Humanities
Describe the Stages-Heuristic theory of the policy process.

Question Description

What are the stages of policy development it includes? Discuss this theory and compare it to the other dominant theoretical frameworks.  Discuss Multiple Streams Framework process strengths & weakness as compared to the Stages-Heuristic framework.
.

Final Answer

There are  four stages of policy development:

    a. Awareness raising and consultation

    b. Implementation

    c. Evaluation

    d. Monitoring

a) Stage 1: Awareness raising and Consultation

Awareness raising is the first step in the process and is necessary so that all members of the school community can give more informed feedback during consultation. 

Awareness raising sessions might focus on:
General information about the nature of bullying, Types of bullying behaviour,Gender differences in incidence,Locations which are at high risk,Out-of-school factors,Preventive strategies and Ways of handling and responding to bullying situations by pupils, staff and parents.

(b) Stage 2 Implementation

This is important to launch an anti-bullying policy to emphasise the whole school approach. Senior Managers must to actively reveal their support in dealing with incidents effectively.

(c) Stage 3 Monitoring

Monitoring ensures that the policy is being implemented effectively. The working party will require to decide how the policy will be controlled & monitored. Monitoring will be done by whom? How will you recognize your policy is effective? Who will you consult? What do you desire to know ? What data do you should to keep and for how long? 

It is important to consider how to keep the policy alive and how new staff; pupils, parents, governors etc will be made aware of the policy. Without regular reminders it is likely to be forgotten.

(d) Stage 4 Evaluation

Using agreed data and consulting with a sample of staff, pupils, parents and Governors at least once a year will enable a school to look at what changes have been noted as a result of the school’s strategy. Results will not always reveals the decrease in bullying because raising awareness is likely to result in an enhancing in reporting. There needs to be a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data because the most important aim is whether children and young people feel safe in the school, know what to do if they are bullied and know that they will be listened to and taken seriously. Any evaluation needs to capture that.


One of the best strategies for approaching complex phenomena is to employ  theories,frameworks, or models that can help organize or explain this complexity.  However, any singular framework, theory, or model will fail to capture the full range of factors that shape or underlie policy processes.  Thus, policy process researchers must understand and be able to apply the diverse analytical approaches that are available to them to have a comprehensive perspective on policy processes.  In this sense, then, the conditions imposed by the problem will motivate the approach employed.


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