BIO 130 Moore College of Art and Design Unit 2 Cell Structure & Function Study Guide

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bio 130

Moore College of Art and Design

BIO

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Pre-Reading Study Guide Unit 2 Cell Structure & Function

  1. Read through the assigned readings in the textbook, and work on answering any questions you can from the study guide questions.
  2. If you want to look at or make notes on the Power Point Slides for this unit, download the two sets of Power Point slides

book: https://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcm...

** Not ***: You are expected to do your own work in this I will be using new test proctoring software to help identify cheating. Any communication with anyone else or any use of materials that have not been approved will result in a zero for the test or assignments and will require that you meet with the Dean of Students before I will be allowed to return to class.





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CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS 1 How many different types of organisms are out there? • Life is diverse! – Over 1.8 million species identified to date • Most comprehensive list is cataloged in the Catalogue of Life (www.catalogueoflife.org) compiled from many different databases • The exact number is not known, estimated that ~92% of known species are cataloged there – may be between 5- 30 million different species – Some estimates are much higher! – If you are interested, you can contribute through iNaturalist • Citizen science • www.inaturalist.org 2 How do you keep track of this many different types of organisms? • Give them an unambiguous (unique) name • Classify (divide) them into groups that show relatedness 3 Linnaean Classification • Linnaeus was the greatest and most influential of the classical taxonomists • Proposed the binomial method of naming organisms – Binomial = two names – genus and species – This is the formal Scientific name • Also proposed a formal hierarchical system of classification 4 What’s My Binomial? • What is the binomial for… – Humans • Homo sapiens – (a.k.a. Cristina Nette Parker) 5 What’s My Binomial? • What is the binomial for… – Your cat? • Felis catus 6 What’s My Binomial? • What is the binomial for… – Shamu? • Orcinus orca 7 Binomial Nomenclature • When using the name in written form, Genus is capitalized, species is lower case – ex. Escherichia coli • Both the genus and species are either italicized, or underlined, as separate words – Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli • Once used in a paper, a scientific name may be subsequently abbreviated – E. coli 8 Example • Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that is known to cause strep throat. The antibiotic amoxicillin can be used to kill most strains of S. pyogenes. 9 Humans are natural classifiers! • What are some examples of ways in which humans classify information? • Aristotle classified organisms as plant or animal – But there are many organisms we have found that don’t fit that system – So the classification system has changed many times over the last 300 years 10 Three Domains • Current system of classification has 3 broad categories called domains – Domain Bacteria • Prokaryotic cells – Domain Archaea • Prokaryotic Cells – Domain Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells 11 Classification Sorts Organisms into smaller and smaller boxes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya 12 Each Domain contains smaller groups called Kingdoms Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia 13 Each Kingdom contains smaller groups called Phyla (phylum) Phylum Porifera Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Platyhelminthes Kingdom Phylum Nematoda Animalia Phylum Annelida Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata 14 Complete Classification • • • • • • • • Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • Various mnemonic devices can be used to remember the sequence 15 Classification of Three Species 1 Eukarya Animalia Arthropoda 2 Eukarya Animalia Arthropoda 3 Eukarya Animalia Arthropoda Crustacea Insecta Insecta Order Family Genus Decapoda Diptera Diptera Caridea Drosophilidae Nematocera Homarus Drosophila Aedes Species americanus melanogaster aegypti Domain Kingdom Phylum Class 16 Classification of Three Species Homarus americanus Drosophila melanogaster Aedes aegypti 17 What criteria are used to classify organisms? • Currently, classification is based on phylogeny – Evolutionary relationships between organisms • Based on the genetic code of ribosomal RNA sequences (rRNA) – Highly conserved sequences through evolution; Act like a biological clock 18 Phylogenetic Tree https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/phylogenetics_0 1 Domain Bacteria • • • • Simplest organisms Prokaryotic cells Variety of shapes Found everywhere on Earth • Most are environmental organisms, some are human pathogens. 20 Domain Archaea • Also prokaryotic cells • Differences in structure in cells separate them from bacteria – Cannot distinguish from bacteria just by looking • Some unusual shapes 21 Domain Eukarya • Contains organisms composed of eukaryotic cells – Animal Cells – Plant Cells – Sizes range from 10-100 μm • Generally divided into four kingdoms – – – – Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia 22 Protista – Protista is a group that contains all eukaryotic organisms that do not easily fit anywhere else • Consequently the organisms contained within it are extremely diverse Amoeba Volvox 23 Protista • Many unicellular • Many multicellular 24 Fungi • Also a diverse group • Obtain food by secreting enzymes that break down food into small molecules, then the small molecules are absorbed 25 Fungi • Many familiar and many unusual • The great recyclers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OHgxM2HVnkQ 26 Fungi • Food & Human Economy – Cheeses – Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Beer • Wine • Bread 27 Plants • Plants are the great producers • Capture energy from sunlight and transfer it into sugars that feed most other organisms – Photosynthesis 28 Animals Animal kingdom divided into smaller groups (phyla) – – – – – – – – – Phylum Porifera Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Nematoda Phylum Annelida Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Mollusca Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata 29 The Structure of Life Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic Cells and Viruses What is a Cell? • A cell is the smallest unit of life – All life is made of cells – All cells arise from other cells – Often called “cell theory” • Viruses are not cells! They are described as acellular and are not considered to be living. How do we see very small things? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/str ucture-of-a-cell/introduction-to-cells/v/scale-ofcells?modal=1 Compound Light Microscope Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Scanning Electron Microscope What kinds of cells do we see in nature? • Cells can be divided into two general groups based upon their structures – Prokaryotic cells (Domains Bacteria & Archaea) • Bacteria • Archaea – Eukaryotic cells (Domain Eukarya) • Animal cells • Plant cells – Viruses • Different shapes but not cells Prokaryotic Cells • Simplest cells • Very small (1-5 mm in length) • Genome is DNA • No nucleus – DNA found in a “nucleoid” region not separated from the other cell components • No membrane-bound organelles Bacterial Shapes • Generally found in one of three shapes Bacillus (Bacilli) Coccus (Cocci) Spirillum (Spirilla) Prokaryotic Cell Structure Eukaryotic Cells • Eukaryotic – Eu = “true” – Karyon = “nut” (nucleus) • Two general types of eukaryotic cells – Animal – Plant – Fungal Animal Cells • Genome is DNA • Size usually 10-100µm • Believed to have evolved from prokaryotic cells in combination with protoeukaryotic cells Plant Cells Animal Cells • Variety of shapes and functions Neuron Muscle Epithelial (skin) Blood Question??? • In a human, each of the 230 different types of cells have the same fundamental genetic material that contains about 25,000 genes. Come up with a hypothesis why cells with the same genetic material can look and function so differently. Why are we not made of just one big cell? • Humans are made up of trillions of small cells in order to maintain a high surface area to volume ratio Animal Cell Structure Plant Cell Structure Viruses • Viruses are not “cells” according to biological criteria – Because of their importance to biology, we need to understand their structure and function • Viruses are entities that invade and reproduce inside of other cells – There are viruses that infect prokaryotic cells, and different viruses that infect eukaryotic cells: there are different viruses that infect bacteria, plants and animals – Viruses are very small compared to the cell they invade: 100-1000x smaller (20-900nm) – Although their reproductive processes differ in the details, they are all similar in that they must invade another cell and take over its cellular machinery in order to reproduce. Examples of Viruses Structure of Viruses • Composed of a protein coat that surrounds the genetic material – Genetic material can be either DNA or RNA depending upon the type of virus Cell Structure & Function Worksheet BIOLOGY 130: Reading/Study Guide UNIT 2: CLASSIFICATION/ CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION “One of the greatest commandments of science is, “Mistrust arguments from authority.” (Scientists, being primates, and thus given to dominance hierarchies, of course do not always follow this commandment.) Too many such arguments have proved too painfully wrong. Authorities must prove their contentions like everyone else” Carl Sagan, Demon Haunted World, 1995 Concepts of Biology Chapter 3 (pp 55-73); Chapter 1 pp 12-13; Chapter 17.1. Term Definition Cell Eukaryote Prokaryote organelle Answer the Following Questions: 1) List one of the 3 domains of life at the top of each column and then describe two characteristics that will uniquely define each domain. Domain Name Characteristic 1 Domain ___________ Domain ______________ Domain ______________ Characteristic 2 2) Describe the three main shapes of prokaryotic cells. KMN 6/24/20 3) Draw and describe the structure of a typical bacterial cell. Label the major structural components and describe their functions. 4) What are the major characteristics that differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic Eukaryotic 5) Why do we not find single cells that are so large that we can see them without a microscope? KMN 6/24/20 6) What is a virus? Describe the basic structural components of a virus. What types of cells may viruses infect? KMN 6/24/20 Eukaryotic Cells Viruses Prokaryotic Cells Animal Cells Plant Cells Domain Size (µm) Presence of Internal Compartments (Y/N) Cell Wall (Y/N) Cell Membrane (Y/N) Nucleus Present (YN) Protein Capsid (Y/N) Genome Material (DNA/RNA/Either) KMN 8/23/19 Description of Function Plant Cells? Present in… Animal Prokaryotic Cells? Cells? Nucleus Genome Nucleolus Cytosol Plasma Membrane Cell Wall Cytoskeleton Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum KMN 8/23/19 Description of Function Plant Cells? Present in… Animal Prokaryotic Cells? Cells? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Complex Transport vesicles Central vacuole Lysosomes Cilia Flagella Mitochondria Chloroplast KMN 8/23/19
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Eukaryotic Cells
Viruses

Prokaryotic Cells

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

Not living

Bacteria and Arachaea

Eukarya

Eukarya

0.02 – 2

1-5

10-30

10-100

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Either

DNA

DNA

DNA

Domain

Size (µm)

Presence of Internal
Compartments (Y/N)

Cell Wall (Y/N)

Cell Membrane (Y/N)

Nucleus Present (YN)

Protein Capsid (Y/N)

Genome Material
(DNA/RNA/Either)

KMN
8/23/19

Description of Function
Membrane bound region to protect genetic information in the cell

Plant
Cells?
Yes

Present in…
Animal
Prokaryotic
Cells?
Cells?
Yes
No

Nucleus

Genome

DNA or RNA. Contains instructions on how to produce proteins, RNA, and other biological Yes
molecules

Yes

Yes

Region either in the cytoplasm or within the nucleus where ribosomes are synthesized

Yes

Yes

Yes

Aqueous component of the cell in whic...


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