Development, 17, 81-106.Tronto, J. C. (1987). Beyond gender difference to a theory of care. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12, 644-663.Additional Readings:van Geert, P. (1998). A dynamic systems model of basic developmental mechanisms: Piaget, vygotsky, and beyond. Psychological Review, 105(4), 634-677. https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/psycarticles/docview/614331092/FE2F526DF0484F8EPQ/11?accountid=8289

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Explanation & Answer


Running head: # WEEK 2


Montessori Education
Student Name:
Class Title:
Date of Submission

# WEEK 2

Montessori Education

Developed in 1900’s by an Italian by the name of Maria Montessori, Montessori
Education Method offers learners a chance to make creative choices on their learning. In
Montessori classrooms, there are highly trained teachers who provide activities that are ageappropriate to guide the process of learning to children.
Based on the knowledge of child development that I have gained, any child can be a good
fit in a Montessori Education Method. In a Montessori Education system, education is in
harmony with the child's pace of growth (Marshall, 2017). Although there are critics who are
against the Montessori Education Method such as John Dewey, countless research did prove that
Montessori Education has a better outcome when it comes to children acquiring knowledge than
the traditional study methods.
According to a research article by Dr. Angeline Lillard published on 28 September, 2006,
(Lillard, 2016). Dr. Angeline performed research in which they took children between the ages
of 3 to 6 years and 6 to 12 years from both the Montessori Education method and the traditional
education method. The children were given similar tasks which they were to perform and get
evaluated. Dr. Angeline noted that there were some significant advantages of attending the
Montessori education system than the traditional model. The children from Montessori had
sound social effects and, they 'could adapt to change (Lillard, 2016).'
According to Dewey, children are not prepared ...

Excellent resource! Really helped me get the gist of things.


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