Computer Science
University of Missouri Kansas City Operational Research Paper

University of Missouri Kansas City

Question Description

Can you help me understand this Computer Science question?

2 Page paper in APA style with citations and atleast 3 references considering below 3 points, use and read the case study from attachement for the data,

1. Introduction and background of the organization

2. Select 7 of the following 15 elements and describe how these elements were implemented:

a. Operations Strategy and Competiveness

b. Product Design and Process Selection

c. Supply Chain Management

d. Total Quality Management

e. Statistical Quality Control

f. Just-in-Time and Lean Systems

g. Forecasting

h. Capacity Planning and Facility Location

i. Facility Layout

j. Work System Design

k. Inventory Management

l. Aggregate Planning

m. Resource Planning

n. Scheduling

o. Project Management

3. Your overall thoughts of the organization and its accomplishments

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Case Study: New York City Office Space Optimization An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story Jane Wiseman Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation Harvard Kennedy School July 2017 Case Study: New York City Office Space Optimization An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story Jane Wiseman Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation Harvard Kennedy School July 2017 contents Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Background: The Opportunity for Greater Efficiency in Government Real Estate Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Project Beginnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Results Achieved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 What Makes It Innovative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Implementation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Keys to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story acknowledgements The Operational Excellence in Government Project, including this paper, is generously funded by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. This paper would not have been possible without the generous contribution of time, reflections, and source materials from the implementation team in New York City. In particular, Deputy County Executive/Commissioner of Suffolk County, Department of Economic Development and Planning, Theresa Ward, formerly the Senior Advisor to the Deputy Mayor for Operations in New York City, was invaluable to the depth of detail and accuracy of this paper. Research support from Research Assistant Devon Ziminski was critical at every stage of the process. The advice and guidance of Daniel Paul Professor of the Practice of Government and the Director of the Innovations in American Government Program Stephen Goldsmith cannot be underestimated. The paper would not have been possible without the substantive feedback and editorial support of Senior Associate Director for Innovations and the Government Innovators Network Christina Marchand, Editor of the Government Innovators Network Jessica Engelman, and Project Manager of Data-Smart City Solutions Katherine Hillenbrand. This report is an independent work product and views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the funder. 1 An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story executive summary In 2016, the Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation at Harvard Kennedy School received funding from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation to launch the Operational Excellence in Government Project. The goal of the project is to identify and celebrate operational efficiency successes across state and local government via the project website at https://www.innovations.harvard.edu/opex. The site makes available for the first time from a single searchable portal 30 existing studies of government efficiency. This case study of right-sizing the New York City real estate portfolio is one of three that provides a detailed look at an outstanding example of success in achieving operational excellence in government. The purpose of the case studies is to explain the implementation steps, the key challenges, and the driving factors for success. With this work, we hope to reduce the cost of identifying opportunities for efficiency and cost savings across all layers of government, and to accelerate the transfer and deployment of these successful cases. The economic downturn of 2008 hit powerfully in the nation’s financial centers. Within a year, New York City government had suffered significant decreases in tax revenue. The Bloomberg administration, under the leadership of Deputy Mayor for Operations Stephen Goldsmith, sought ways to close the financial gap. Goldsmith turned to operational efficiency as a strategy for finding savings, and set out to study the ways the city could use shared services to improve quality while reducing cost for the administrative support functions of city government. The report, “Maximizing Efficiency in NYC Government: A Plan to Consolidate and Modernize Back-Office Operations,” identified efficiencies in technology, human resources, revenue collections, the fleet of city vehicles, and the real estate portfolio. In total, the shared services efforts outlined in the report saved the city $100 million. This case study describes, for the first time, efforts by the deputy mayor for operations and his team to optimize the city’s real estate portfolio. New York City government employees occupy 300 million square feet of offices, schools, police and fire stations, warehouses, and the like. There had never before been an effort to view the entirety of the space as an asset that could be allocated more efficiently. Rather, over 3 case study: New York City Office Space Optimization time, individual departments had independently acquired or leased the space they needed, predominantly with their own usage standards. By implementing the recommendations in the report, real estate was viewed as a city asset and was managed as a portfolio for the first time. In the first three years of this effort, the city reduced office space by 400,000 square feet and saved $15 million in annual rent occupancy cost. Additional savings in energy costs totaled $4 million as the footprint shrank. While New York City is far larger than most other American cities, and while other cities may have lower real estate costs in general, there remain key insights from this project that could be valuable across state and local government, including: • Put someone in charge. New York City had never before had a single person responsible for the real estate portfolio, and naming a chief asset management officer meant there was someone responsible for right-sizing the portfolio. Leadership was essential to the continued focus on measurement and consistent follow-up with departments to achieve results. • Rely on data. To manage the portfolio, the first step was determining how much space was being paid for and how much was being used. This set a baseline that enabled tracking both goals and savings and established a common understanding of the metrics for measuring progress. • Rethink how much office space is needed. The efficiency review found that city workers occupied almost twice as much square footage per employee as private-sector employees (290 square feet versus 176 square feet). A mandatory use of private-sector standards for open-plan office space for new office buildouts significantly shrank square footage, while bringing city employees in closer alignment to efficient and modern private-sector practices. • Rethink storage. Walking around to look at the real estate identified inefficiencies — a closet full of never-used typewriters, conference rooms that could not be used because they had become storage space for water bottles, offices converted to paper file storage, and outdated computers and phones that filled an entire floor in an office building just to avoid the cumbersome process of sending them to surplus. Switching to offsite records storage, converting paper 4 An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story files to electronic ones, and switching to filtered instead of bottled water for new offices significantly reduced storage needs. • Do not pay for vacant space. At the time of the project, New York City was paying occupancy costs for desks that were vacant, a full 13.6 percent of all desks. Reducing the vacancies saved $13 million. The pages that follow describe the work of a small, highly talented team of city employees who used a rigorous data collection process, best practice benchmarking, and fresh perspective from the private sector to significantly decrease operational costs to the city by right-sizing the real estate portfolio. new york city snapshot Population: 8,550,405 City Employees: 250,000 2018 Budget: $85 billion 5 An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story background: the opportunity for greater efficiency in government real estate management City halls, state houses, schools, libraries, and police and fire stations are some of the more visible properties used by government to serve the public. But there are countless other types of buildings owned or rented for government purposes such as call centers, garages, and equipment storage facilities, as well as the program management, budget, policy, administrative, and legislative offices of government. All told, government offices account for 31 percent of the total office space footprint in the country. And yet, seldom is the use of that real estate truly optimized. Often excess space remains in a government real estate portfolio simply because of inertia, and space is underutilized because there is little or no incentive to modernize or right-size. Many of the studies of government efficiency identified by the Operational Excellence in Government Project recommend ways to reduce the cost of real estate for government. For example, Louisiana estimates it can save $9 million a year by increasing office-space efficiency through spatial consolidation and applying best practice private-sector space usage standards. Wisconsin estimates it could save $5.6 million by renegotiating state office-space leases at preferable rates. One of the most dramatic examples of success in optimizing a real estate portfolio occurred in New York City beginning in 2009. That success case is described below, along with advice for governments new york city real estate: at a glance seeking to optimize their own real estate • 300 million square feet of total city-occupied space, including office buildings, warehouses, police precincts, and schools • More than 75,000 New York City employees work in office space that occupies over 19 million square feet in 250 buildings • In the first three years of this effort, the city reduced office space by 400,000 square feet and saved $15 million in annual rent occupancy cost portfolio. New York City is one of the largest municipal governments in the country, and a location where real estate costs are expensive, so the savings in this project are greater than what could be expected in other jurisdictions. However, the approach and the ability to realize savings are transferrable across state and local government. 7 case study: New York City Office Space Optimization project beginnings When the 2008 financial crisis hit, the impact was particularly severe in financial centers such as New York City. All across city government, there was a need for belt-tightening, and then-Mayor Bloomberg set out to improve operational efficiency and create economies via shared services across a variety of government functions. As Bloomberg’s deputy mayor for operations, Stephen Goldsmith led a citywide assessment1 of opportunities for achieving operational efficiency by leveraging shared services. The report, “Maximizing Efficiency in NYC Government: A Plan to Consolidate and Modernize Back-Office Operations” (pictured at right), identified five priority areas for improved efficiency: real estate, fleet management, revenue collections, human resource management, and information technology. One key recommendation was to reduce the cost of occupancy for the city’s office space footprint. The effort addressed the necessary size for the city’s real estate footprint, the optimal configuration of that space, and examined options for consolidation and more cost-effective facilities management. The goal was to create an office real estate portfolio that was appropriately sized to city needs and to institute clear governance to better utilize space, with the potential to save $36 million a year. The cost of occupancy was one of several administrative and operational functions of city government explored as part of an effort to use shared services to drive down cost and maintain or improve quality. The cost of occupancy, like the other shared services the mayor’s office of operations took on, had grown over time without a set of controlling principles or tight management. Working conditions for employees had worsened while costs had increased. The mayor worked in an open office, which cost less, but employees did not. The process produced some speed bumps in terms of agency disruption but eventually produced over $100 million in total savings. — Stephen Goldsmith 8 Describing the rationale for taking on the cost of occupancy, Goldsmith said, “The cost of occupancy, like the other shared services the mayor’s office of operations took on, had grown over time without a set of controlling principles or tight management. Working conditions for employees had worsened while costs An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story had increased. The mayor worked in an open office, which cost less, but employees did not. The process produced some speed bumps in terms of agency disruption but eventually produced over $100 million in total savings.” results achieved In the first three years of this effort, the city reduced office space by 400,000 square feet and saved $15 million in annual rent occupancy cost. A mandatory use of open-plan office space for new office buildouts significantly shrank square footage, while bringing city employees in closer alignment with efficient and modern private-sector practices. Square footage was further reduced by the city through reductions in the amount of storage space used. A savings of $4 million a year in energy costs was achieved because of the lower footprint of office space. This success has been embedded in city operations across mayoral administrations and the city continues to report on the performance goal “Consolidate and reduce city office space” in the annual Mayor’s Management Report2 (MMR) using the metrics created in response to the 2010 efficiency report recommendations. The most recent MMR indicates that the Department of Citywide Administrative Services (DCAS), the responsible agency, “continues to review opportunities in DCAS-managed properties to support the most efficient use of city-owned space.” what makes it innovative This project stands out for its boldness in questioning the status quo, using data, and gaining fresh perspective from private-sector benchmarks. Looking at the amount of square footage per employee had never been done before. Challenging the status quo and upending years of tradition is not an easy task, but the team responsible for optimizing the city’s real estate portfolio gathered data and then asked a set of exploratory questions, such as: 9 case study: New York City Office Space Optimization • How many offices need to have walls? • If the mayor does not need a private office, then why do you? • What configurations of office space best promote productivity and collegiality? • Why can’t agencies share large meeting and conference spaces instead of each managing its own (sometimes in the same building)? • Does the city get the full benefit of office buildings it owns? • Who should maintain and manage city office space? Asking these and other questions was both provocative and productive. The senior leader responsible for the efficiency effort, Deputy Mayor Goldsmith, noted at the time, “The Bloomberg administration is the gold standard for innovative governance — always willing to try bold solutions to complex, entrenched challenges.” implementation overview Implementation began as a result of the efficiency report and the shared services efforts undertaken by the Office of the Deputy Mayor for Operations, which included a total of 37 recommendations across five categories. Figure 1 below illustrates the timing and impact of each of the seven real estate management category recommendations. Implementation details and composition of the team, implementation steps, and next steps can be found in the following sections. 10 An Operational Excellence in Government Success Story Figure 1: Timing and Impact of Real Estate Management Recommendations  2 Create a citywide strategic space planning unit    3 Institute and publish citywide office space utilization performance indicators    Create dashboards for agencies and oversight entities to access real estate information    Implement a system of accountability for, and formalize the assignment of, city-owned space   4 5 6 Develop a real estate customer service strategy 7 Reduce storage in office spaces to improve operational efficiency    06/2014 E 06/2011 E 03/2011  E 06/2011   E 06/2012   E 06/2011 E 06/2014 Improve Customer Service $50M Improve Governance Date to Be Completed Reduce the city’s office space by 1.2 million square feet and $36 million in annual expenses Potential Cost Savings 1 Leverage Technology Improve Operational Efficiency Preliminary Recommendations Improve Accountability Anticipated Impact   E – Efficiencies will be gained but are not currently quantifiable “Potential Cost Savings” represents cumulative cost savings over the next four fiscal years This chart is adapted from the “Maximizing Efficiency in NYC Government: A Plan to Consolidate and Modernize Back-Office Operations” report. The team. The effort was completed entirely by a small team of city staff. The multiyear project began as part of the efficiency report written by the deputy mayor for operations and his team. Senior Advisor to the Deputy Mayor for Operations Theresa Ward was responsible for the research and action plan for real estate. To fully execute the recommendations in her report, Ward became the city’s first chief asset management officer and was part of the leadership team at the city’s agency responsible for real estate, the Department of Citywide Administrative Services (DCAS). 11 case study: New York City Office Space Optimization The group consisted primarily of Ward, one deputy, and a group of agency staff who volunteered to help in the data collection stage. They named themselves SPACE, for Strategic Property Alignment for Citywide Efficiency. In addition, as the project progressed and departments took on their real estate optimization efforts, eac ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running Head: OFFICE SPACE OPTIMIZATION

Office Space Optimization
Name of Student
Name of Instructor
Name of Course
Name of Institution
Date

1

OFFICE SPACE OPTIMIZATION

2

Office Space Optimization
Introduction
The New York City Real Estate offers office space to various organizations in the
country at a fee. The real estate investments occupy an approximate area of 300 million feet.
Some of the organizations that account for this area are warehouses, schools, and office buildings
(Wiseman, 2017, pg. 7). The real estate investment in New York City is a good investment
despite the challenges in the real estate market. The government is one of the significant
customers of real estate. The government rents the space for various uses that enable it to serve
the public.
Implementation of elements
Operations strategy and competitiveness
The operational strategy involves the provision of a plan which will help the organization
in achieving its goals. The element got implemented by putting the recommendations given into
action. Addressing the critical size of the real estate footprint for the City and the examination of
the options for the management of the facilities i...

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