Science
Ohms Law Resistance and The Inverse of Current Relationship Lab

Question Description

you will find on the attachments:

1- lab manual, how to do the lab with provided link to Colorado University simulation lab.

2- lab data with Graph and Prelab Questions that have been answered , you need that for the lab report

3- Report sample , how write the lab report.

4 2 PDFs chapter 26 and 28 in case you need them.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Ohm’s Law Examine the relationship between R and invCurr Visit Ohm's law simulation at University of Colorado PhET Your setup should look like Equipment List Enumerate equipment used Procedures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set the voltage to 6.0 V Establish a table as shown below in Excel (or your data analysis application). Enter the unit of current Set Resistance to values shown in the table Record values of resistance in Trial #1 Repeat steps 4 and 5 for Trials #2 thru #20 Trial # Resistance ( ) 1 1000 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 960 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 10 Current ( ) inv Current( ) Equations 1 Current Eq 1: Inverse current: invCur = Eq 2: Inverse slope: invSlope = 1 Slope Calculations (answer each item) 1. Write the slope 2. Write (correlation coefficient) of your trendline 3. Calculate the invSlope (inverse of the slope, or slope-1 (see Eq. 2) 4. Estimate the uncertainty (error in) invSlope Data Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Calculate inv-Current (inverse of current) using Eq. 1. Place in the last column of your data table. Write the unit of InvCurrent Chart invCurrent vs Resistance using scatter plot (current in the y-axis and resistance in the xaxis) Add a Linear Trend-line to your invCurrent vs Resistance chart Write the slope of your trendline Include a screen capture of your chart with labeled axis, trend-line Plot Current vs Resistance (in a separate chart) Add a Trend-line that fits the data (Note: you may have to try different functions) Discussion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the unit of invCurrent ? Discuss the significance of the invSlope (specifically what physical quantity it represents) Discuss the unit of invSlope Discuss the type of equation used for the Current vs Resistance trendline. Discuss the relationship between Resistance and Current Trial# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Resistance (ohm ) 1000 960 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 10 Current ( milli amp) 6.0 mA 6.3mA 6.7mA 7.5mA 8.6mA 10.0mA 12.0mA 15.0mA 20.0mA 30.0mA 33.3mA 37.5mA 42.9mA 50.0mA 60.0mA 75.0mA 100.0mA 150.0mA 300.0mA 600.0mA Inv Current (1/mA ) 0.1670 0.1580 0.1490 0.1330 0.1160 0.1000 0.0830 0.0670 0.0500 0.0330 0.0300 0.0270 0.0230 0.0200 0.0170 0.0130 0.0100 0.0070 0.0030 0.0010 inv current 1/mA vs resistance (ohm) 180 inv current (milli) 160 y = 0.1671x R² = 1 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 Resistance (ohm) 800 1000 1200 Current (mA) vs Resistance (ohm) 700 Current (mA) 600 y = 6006.3x-1.001 R² = 1 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 Resistance(ohm) 800 1000 1200 Measurement of Resistance Name: Phys. 206L.004 Lab#: 03 Due: Jan 22, 2020 Performed: Jan 28, 2019 Lab Report (Template) OBJECTIVES: The Lab report needs to have (as shown in the template) • • (1) Heading a. Lab info (Name, Section, Date, Lab number) should be placed on Right-Top corner b. Title of the experiment c. Objectives need to be spelled out (in your own words) (2) List of Equipments used in the experiment (3) Procedures need to be categorized and placed in: a. Briefly state the steps followed to conduct the experiment. If steps were different from those steps enumerated in the pre-lab, state the revised steps and explain the reasons along with the observations. b. Additional Measurements – describe the steps followed when additional measurements were performed (4) Data: a. Tables (as needed) b. Graphs (as needed) (5) Analysis and Sample Calculations (as needed) a. For results summarized in a table, show details of calculations used to compute the result b. Error calculations c. For results presented with a graph, show the parameters obtained (6) Discussion: Describe observations, findings and results (7) Summary: State conclusions and lessons learned in the experiment EQUIPMENT LIST • • PROCEDURES (Briefly restate the steps followed) DATA (Insert the data tables and graphs here.) ANALYSIS/Calculations, (Sample calculations, error estimation, computed results) DISCUSSION (Present your observations) It is a good practice to start with the Data section (tables and graphs) first. The next step is to complete the analysis, fill in the Heading, List of Equipment, Procedures and then Analysis and Error calculations followed by Discussion and Summary. Once the draft is put-together, print and let it simmer overnight. Proofread and edit the draft first thing in the morning with fresh energy and insight. These steps may need to be performed multiple times. SUMMARY (Briefly restate objectives, findings/observations) QUESTIONS (Answer to questions) Phys 206L Spring2020 1 of 2 Pages Phys 206L Spring2020 2 of 2 Pages Chapter 28 Direct Current Circuits Circuit Analysis Simple electric circuits may contain batteries, resistors, and capacitors in various combinations. For some circuits, analysis may consist of combining resistors. In more complex complicated circuits, Kirchhoff’s Rules may be used for analysis.  These Rules are based on conservation of energy and conservation of electric charge for isolated systems. Circuits may involve direct current or alternating current. Introduction Direct Current When the current in a circuit has a constant direction, the current is called direct current.  Most of the circuits analyzed will be assumed to be in steady state, with constant magnitude and direction. Because the potential difference between the terminals of a battery is constant, the battery produces direct current. The battery is known as a source of emf. Section 28.1 Electromotive Force The electromotive force (emf), , of a battery is the maximum possible voltage that the battery can provide between its terminals.  The emf supplies energy, it does not apply a force. The battery will normally be the source of energy in the circuit. The positive terminal of the battery is at a higher potential than the negative terminal. We consider the wires to have no resistance. Section 28.1 Internal Battery Resistance If the internal resistance is zero, the terminal voltage equals the emf. In a real battery, there is internal resistance, r. The terminal voltage, V =  – Ir The emf is equivalent to the open-circuit voltage.  This is the terminal voltage when no current is in the circuit.  This is the voltage labeled on the battery. The actual potential difference between the terminals of the battery depends on the current in the circuit. Section 28.1 Load Resistance The terminal voltage also equals the voltage across the external resistance.  This external resistor is called the load resistance.  In the previous circuit, the load resistance is just the external resistor.  In general, the load resistance could be any electrical device.  These resistances represent loads on the battery since it supplies the energy to operate the device containing the resistance. Section 28.1 Power The total power output of the battery is P= IV =I  This power is delivered to the external resistor (I 2 R) and to the internal resistor (I2 r). P= I 2 R+ I 2 r The battery is a supply of constant emf.  The battery does not supply a constant current since the current in the circuit depends on the resistance connected to the battery.  The battery does not supply a constant terminal voltage. Section 28.1 Resistors in Series When two or more resistors are connected end-to-end, they are said to be in series. For a series combination of resistors, the currents are the same in all the resistors because the amount of charge that passes through one resistor must also pass through the other resistors in the same time interval. The potential difference will divide among the resistors such that the sum of the potential differences across the resistors is equal to the total potential difference across the combination. Section 28.2 Resistors in Series, cont Currents are the same  I = I1 = I 2 Potentials add  ΔV = V1 + V2 = IR1 + IR2 = I (R1+R2)  Consequence of Conservation of Energy The equivalent resistance has the same effect on the circuit as the original combination of resistors. Section 28.2 Equivalent Resistance – Series Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + … The equivalent resistance of a series combination of resistors is the algebraic sum of the individual resistances and is always greater than any individual resistance. If one device in the series circuit creates an open circuit, all devices are inoperative. Section 28.2 Equivalent Resistance – Series – An Example All three representations are equivalent. Two resistors are replaced with their equivalent resistance. Section 28.2 Some Circuit Notes A local change in one part of a circuit may result in a global change throughout the circuit.  For example, changing one resistor will affect the currents and voltages in all the other resistors and the terminal voltage of the battery. In a series circuit, there is one path for the current to take. In a parallel circuit, there are multiple paths for the current to take. Section 28.2 Resistors in Parallel The potential difference across each resistor is the same because each is connected directly across the battery terminals. ΔV = ΔV1 = ΔV2 A junction is a point where the current can split. The current, I, that enters junction must be equal to the total current leaving that junction.  I = I 1 + I 2 = (ΔV1 / R1) + (ΔV2 / R2)  The currents are generally not the same.  Consequence of conservation of electric charge Section 28.2 Equivalent Resistance – Parallel, Examples All three diagrams are equivalent. Equivalent resistance replaces the two original resistances. Section 28.2 Equivalent Resistance – Parallel Equivalent Resistance 1 1 1 1    K Req R1 R2 R3 The inverse of the equivalent resistance of two or more resistors connected in parallel is the algebraic sum of the inverses of the individual resistance.  The equivalent is always less than the smallest resistor in the group. Section 28.2 Resistors in Parallel, Final In parallel, each device operates independently of the others so that if one is switched off, the others remain on. In parallel, all of the devices operate on the same voltage. The current takes all the paths.  The lower resistance will have higher currents.  Even very high resistances will have some currents. Household circuits are wired so that electrical devices are connected in parallel. Section 28.2 Combinations of Resistors The 8.0- and 4.0- resistors are in series and can be replaced with their equivalent, 12.0  The 6.0- and 3.0- resistors are in parallel and can be replaced with their equivalent, 2.0  These equivalent resistances are in series and can be replaced with their equivalent resistance, 14.0  Section 28.2 Gustav Kirchhoff 1824 – 1887 German physicist Worked with Robert Bunsen Kirchhoff and Bunsen  Invented the spectroscope and founded the science of spectroscopy  Discovered the elements cesium and rubidium  Invented astronomical spectroscopy Section 28.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules There are ways in which resistors can be connected so that the circuits formed cannot be reduced to a single equivalent resistor. Two rules, called Kirchhoff’s rules, can be used instead. Section 28.3 Kirchhoff’s Junction Rule Junction Rule  The sum of the currents at any junction must equal zero.  Currents directed into the junction are entered into the equation as +I and those leaving as -I.  A statement of Conservation of Charge  Mathematically, ∑ I = 0 junction Section 28.3 More about the Junction Rule I1 - I2 - I3 = 0 Required by Conservation of Charge Diagram (b) shows a mechanical analog Section 28.3 Kirchhoff’s Loop Rule Loop Rule  The sum of the potential differences across all elements around any closed circuit loop must be zero.  A statement of Conservation of Energy Mathematically, ∑ V = 0 closed loop Section 28.3 More about the Loop Rule Traveling around the loop from a to b In (a), the resistor is traversed in the direction of the current, the potential across the resistor is – IR. In (b), the resistor is traversed in the direction opposite of the current, the potential across the resistor is is + IR. Section 28.3 Loop Rule, final In (c), the source of emf is traversed in the direction of the emf (from – to +), and the change in the potential difference is +ε. In (d), the source of emf is traversed in the direction opposite of the emf (from + to -), and the change in the potential difference is -ε. Section 28.3 Equations from Kirchhoff’s Rules Use the junction rule as often as needed, so long as each time you write an equation, you include in it a current that has not been used in a previous junction rule equation.  In general, the number of times the junction rule can be used is one fewer than the number of junction points in the circuit. The loop rule can be used as often as needed so long as a new circuit element (resistor or battery) or a new current appears in each new equation. In order to solve a particular circuit problem, the number of independent equations you need to obtain from the two rules equals the number of unknown currents. Any capacitor acts as an open branch in a circuit.  The current in the branch containing the capacitor is zero under steady-state conditions. Section 28.3 Problem-Solving Strategy – Kirchhoff’s Rules Conceptualize  Study the circuit diagram and identify all the elements.  Identify the polarity of each battery.  Imagine the directions of the currents in each battery. Categorize  Determine if the circuit can be reduced by combining series and parallel resistors.  If so, proceed with those techniques  If not, apply Kirchhoff’s Rules Section 28.3 Problem-Solving Strategy, cont. Analyze  Assign labels and symbols to all known and unknown quantities.  Assign directions to the currents.  The direction is arbitrary, but you must adhere to the assigned directions when applying Kirchhoff’s rules.  Apply the junction rule to any junction in the circuit that provides new relationships among the various currents.  Apply the loop rule to as many loops as are needed to solve for the unknowns.  To apply the loop rule, you must choose a direction in which to travel around the loop.  You must also correctly identify the potential difference as you cross various elements.  Solve the equations simultaneously for the unknown quantities. Section 28.3 Problem-Solving Strategy, final Finalize  Check your numerical answers for consistency.  If any current value is negative, it means you guessed the direction of that current incorrectly.  The magnitude will still be correct. Section 28.3 RC Circuits In direct current circuits containing capacitors, the current may vary with time.  The current is still in the same direction. An RC circuit will contain a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor. Section 28.4 RC Circuit, Example Section 28.4 Charging a Capacitor When the circuit is completed, the capacitor starts to charge. The capacitor continues to charge until it reaches its maximum charge (Q = Cε). Once the capacitor is fully charged, the current in the circuit is zero. As the plates are being charged, the potential difference across the capacitor increases. At the instant the switch is closed, the charge on the capacitor is zero. Once the maximum charge is reached, the current in the circuit is zero.  The potential difference across the capacitor matches that supplied by the battery. Section 28.4 Charging a Capacitor in an RC Circuit The charge on the capacitor varies with time.    q(t) = C (1 – e-t/RC) = Q(1 – e-t/RC) The current can be found −t / RC I=  e R   is the time constant   = RC Section 28.4 Time Constant, Charging The time constant represents the time required for the charge to increase from zero to 63.2% of its maximum.  has units of time   The energy stored in the charged capacitor is ½ Q = ½ C 2. Section 28.4 Discharging a Capacitor in an RC Circuit When a charged capacitor is placed in the circuit, it can be discharged.  q(t) = Qe-t/RC The charge decreases exponentially. Section 28.4 Discharging Capacitor At t =  = RC, the charge decreases to 0.368 Qmax  In other words, in one time constant, the capacitor loses 63.2% of its initial charge. The current can be found dq Q −t / RC I (t)= =− e dt RC Both charge and current decay exponentially at a rate characterized by  = RC. Section 28.4 Household Wiring The utility company distributes electric power to individual homes by a pair of wires. Each house is connected in parallel with these wires. One wire is the “live wire” and the other wire is the neutral wire connected to ground. Section 28.5 Household Wiring, cont The potential of the neutral wire is taken to be zero.  Actually, the current and voltage are alternating The potential difference between the live and neutral wires is about 120 V. Section 28.5 Household Wiring, final A meter is connected in series with the live wire entering the house.  This records the household’s consumption of electricity. After the meter, the wire splits so that multiple parallel circuits can be distributed throughout the house. Each circuit has its own circuit breaker. For those applications requiring 240 V, there is a third wire maintained at 120 V below the neutral wire. Section 28.5 Short Circuit A short circuit occurs when almost zero resistance exists between two points at different potentials. This results in a very large current In a household circuit, a circuit breaker will open the circuit in the case of an accidental short circuit.  This prevents any damage A person in contact with ground can be electrocuted by touching the live wire. Section 28.5 Electrical Safety Electric shock can result in fatal burns. Electric shock can cause the muscles of vital organs (such as the heart) to malfunction. The degree of damage depends on:  The magnitude of the current  The length of time it acts  The part of the body touched by the live wire  The part of the body in which the current exists Section 28.5 Effects of Various Currents 5 mA or less  Can cause a sensation of shock  Generally little or no damage 10 mA  Muscles contract  May be unable to let go of a live wire 100 mA  If passing through the body for a few seconds, can be fatal  Paralyzes the respiratory muscles and prevents breathing Section 28.5 More Effects In some cases, currents of 1 A can produce serious burns.  Sometimes these can be fatal burns No contact with live wires is considered safe whenever the voltage is greater than 24 V. Section 28.5 Ground Wire Electrical equipment manufacturers use electrical cords that have a third wire, called a ground. This safety ground normally carries no current and is both grounded and connected to the appliance. If the live wire is accidentally shorted to the casing, most of the current takes the low-resistance path through the appliance to the ground. If it was not properly grounded, anyone in contact with the appliance could be shocked because the body produces a low-resistance path to ground. Section 28.5 Ground-Fault Interrupters (GFI) Special power outlets Used in hazardous areas Designed to protect people from electrical shock Senses currents (< 5 mA) leaking to ground Quickly shuts off the current when above this level Section 28.5 Chapter 26 Current and Resistance Electric Current Most practical applications of electricity deal with electric currents.  The electric charges move through some region of space. The resistor is a new element added to circuits. Energy can be transferred to a device i ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: LAB REPORT

1

Ohm’s law
Name
Instructor
Course
Date

LAB REPORT

2
Ohm’s Law

Objective
To determine the relationship between resistance and the inverse of current.
Equipment List
➢ Ammeter
➢ Voltmeter
➢ Resistor
➢ Dry cells

Procedures
✓ Voltage was set to 6.0 V
✓ A table was established for recording data
✓ The unit of current was entered
✓ Resistance was set to the values indicated in the table
✓ The values of resistance were recorded in Trial 1

LAB REPORT

3

✓ Steps 4 and 5 were repeated for trial 2 to trial20
Data
Trial

Resistance (ohm)

Current (milli-amp)

Inv. Current (1/mA)

1

1000

6.0 mA

0.1670

2

960

6.3mA

0.1580

3

900

6.7mA

0.1490

4

800

7.5mA

0.1330

5

700

8.6mA

0.1160

6

600

10.0mA

0.1000

7

500

12.0mA

0.0830

8

400

15.0mA

0.0670

9

300

20.0mA

0.0500

10

200

30...

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