Science
The University of Alabama Ideal Gas Law & Fluid Statics Simulation Lab

The University of Alabama

Question Description

I have 2physics labs simulation that are need to be done. Everything will be attached and due on 24th of June at 7:00 center zon

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Course and Section_______ Names ___________________________ Date___________________ ___________________________ IDEAL GAS LAW SIMULATION Introduction This experiment explores the relation between the quantity of pressure P, volume V, and temperature T of an ideal gas of N number of particles. The ideal gas law is given by, PV = n R T Where n is number of moles = N/(Avogadro number) and R is the gas constant. It can also be shown that nR=Nk B where k B = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K is the Boltzmann constant. Submit your answers using Blackboard. 1 – Exploring the Relations Between P,V,N,T Open the following simulation and select Explore (https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/gas-properties/latest/gas-properties_en.html ) Use the pump to add some particles. 1. For a fixed N and V, which quantity will increase the pressure if you increase it? 2. For a fixed N and T, which quantity will increase the pressure if you decrease it? 3. For a fixed V and T, which quantity will increase the pressure if you decrease it? Display the ‘Collision Counter’ and click on the green play button to start it. 4. If you increase only T does the number of collisions increase? (you have to start the counting again) 5. If you decrease only V does the number of collisions decrease? Add some red particles to obtain a mix of blue and red particles. 6. Do the red particles move at the same speed as the blue particles? 7. Are the red particles more massive than the blue particles? Restart the simulation and decrease the volume to its minimal possible value (use the mouse to drag the handle located on the left of the container). By clicking on Particles, set N = 400 of the blue particles and N = 0 red particles. Check the value of the temperature: it should be 300K, if not start over and repeat. 8. Use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate the minimum volume. 2 – Ideal Gas Law Using the same simulation select Ideal. Use the pump to add some particles. Select Hold Constant Volume. 9. What happens to P if you increase T? 10. What happens to P if you increase N? Start over and click on Particles and add 100 heavy (blue) particles. Set the pressure to be constant with variable volume ↕V. Temperature at 300 K. Now add 50 more blue particles. 11. What happens to the volume? 12. By using the ideal gas law, what is the % change of the volume? Next you want to find the work done by the gas as the number of particles changed from 100 to 150 while P and T stay constant. You can display the horizontal width by clicking on ‘Width’ 13. Which formula gives the work done by a gas when the volume changes at constant pressure? Assume the cross sectional area (into the page) is A = 60 x 10-18 m2. 14. Calculate the work done by the gas. 3 – Kinetic Theory Using the same simulation select Energy. Select Injection Temperature at 300 K, add some particles until the pressure in about 20 atm. C lick to display the Kinetic Energy (KE) as well. By looking at the plots 15. The number of particles with low speed is__than the number of particles with high speed. 16. The number of particles with low KE is __ than the number of particles with high KE. 17. If you add more particles to double the pressure, does the average speed increase? (no) 18. If you increase the temperature what happens to the average speed? 4 – The PV diagram Open this simulation (http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/HTML5/PV_diagram.html) Start by setting the volume = 6 L and Temperature = 600 K. 19. As you decrease the volume how does the pressure change? 20. As you decrease the temperature how does the pressure change? 21. As you increase the temperature how does the speed of the gas molecules change? 22. What is the value of the product nR for in this simulation? Set the temperature to 400 K. 23. For which value of the volume is the pressure 200 kPa? 24. For which value of the volume is the pressure 300 kPa? Use the ideal gas law to calculate the precise value and use the simulation to verify your answer. 5 – Find the number of moles. A physicist performs an experiment to evaluate the number of moles of a gas inside a container. The container is kept at constant room temperature of 23 °C and is built in such a way that the number of moles stays constant. The physicist changes the volume to different values and measures the corresponding (absolute) pressures. The table below shows the results of the experiment. V 50 ml 45 ml 40 ml 35 ml 30 ml 25 ml P 129 kPa 142 kPa 160 kPa 182 kPa 213 kPa 256 kPa Make a plot of P vs 1/V (if you plot P vs V the plot is not linear) and calculate the slope of the line. 25. Value of the slope = Assuming the gas obeys the ideal gas law, use the value of the slope to find the number of moles. Pay attention to using the correct units for all the quantities. For example the gas constant R has the value 8.314 if V is expressed in m 3 , P in Pascal and T in degrees Kelvin. 26. Number of moles n = Course and Section _______ Names ___________________________ Date___________________ ___________________________ FLUID STATICS SIMULATION Introduction Fluid Statics deals with fluids at rest. In this simulation you will study the proprieties of force and pressure within a fluid and how they are related to objects submerged in the fluid. Submit your answers using Blackboard. 1 – Buoyancy Open the simulation (https://ophysics.com/fl1.html ) Archimedes' principle states that an object submerged in a fluid is buoyed by a force that is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. 1. If you increased the mass of the object while the keeping volume constant, what happens to the density? Run the simulation . You can change the densities of the object and the fluid in the simulation. 2. What happens when the density of the object is less than that of liquid? 3. What happens when the density of the object is more than that of liquid? Set ρ 0 = 5 g/cm 3 and ρ F = 0.1 g/cm 3 . Run the simulation. Wait for the object to totally sink in the liquid. Check Show Numbers and Free-Body Diagram. 4. How does the volume of the liquid displaced compare to the volume of the object? 5. What is the volume of the liquid displaced in this case? 6. How does the mass of the liquid displaced compare to the mass of the object? 7. Which quantity is effected by a change of the fluid viscosity? As you increase the density of the fluid: 8. What happens to buoyant force of the object? 9. What happens to weight of the object? 10. What happens to the normal force? 11. When ρF = ρO what is the value of the normal force? 12. For what value of ρF are the Buoyant force and normal force equal? Set ρ0 = 2 g/cm3 and ρF 3 g/cm3. Run the simulation and wait for the object to partially float on the liquid’s surface. 13 What is the volume of the object outside of the water? 14. What is the ratio of the volume above and volume below? 15. What is the ratio ρ0 / ρF equal to? 16. What is the relation between buoyant force and weight of the object? 17. What is the relation between the weight of the liquid displaced and the weight of the object? 2 – Hot Air Balloon Open the simulation (https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/balloons-and-buoyancy ) The sphere is like a hot air balloon. Its mass is not specified but assume it to be non-zero. Different molecules of air can enter and leave its volume and its temperature inside can be changed. Set Gravity to the second mark from the left (it might be already set this way). Click to hold temperature in the container constant. Use the pump to add about 400 of the heavy blue particles. 18. What happens to the balloon as the particles enter into the container? 19. Keep observing the balloon for a few minutes, does it stay afloat? 20. How is the final density inside the balloon compared to the density above it? Start over by clicking on Reset. Use the pump to add about 400 of the light red particles. 21. Observer the balloon for a few minutes, does it stay afloat? Add slowly about 400 more of the heavy blue particles. 22. What happens to the balloon as the blue particles enter into the container? 23. Keep observing the balloon for a few minutes, does it stay afloat? Keep the simulation running and increase gravity to mark midway in the bar. 24. Which statement better describes how the particles behave? 25. How does the final density inside the balloon compare to the density above it? Start over by clicking on Reset. Set gravity to the first mark and constant temperature selected. Play the simulation and add about 500 of the light red particles. Wait for the balloon to sit at the bottom. Now increase the temperature of the Hot Air Balloon. 26. What happens to the balloon? 27. Does it stay afloat? Now, visually compare the number density of particles inside the balloon vs the number density outside 28. How does the density inside compare to the density of the surrounding medium? 29. Did increasing the temperature inside the balloon decrease its density? 3 – Pressure in a Fluid Open the simulation (https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/under-pressure/latest/under-pressure_en.html Select to display Grid and set Atmosphere off . You can drag around the pressure ‘clock’ to read the pressure at different locations and use the ruler to measure the depth. Fill up the tank with water using the tap. Pressure and depth 30. What is the pressure on the surface of the water. 31. What happens to the pressure as you move the clock deeper? 32. Where is the maximum pressure? 33. What does the pressure clock read at depth of 1.6 m? 34. Calculate the pressure at depth 1.6 m using P = ρgh 35. What is the experimental error of the two values of the pressure? Set the pressure clock at about 2 meters. Open the valve at the bottom to decrease the amount of water. 36. What happen to the pressure as the water level decreases? Now select the third stage. You see a container on the left and a container on the right. The two containers have different shapes and are connected by a channel under the ground. Select to display Grid and set Atmosphere off . Keep the pressure clock at fixed depth = 2 m. 37. How does the pressure on the right compare to the pressure on the left? Drop a weight 38. What happens to the pressure on the left? 39. How does the pressure on the right compare now to the pressure on the left? (still same as left) Pressure and density and gravity Reset all. Select to display Grid and set Atmosphere off and fill the tank. Now change the density to different values and observe the pressure at a fixed depth. 40. What happens to the pressure as you increase the density? Set the density to 700 kg/m3 (gasoline) and pressure clock at depth = 2 m. Make a note of the value of the pressure. 41. Increase density to 1400 kg/m3. How does the pressure change? 42. What happens to the pressure as you increase gravity? Mystery Fluid Now select the fourth stage. You can select three different types of fluids. 43. What is the density of fluid A? 44. What is the density of fluid B? ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

1 – Buoyancy
1. Density increases
2. It’s floating on the liquid.
3. It is submerged in the fluid
4. The displaced liquid volume is equal to the volume of the cube
5. 1000cm3
6. Masses are equal
7. Velocity of the object
8. Buoyant force increases.
9. Weight of the object remain unchanged
10. Normal force decreases
11. 0 N
12. 2.5 g/cm3
13. 0.33v = 0.33*1000 = 330 cm3
𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒
0.33
14. 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤 = 0.67 = 0.4925
𝜌
2
15.𝜌0 = 3 = 0.67
𝑓

16.Buoyant force = Weight of the object
17. Weight of the liquid displaced =. Weight of the object
2 – Hot Air Balloon
18.Air molecules were entered into the balloon
19. No. it comes down
20. Density of the balloon was higher than the density above it
21. N...

madushan (3481)
UC Berkeley

Anonymous
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