ENG 201 Florida Memorial University Affirmative Action Research

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ENG 201

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Affirmative action research paper outline
I.

Introduction
A. Affirmative Action is a policy intervention effort meant to achieve racial and gender
equality in the United States. Proponents of affirmative action state that it achieves
equality; it creates a more just and equal society. On the other hand, opponents
believe that it encourages reverse discrimination, where the majority are racially
discriminated.
B. Thesis statement - Affirmative Action is a critical policy intervention that has helped
create equality in employment and education in the United States

II.

Body
A. What is Affirmative Action?
1. It refers to positive actions taken to increase the representation of minorities and
women in areas of culture, education, and employment
2. Minorities and women have historically been excluded in discriminatory manners,
which have led to what appears to be discrimination. However, affirmative action
has caused controversies when used based on race, ethnicity, or gender.
B. How it works
1. In the United States, affirmative became prominent in the 1960s to promote equal
opportunities in different parts of society. It was after the passing of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation that occurred in the United States
and banned discrimination in employment based on race, color, sex, origin, and
religion.
2. The act focused on many sectors such as employment, education, accommodation,
and transport, among many others.
C. Why Affirmative Action is controversial

1. One of the most massive controversies is the divide that occurs in the judiciary.
It's one of the areas that affirmative action is contested, with one of the most
significant cases being that of Fisher V. University of Texas
2. It is seen as if affirmative action is compensating for bias that occurred rather than
focus on creating equal opportunities for everyone.
3. One of its greatest achievements is diversity, which is rampant in the United
States as people are capable of joining institutions and holding significant
positions in society, whether political or professional
4. Furthermore, there have been numerous cases on the same with Fisher V.
University of Texas being one example of such claims.
D. Why we should care
1. Without affirmative action, people will not be able to enjoy the many benefits it
has brought, such as innovation and economic growth, which positively impact
the people
E. Research on Affirmative Action
1. In one case study from Florida, such racial discriminations were measured to
determine how they affected students and how discrimination occurred in the first
place. The school in question was the School District of Hillsborough County
(SDHC) in Tampa, Florida.
2. In the study, race and ethnicity were put into four categories: black, Hispanic,
white, and others. Equality in the school was measured using the Parity Indexes
(PI) and Human Opportunity Index (HOI)
F. Opposing viewpoints
1. Opponents of the law view it as reverse discrimination, especially regarding
individuals' treatment despite their social conditions based on race and gender.

This situation leaves some races and gender disadvantaged since they have to pave
the way for individuals from minorities when they are equally qualified
2. There have been several reports of racial discrimination against the majority who
state that they have been discriminated against so that minority populations can
get a chance in educational institutions. An excellent example of such action
occurred in the 1970s when a white man who argued that the University of
California Davis School of Medicine rejected his application twice while
accepting minority students with lower grades and test scores
3. The situation sheds light on racial discrimination where individual races are
favored; only, in this case, affirmative action makes it legal to do so
III.

Conclusion

Affirmative Action is a critical policy intervention that has helped create equality in
employment and education in the United States. Its effects can be felt throughout American
history, with many people positively affected when used.
IV.

Works cited

Bartlett, Katharine T. "Affirmative Action and Social Discord: Why Is Race
MoreControversial than Sex." UCDL Rev. 52 (2018): 2305.
Ezorsky, Gertrude. Racism and justice: The case for affirmative action. Cornell University
Press, 2018. cornellup.degruyter.com/view/title/551812?language=en
Herskovic, Bernard, and Joao Ramos. "Promoting Educational Opportunities: long-run
implications of affirmative action in college admissions." Available at SSRN
2628303 (2017).
www.researchgate.net/publication/315337217_Promoting_Educational_Opportunities_LongRun_Implications_of_Affirmative_Action_in_College_Admissions

Lempert, Richard. "Mismatch and Science Desistance: Failed Arguments against Affirmative
Action." UCLA L. Rev. Discourse 64 (2016): 135. www.uclalawreview.org/mismatchscience-desistance-failed-arguments-affirmative-action/.
Leon, LM Prieto, et al. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunity in Access to Quality Basic
Education." ISPRS international journal of geo-information 7.12 (2018): 1-20.
www.researchgate.net/publication/329293853_Measuring_Inequality_of_Opportunity_in_Ac
cess_to_Quality_Basic_Education_A_Case_Study_in_Florida_US.
Prieto, Lydia M., et al. "Measuring inequality of opportunity in access to quality basic
education: A case study in Florida, US." ISPRS International Journal of GeoInformation 7.12 (2018): 465. www.mdpi.com/2220-9964/7/12/465/htm
V.

Appendix

Interview questions and answers


Francis 1
Laverne Francis
June 18, 2020
ENG 201 OL
Dr. PHP/Patricia Harkins-Pierre
Research Paper
Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action is a policy intervention effort meant to achieve racial and gender
equality in the United States (Ezorsky, 4). In the words of Melber, "Affirmative action is a vital
part of public policy advancing equal opportunity." Years of racial and gender discrimination
have left a lot of people disadvantaged due to a lack of access to opportunities. Proponents of
affirmative action state that it achieves equality; it creates a more just and equal society. On the
other hand, opponents believe that it encourages reverse discrimination, where the majority are
racially discriminated against. The views have created a controversy surrounding the use of
affirmative action, with many cases against it filed in the United States courts over the years.
This text researches affirmative Action, how it works, why it's controversial, primary research on
Affirmative Action, and opposing viewpoints to Affirmative Action. Affirmative Action is a
critical policy intervention that has helped create equality in employment and education in the
United States.
It refers to positive actions taken to increase the representation of minorities and women
in areas of culture, education, and employment (Herskovic, 34). Minorities and women have
historically been excluded in discriminatory manners, which have led to what appears to be
discrimination. However, affirmative action has caused controversies when used based on race,
ethnicity, or gender. Governments and businesses take affirmative action to improve the

Francis 2
representation to increase people from certain minority groups into various areas of society. The
primary focus is on demographics who have had low images historically from essential positions
in the community, such as academics and professional roles. Pro-affirmative action believes that
it counters such historical discrimination and gives minority groups a chance for representation
in leadership, professional positions, and critical societal functions.
In the United States, affirmative became prominent in the 1960s to promote equal
opportunities in different parts of society (Bartlett, 2305). It was after the passing of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation that occurred in the United States and banned
discrimination in employment based on race, color, sex, origin, and religion.
The act focused on many sectors such as employment, education, accommodation, and
transport, among many others. With the passing of the bill, there was a need for a way that could
be used to enforce the law. It gave rise to the application of Affirmative Action in the United
States. Early applications focused on breaking norms of segregation that occurred in learning
institutions and employment. Despite the existence of affirmative action, discrimination
continued to thrive and is still a significant problem in the United States.
The primary objective of affirmative action was to create equal opportunities for
minorities in essential sectors, employment, and education. Many nations have adopted it but
remain controversial, presenting both positive and adverse effects (Bartlett, 2305). One of the
most massive controversies is the divide that occurs in the judiciary. It's one of the areas that
affirmative action is contested, with one of the most significant cases being that of Fisher V.
University of Texas.
Opponents of the law view it as reverse discrimination, especially regarding individuals'
treatment despite their social conditions based on race and gender. It is seen as if affirmative

Francis 3
action is compensating for bias that occurred rather than focus on creating equal opportunities for
everyone. This situation leaves some races and gender disadvantaged since they have to pave the
way for individuals from minorities when they are equally qualified.
Furthermore, there have been numerous cases on the same with Fisher V. University of
Texas being one example of such claims. The contests in the judiciary have been majorly
pleading for equality in all matters as affirmative action results in some sort of discrimination
and favoritism, which has negative consequences. Some groups now view them as the
discriminated ones since they are overlooked in favor of minority groups. The actions have led to
disconcertment among many people who feel that Affirmative Action should not be used in the
United States as it is discriminatory. The action brings more disunity amongst people since there
are divided opinions and favoritism based on gender and race, which is what they try to avoid in
the first place. Therefore, opponents have called for affirmative action to either be changed or
abandoned as it does not yield positive results.
Proponents for affirmative action argue that it brings about uniformity and ensures that
minority groups are given a chance. One of its greatest achievements is diversity, which is
rampant in the United States as people are capable of joining institutions and holding significant
positions in society, whether political or professional (Herskovic, 49). Such diversity brings
about the goodness of society and ensures that all people lead successful and happy lives as
opposed to when minorities are oppressed. Furthermore, it is argued that without affirmative
action, people will not be able to enjoy the many benefits it has brought, such as innovation and
econo...


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