Science
I need an Earth Science Lab Completed and the Final Worksheet Returned

Question Description

I’m stuck on a Science question and need an explanation.

I do not like earth science! These labs are self-explanatory but I do not really have the time to waste on them. Read the attached documents, complete the worksheet fully and to the instructions, and return to me. If I choose you and you do well, I will choose you for similar labs in the future no doubt.




Floodway_Encroachments.pdf Stream Lab Directions Revised 01-31-14.docx Stream Lab Worksheet Revised 09-30-13.docx USGS Streamgages Indiana Factsheet(1).pdf Vermont Stream Geomorphic Assessment(1).pdf 

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Floodplain Facts #12 Floodway Encroachments The floodway is the channel of a river or stream and the overbank areas that must remain open to carry the deeper, faster moving water during a flood. If the remainder of the floodplain, called the floodplain fringe, is completely obstructed, the 100-year flood elevation would not increase more than one foot. The regulatory floodway may be shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map or on a separate Flood Boundary and Floodway Map. Because floodway boundaries are delineated using computer modeling, they often do not correspond to any features visible at the site. Why Is the Floodway Different than Other Floodplain Areas? A basic principle of floodplain management is that development must not increase the flood hazard on other properties. “Floodways” are areas where fill or other development is likely to divert flow and contribute to increased water depths during a flood. Floodways may also be subject to high velocities, which can cause severe damage to structures and high risks for occupants and emergency responders. Ideally, floodways should be undeveloped areas that can accommodate flood flows with minimal risk. Any new development in the floodway generally requires an engineering analysis of the impact on flood hazards. What Is Meant by Encroachment? An “encroachment” is any floodplain development that could obstruct flood flows, such as fill, a bridge, or a building. A driveway, road, or parking lot at grade (without any filling) would not cause an obstruction. Development of lakeshore floodplains, where there is no flow, is not considered an encroachment. How Are Floodplain Encroachments Regulated? The development standards for a floodplain encroachment depend on both the project location and the amount of information provided on flood hazard maps: o Floodplain fringe: The modeling used to establish floodway boundaries indicated that any encroachment or obstruction in the fringe area (outside the floodway) would not result in a “significant” increase in flood levels (i.e. no more than one foot), so no encroachment analysis is required. o Floodway: No new development is permitted within the regulatory floodway unless a licensed professional engineer demonstrates that the proposed encroachment shall not result in any rise in the 100-year flood elevation. This no-rise requirement is in addition to all other floodplain development standards applicable to the proposed project. Prepared by Southern Tier Central Regional Planning and Development Board Floodplain Facts #12 o Riverine floodplain with base flood elevations, but no floodway: When the flood hazard map designates base flood elevations (100-year flood heights) but no floodway is delineated, the applicant must demonstrate that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated floodplain development, would not increase the water surface elevation of the 100-year flood more than one foot at any location. o Approximate A Zones: When floodplain boundaries were established using approximate techniques (which produce neither floodways nor base flood elevations), the municipality may require an analysis to demonstrate that the project would not result in physical damage to any other property. Are There Exceptions to the Encroachment Requirements? Federal standards do not allow communities to issue variances for development within the floodway that would result in increased flood levels. However, there are some situations (such as dams, bridges, or roads) in which a project in the floodway may be justifiable even though it would cause a rise in the flood elevation. This necessitates that the flood hazard map be changed to reflect the new hazard. The applicant must apply to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for (1) a conditional map revision before the development occurs and (2) a final letter of map revision after the development has been completed.1 No-Rise Certification for Floodway Encroachments Any proposed encroachment in the floodway requires a technical evaluation by a licensed professional engineer to demonstrate that the project will not affect flood heights. The results of this analysis must be maintained in the municipality’s permit file. This can be in the form of a No-Rise Certification supported by technical data and signed by a registered professional engineer. The supporting technical data should be based on the standard step-backwater computer model used to develop the floodway shown on the flood hazard map. Hydraulic modeling of the pre-project and post-project conditions should demonstrate that the change in the 100-year flood height is 0.00 feet. A detailed surface water profile analysis may not be necessary for a small project located completely within the “conveyance shadow” of an existing obstruction (because flood water is already flowing around the larger obstruction). The limits of this conveyance shadow can be determined as illustrated. However, an engineer must still certify that the floodway encroachment would not cause any rise in the flood elevation. Additional Resources o Floodplain Development and Floodway Guidance, prepared by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, available at http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/24281.html, provides guidance on meeting the “no-rise” and “no adverse effect” criteria using hydraulic modeling techniques. o Procedures for Compliance with Floodway Regulations, Floodplain Management Information Series Special Report; prepared by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Pennsylvania Department of Community Affairs (1990); available at http://www.nh.gov/ oep/programs/floodplainmanagement/regulations/documents/floodway_regulations.pdf; describes the analyses needed to document floodway impacts and procedures for requesting floodway revisions. 1 The MT-2 Form for floodplain map revisions that show changes to flood elevations is available at http://www.fema.gov/plan/ prevent/fhm/dl_mt-2.shtm. Prepared by Southern Tier Central Regional Planning and Development Board Stream Lab Directions Read the sections in your textbook on Running Water (pages 120 -124) and Floods and Flood Control (pages 136 - 138) before completing the lab. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with state agencies, collects extensive real-time records of stream flow using a system of stream gauges (also spelled stream gages or streamgages). In this lab you will learn about this system and record some stream data. You will also learn about flood plains and practice finding information about flood risk at specific locations in Indiana Lab Part A: Watersheds Begin the lab by doing the activities on the following two web pages and recording the answers to the questions on your lab worksheet. (These pages are part of another online lab but for our lab you only need to do these two pages. Go to them directly from links 1 and 2 below. If you click “Next” at the bottom of each of the pages you can check your answers, but do not do the work on the "Next" page that comes up). (1) http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01c.html If you encounter a problem viewing the activity on this site, try the following steps: Update Java on your computer http://java.com/en/download/index.jsp Then, go to the Java control panel using the directions on this site: http://www.java.com/en/download/help/jcp_security.xml#control panel Go to the Security tab and add this webpage to the list of exceptions: http://sciencecourseware.org (2) http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01a.html To help in understanding the lab, please note: • • • Watersheds are separated by topographically high areas (water obviously can't flow uphill to get into an adjacent watershed). All of the water in an individual watershed drains to the same point. Large watersheds, such as the Mississippi River basin, contain thousands of smaller watersheds. Page 1 of 6 • • A channel is said to be at bankfull stage when it is just about to leave its banks and flood the active floodplain. Terraces are former floodplains that have been abandoned by a river that is downcutting. The following article, "Vermont Stream Geomorphic Assessment, is optional reading that describes how geologists determine the bankfull stage precisely. It is not very long, a bit more technical than what is covered in this lab, but interesting: http://www.vtwaterquality.org/rivers/docs/assessmenthandbooks/rv_apxkidbankfullstage.pdf Lab Part B: Stream Drainage Area, Discharge, Stage and Flood Stage Next, read the "Indiana Water Science Center Streamgages Factsheet". It is one of the files that you downloaded. Write down the definitions of discharge and stage from the fact sheet. Two additional definitions that you will need to know for the lab are: Drainage Area: the total area of land that drains water to the point of interest in a stream. It includes the stream and all of its tributaries up to the point of interest, plus all of the land area that drains into the stream and tributaries. As you go downstream, more and more tributaries flow into a stream and its drainage area becomes larger. The drainage area is the size of a watershed. Flood Stage: The elevation at which overflow of the natural banks of a stream channel begins. Now go to the map at http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/?m=real&r=in. This map shows the location of stream gages in Indiana. Scroll down to look at the legend at the bottom of the web page, which gives the meaning of the color code. Notice that some of the locations do not have a color. Try hovering over and then clicking on a stream gage location: • Real-time values for the stream's discharge and stage are given. Since the amount of water flowing in a stream is always changing, these values change frequently. They update hourly. Page 2 of 6 • There are also values for drainage area and the water level that corresponds to flood stage at each location. These are things that usually do not change, and so are constant values. Click on each of the stream gages listed on the lab worksheet. Do this by moving your mouse over the map locations until you see the correct gage. Click the location to see all of the data and to keep it visible while you are writing it down. Record the drainage area, discharge, stage and flood stage for each location. You will be following the White River from Muncie to the point where it joins the Wabash. If you have difficulty finding a location or any of the information requested, you can also use a different version of the map at: http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?id=real&sid=w__gmap&r=in Using this map you can zoom in closer. Click on the location to see discharge, stage and flood stage. To find drainage area, go to the top of the chart that showed you the discharge, stage and flood stage, and click the name of the location. This will take you to a page that has drainage area listed near the top. Lab Part C: Floodplain Maps Floodplain maps are created, and are currently being updated, as part of the National Flood Insurance Program. You will learn how to read a floodplain map and will identify the level of flood risk for several locations. For some of the locations, there are two floodplain designations, the current one (termed, "Effective") and a proposed new one (termed, "Preliminary"). One of the most important designations on floodplain maps is the land area that is subject to a 1% chance of a flood every year. This was once known as a "100-year-flood" but that term was changed because it implied that such a flood will occur only once every 100 years. In fact, a 1% chance flood can occur in any year and may occur more than once in 100 years. For purposes of the flood insurance program, the 1% chance flood is also known as a "regulatory flood", and the water level corresponding to it is the "base flood elevation" or "regulatory flood elevation". The floodplain maps display the following zones: Minimal Flood Hazard Zones: any area with less risk of flooding than 0.2% annually, indicated by Zone X shown without shading. Unshaded areas appear as terrain such as trees or roadways with no superimposed color. Page 3 of 6 Moderate Flood Hazard Zones: any area that is subject to at least a 0.2% annual chance of flooding (formerly known as a 500-year flood). It is indicated by Zone X which also has boldcolored shading. The Zone X shading is a reddish-purple hatching. Sometimes these zones are referred to, perhaps for convenience, as simply "0.2%", but they are actually "in-between" zones with a range of risk going from 0.2% up to 1%. Special Flood Hazard Zones: any area that is subject to a 1% or greater annual chance of flooding (formerly known as a 100-year flood). These are designated on the maps as Zone A if they are approximate locations. In some areas more detailed work has been done and Zone A is categorized further into areas such as Zone AE, which has a known base flood elevation. These detailed zones will also have colored shading on the maps. More descriptions of the various categories are on this page: https://msc.fema.gov/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/info?storeId=10001&catalogId=10001&langI d=-1&content=floodZones&title=FEMA%2520Flood%2520Zone%2520Designations Floodways: shown in yellow, the floodway is the channel of a stream plus any adjacent floodplain areas that must remain open to carry the deeper, faster moving water during a flood. Building on floodways is regulated because fill or other new development is likely to divert flow and may contribute to increased floodwater depths in adjacent areas. Floodways have a very high risk of flooding. Now go to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Floodplain Information Portal at: http://dnrmaps.dnr.in.gov/appsphp/fdms/ Copy and paste, or type in, the addresses from the lab worksheet into the search box and click "Go to Address". (If you type in an address be sure that it follows the format of the example shown above the search box exactly). The map will zoom in to the location. It is important to familiarize yourself with the map before trying to answer the questions. Look at the Layers menu , the Legend, and the "Point of Interest" results box. In the Layers menu, you can switch between the Floodplains (effective) and Floodplains (preliminary) maps by turning them individually on and off. First use the "Point of Interest" section to the right of the map to record the floodplain zone for each location. Then view the Effective and Preliminary maps available under Layers, and also the Legend. Add any additional information that describes the zone, such as shading, information about levees and floodways. If you find that a location is in Zone X, be sure to note whether the location is shaded on the map (i.e., in a bold color) or unshaded. Be aware of which layer you are working with (effective or preliminary) because a zone could be changing from Zone X (unshaded) to Zone X (shaded). Page 4 of 6 Once you have all of the information for an address, circle the flood risk for that location. If there is a difference between the effective and preliminary zones, circle the greater risk choice. Again, these are the meanings of the zones: • • • • • Zone X with no shading has less than 0.2% annual chance of flood Zone X with red-purple shading has at least 0.2% (and up to 1%) annual chance of flood Any Zone beginning with the letter A has at least a 1% annual chance of flooding. "Zone X protected by levee" means that the area would normally be in Zone A with a 1% or greater annual chance of flooding, but since it is protected by a levee its flood risk is improved somewhat and it is now in the 0.2% - 1% range. Yellow shading indicates a floodway. Page 5 of 6 References Federal Emergency Management Agency (n.d.). Flood Zones. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/floodplain/nfipkeywords/flood_zones.shtm Indiana Department of Natural Resources (n.d.). RFEs Determination. INdiana Floodplain Information Portal. Retrieved from http://dnrmaps.dnr.in.gov/appsphp/fdms/ Stamm, J., Risner, D., Vasconcelos, D., & Novak, G. (2000). The area of a watershed -- Page 3 of 22. sciencecourseware.org. Retrieved from http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01c.html Stamm, J., Risner, D., Vasconcelos, D., & Novak, G. (2000). Virtual River -- Page 1 of 22. sciencecourseware.org. Retrieved from http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01a.html United States Geological Survey (n.d.). Map of real-time streamflow compared to historical streamflow for the day of the year (Indiana). USGS WaterWatch -- Streamflow conditions. Retrieved from http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/?m=real&r=in and http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php?id=real&sid=w__gmap&r=in USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (2009, May). Streamgages: Indiana Fact Sheet. Indiana Natural Resources Conservation Service > News. Retrieved from http://www.in.nrcs.usda.gov/news/publications/FactSheet-USGS%20gages.pdf Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (2009, May). Appendix K, Vermont Stream Geomorphic Assessment : Identification of Bankfull Stage. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation Watershed Management Division, River Management Section, Geomorphic & Habitat Assessment, Vermont Stream Geomorphic Assessment Protocols, Handbook Appendices, Appendix K. Retrieved from http://www.vtwaterquality.org/rivers/docs/assessmenthandbooks/rv_apxkidbankfullstage .pdf Rev 01/31/14 Page 6 of 6 Stream Lab Worksheet Lab Part A: Watersheds From: http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01c.html Definition of a watershed: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Recall that the grid spacing is 0.25 miles. What's the area of one square of the grid? _____________ square miles Your estimate of the total area of the watershed: _____________ square miles. From the : http://sciencecourseware.org/VirtualRiver/Flooding/Files/page01a.html Does the floodplain in the diagram become completely covered with water when the river is at its flood stage? □ Yes □ No □ Only in the "bank full" condition Do the stream terraces become flooded? □ Yes □ No □ Only on the right side of the stream Page 1 of 5 Lab Part B: Stream Drainage Area, Discharge and Flood Stage Definitions from the Indiana Water Science Center Streamgages Factsheet: Definition of stage: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Definition of discharge: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Stream Gage measurements from http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/?m=real&r=in Starting in east-central Indiana, find the Muncie stream gage. You will then follow the river downstream to the southwest. White River at Muncie drainage area: _________________square miles discharge: ____________________cubic feet per second stage: ________________________feet flood stage: ___________________feet White River at Anderson drainage area: _________________square miles discharge: ____________________cubic feet per second stage: ________________________feet flood stage: ___________________feet White River at 146th St. near Noblesville drainage area: _________________square miles discharge: ____________________cubic feet per second stage: ...
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Carnegie Mellon University

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