the course is for biomechanics based on textbook called applied biomechanics concepts and connections chapter 6, chapter 8 and chapter 7please make sure to used full sentences, show all the work and explain the reasoning
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HKIN 298 Biomechanics
Chapter 6/8 Torque and Levers. Chapter 7 Balance and Stability. Questions. (21.5marks)
Please type directly into the MS Word doc in BOLD script, please. Use full sentences. For
calculations, show your work.
1. Two athletes perform shoulder dumbbell raises (arms straight from the side, abducted to 90 degrees)
with 15 lb dumbbells. One athlete has much longer arms than the other.
Explain biomechanically why the shoulder raise for the athlete with the longer arms demands more
muscular force than for the athlete with shorter arms as he rotates his arms to 90 degrees to the ground.
The force applied by the athlete is translated to torque exerted at the joint. This is the reaction force
at the joint. Since the weight carried by the athlete is same, the torque exerted at the joint is
proportional to the arm length.
The torque exerted at the joint is T = F x r. Now F is constant for both cases, but arm length r is small
for shorter armed athlete. So, the effort required by the athlete with longer arm is more.
2. Describe fully what the two key functions of levers are (2 marks).
A lever is used to amplify the input force and acts around the pivot. In a human body, the lever is
usually the bone and the pivots are joints. This is strength advantage of the lever. The mechanical
forces are applied by the muscles.
The next function of the lever is related to the movement advantage about pivot. This changes the
speed and range of motion. In the case no advantage in form of amplified mechanical force is
Thus, there are two function of levers which are amplification of force and the advantage of
movement. At any time, the lever can provide only one function
3. Two ch...