Sullivan College of Technology Civil Rights & Government Responses

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The United States Constitution, as originally written, provides equal rights for all the citizens of the nation. The preamble in the constitution (n.d) states that "We the People of the United States, to form a perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic…..” The first three words of this preamble carry a lot of weight but could be termed as quite vague. When it says we the people, it means all the people rightfully in the United States. Therefore, it can be taken to indicate that people of all colors were represented in this constitution. However, historically speaking, not everyone was included in this constitution by the men responsible for writing this conclusion in the 18th century. There was no expectation for the poor men, African Americans, American Indians, and even women to play any significant roles in the government. This was what caused the amendments that happened later in the United States constitution.

The United States in 2020 still has the same preamble mentioned above. However, it is different from the one written as it has undergone several amendments. It is no longer ague in terms of who 'we the people' represents. This is because it has undergone some modifications of particular interest in this question the 14th, 15th, and 19th Amendments. The 14th amendment guaranteed the black people born or naturalized in the United States that they would not be subject to removal. This is an example of how the rights of black people have changed over the years. In regards to the 14th amendment, they would now gain citizenship in the United States.

The 15th allowed all men to vote irrespective of their prior status of servitude. It was another win for African American men who had been denied the right to vote. It was also a step closer to equal rights of the minority in America as they would now exercise the same rights as the majority. The 19th amendment gave all women the right to vote. The civil rights act of 1964 was another example of an increase in the equal rights of blacks in America. This Act made it illegal to discriminate against blacks in the workplaces, schools, and any other public facilities (, 2011). Therefore, it would be accurate to say that the constitution in 2020 grants all people equal rights in the United States.

Despite all these developments, there are instances and happenings in the country that illustrate problems of inequality for people of different races. There are cases when there is direct discrimination from significant stakeholders. For instance, people of different races may be prohibited from living in a particular area. Even if this is rare given the legal ramifications, it is still happening in some parts of the country. Another example is the too-common scene we have experienced in the country. The suspicions that black people are thieves, Hispanics are illegal immigrants, among others. In such instances, some parties tend to take legal actions such as calling the police without even getting to know the other party better.

Indirect discrimination occurs mostly among employers. Since they are aware that the law is against it, they look for loopholes that would prove that the bias is lawful. For instance, an employer has a clause that they do not allow people who cover their hair as stylists in their establishments. The employer may cite that since hair is their core competency, including it may put the business at a disadvantage. At the same time, in actuality, it discriminates against a minority group in the United States.

Another essential type of discrimination is harassment that proves the country is far from equal rights. The police, as the law enforcement members tend to have biased opinions on the minority. There are instances of racial profiling where the minority races often fall victim and on the negative side (Horowitz et al., 2019). They are misjudged and more likely to fall prey to wrongful accusations and sentencing even due to the bias of the jury. Many other instances prove the inequality existing in the United States for minority races. Still, most notably African Americans, and these are just the tips on the iceberg.

From a personal perspective, there are still substantial problems with racism in the country because of societal conditioning. When a child is born, it does not know race or color. This means that as the child grows up the society teaches them to hate or to discriminate against a particular race. They show them that there is a difference, and they should feel a certain way towards a person of a certain race. That is a pattern that has repeated itself in the country ever since the periods of servitude. Even though there has been quite a bit of improvement as more whites appreciate the existence of blacks, the country is not where it is expected to be in the 21st century.

The other reason why there are still substantial problems is because of the leadership in the country (Horowitz et al., 2019). When America has a president who calls fellow human beings aliens, there is a massive societal problem. Over the years, the leadership of the country has failed in uniting the people of the country. Perhaps the possible solutions could start with getting sober leadership- a president who preaches unity rather than divisiveness. The other possible solution is for general societal attitude change, and it should begin with those who have already realized there is a problem (Horowitz et al., 2019). If there is racial injustice, then people should call it out irrespective of their race. The whites should stand by the blacks in their protests. This united front may be just what the country needs at this hour of need.

Horowitz, J., Brown, A., & Cox, K. (2019). Race in America 2019.

Horowitz, J., Brown, A., & Cox, K. (2019). Views of Racial Inequality.

U.S Constitution. (n.d). (2011). History of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from



I don't believe I have ever read a commentary that refers to the opening of the Constitution as being vague, but I think you're right. What seems like a pretty clear statement that all people are included, couldn't be further from the reality of the time. What is often over looked is at the time the framers crafted the Constitution women, slaves and Native Americans did not have the right to vote. As the government is voted into office by the voting public, the government was essentially voted into office by a collection of white men. (Kids Laws, 2019)

I find your last paragraph very interesting, as it appears we may have a vicious cycle. I agree with you that we need leadership to drive the message to fruition, and I agree we need a societal change, but which comes first? Society puts elected officials into office, and they by vote supposedly represent what we want. This cycle prompts me to think about the Fenno's paradox whereas people hate Congress as a whole, but like their particular Congress person . (Enten, 2014) .

As hard as it is for me to say, is it possible that we as voters have simply not demanded what we want? The law makers activities will not change until their are held accountable, and/or fired. Perhaps the simplest of solutions is getting rid of the people that are in the way of change, by voting them out.

Enjoyed your post,



Enten, H. (July 14,2014 ) Disliking Congress, As A Whole And As Individuals . FiveThirtyEight. ABC News. Retrieved from:

Kids Law (December 22,2019) We The People. Retrieved from:,giving%20powers%20to%20the%20government.



YOUR REPLIES MUST INCLUDE: 1. a fact about the other student's state that was not included in their post, AND,

2. Your reply must also ask the other student a follow up question about their state that they will have to answer in their reply back to you.

1. Does your state have a Constitution?

2. Does your State have a Bill of Rights?

3. When was your State's Constitution enacted, if your State has a Constitution?

4. What is your State's Capitol?

5. Who are your U.S. Senators? Tell us something bout each of them, their length in office, their party and some facts about them.

6. Who are your Representatives? You will have to pick a city or area in your state if you are not from a state in order to narrow this down.

7. How long was it between when your state became a state and the enactment of their Constitution?


Texas, I chose this state because I was born and raised here.

Yes, Texas has a Constitution

Yes, The Texas Constitution Article 1: Bill of Rights

It was enacted September 17, 1787

The State Capitol is Austin, TX

Senators are Ted Cruz (R) has been in office since 2013, he went to school at Harvard Law School in 1995. He was born in Canada and became a dual U.S.-Canadian citizen since his mother was a native of Delaware and his dad was born in Cuba. (

John Cornyn (R) has been in office since 2002, he went to school at Trinity University in San Antonio, TX born in Houston, TX. He briefly worked as a real-estate agent before earning a law degree at St Mary's University in 1977. (

Our Representative is Mark Veasey (D) since 2004 (

Six months after the congress of the Republic of Texas accepts U.S. annexation of the territory, Texas is admitted into the United States as the 28th state. (


The state of Michigan does indeed have its own Constitution. It is described to have the structure and function of our states government as there have been four different Constitutions approved by the people of Michigan.

2. Does your State have a Bill of Rights? All four of the state of Michigan's Constitutions have been provided with a Bill of Rights.

3. When was your State's Constitution enacted, if your State has a Constitution? The state of Michigan's Constitution was ratified on June 20th, 1963.

4. What is your State's Capitol? The state of Michigan's capitol is Lansing.

5. Who are your U.S. Senators? Tell us something bout each of them, their length in office, their party and some facts about them. Senior Senator Debbie Stabenow. She has been the senator of Michigan since January 3rd, 2001. She is also the Democratic Policy & Communication Committee chair, a party leadership role. The other Senator is Junior Senator Gary Peters. Gary Peters has been the Junior Senator since January 6th, 2015. He was previously the representative for Michigan's 14th congressional district as a Democrat from 2013 to 2014.

6. Who are your Representatives? You will have to pick a city or area in your state if you are not from a state in order to narrow this down. Senior Senator. The state of Michigan's 1st District Representative is Jack Bergman. He is the Republican party and has been in office since January 3rd, 2017.

7. How long was it between when your state became a state and the enactment of their Constitution? The state of Michigan's very first Constitution was created on October 5th & 6th, 1835 as the State of Michigan was preparing to become a state of the union. Before this, Michigan became a state in 1837.



How do the press, the government and politics interact in the American system today?

REMEMBER in your replies to discuss facts and examples, not opinions and generalized conclusions.



Issue: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)

Press: The media has been so involved with this issue and following young protesters. Now with presidential elections coming in a few months, this can be a hot topic. The press can and will share what they want to influence people that are not very strong opinionated. (

Political viewpoint: The DACA program was enacted under former President Barack Obama, now President Donald Trump (R) can not end it. The Supreme Court ruled Thursday 5 to 4 that the Trump administration could not immediately shutdown DACA. (

Government viewpoint: In 2012, the Department of Homeland Security issued a memorandum announcing an immigration relief program known as DACA, which allows certain unauthorized aliens who arrived in the US as children to apply for a two-year forbearance of removal. (


This has been an ongoing situation for undocumented citizens who were brought into the U.S. illegal. This is an issue that, adults now who came over at a young age into the U.S., studied and received a High School education. They would have to fill out forms and pay certain fees in order to be protected from being deported. They have a right to work and have some type of State identification, but with laws changing they deal with this issue of becoming part of the U.S.

The Press can either help or destroy depending on the issue, they have a way of persuasion. When politics and government are involved we look at Amendments and the political branches that cases are fought in. (


In today’s society, politics, the press, and the government all go hand and hand. Politics in general is the base foundation our government is built upon. Political duties, actions, and outcomes are all decided based on what happens in the government and the world around us. The government is where those political obligations are supposed to be carried out. Government officials are elected into office based on what they claim they while do upon getting into office. The press/media is what reports on what these government officials do and don’t end up doing while in office. The press/media also reports everything that happens in the world of politics, whether it be elections or social injustice, if it’s political, the press will report it.

However, many feel the media has become the leading factor when it comes to politics and electing government officials into office. One way this is prevalent is through the news. The first way journalists get involved in elections is by deciding on which candidates to report and not report on. On top of this, media outlets have the capability to present political information in whichever way they choose. In recent years, news stations have become much more politically targeted when it comes to reporting the news, causing those who watch a particular channel to vote in a particular way. The first way journalists get involved in elections is by choosing which candidates to cover and how much. Those choices alone can have a huge effect on voter perceptions (Brichacek, 2018).

Furthermore, according to a recent study conducted by the Pew Research Center, 62% of Americans currently receive their news from social media (Gottfried & Shearer, 2016). The problem here is that on social media, a user’s feed, or what they see while using the app, is determined by an algorithm. On each app, an algorithm generates media based on what you like and dislike, comment, or share. When using these apps to get information about the news, these users are receiving partially biased information based on their cultural preferences.

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Explanation & Answer

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Running head: RESPONSES


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Question 1
Despite the vagueness of the phrase 'We the people' in the United States constitution, I agree
that it means all Americans are responsible for the country and its leadership. American
leaders are voted in by the public and are part of the people. The society should fast change,
with societal changes, the voters and the leaders will ensure proper leadership. The American
people don't speak in one voice, making it difficult for enforcement; there are general
complains against congress, but lesser complaints against individual congressmen (Enten,
2014). It is, therefore, clear that people have not held their congressmen accountable.
Enten, H. (July 14, 2014) Disliking Congress, As A Whole And As Individuals.
FiveThirtyEight. ABC News. Retrieved
from: http...

Great content here. Definitely a returning customer.

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