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Question 1

The numerical value for a correlation ranges between ________ and ________.
0; 1.00
–1.00; 1.00
negative infinity; positive infinity
–1.00; 0
2.5 points
Question 2

If all the points on a scatterplot fall on a single line:
there is no relation between the variables.
the relation between the variables is perfect.
the variables are causally related.
there is a positive correlation between the two variables.
2.5 points
Question 3

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of ________ is considered small, ________ is medium, and _______ is strong.
0.10; 0.30; 0.50+
0.25; 0.50; 0.75
0.40; 0.60; 0.80
1.00; 2.00; 3.00
2.5 points
Question 4

When using the Pearson correlation coefficient in hypothesis testing, we determine whether the correlation is:
significantly straight.
significantly different from zero.
accurate for the sample.
accurate for the population.
2.5 points
Question 5

Which of the following statements accurately captures a positive correlation?
an association such that participants with low scores on one variable tend to have high scores on the other variables as well, and those with high scores on one variable tend to have low scores on the other variable
one variable reliably predicts the scores on a second variable because they move perfectly together
an association such that participants with high scores on one variable tend to have high scores on the other variables as well, and those with low scores on one variable tend to have low scores on the other variable.
an association in which one variable is a multiplicative factor of the other variable.
2.5 points
Question 6

According to Cohen's published standards, a correlation coefficient of 0.34 is considered to represent:
a small effect.
a medium effect.
a large effect.
no relationship.
2.5 points
Question 7

What is the null hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
μ_{1} = μ_{2}
ρ= 0
ρ^{0}
r= 1
2.5 points
Question 8

If a test actually measures what it is intended to measure, then that test:
is reliable.
is valid.
does not suffer from restriction of range problems.
is internally consistent.
2.5 points
Question 9

Assume that the correlation coefficient between class attendance and number of problems missed on an exam is (–0.77). Which statement regarding this finding is correct?
If you start attending class more regularly, the number of problems you miss on the next exam is certain to be reduced.
There is definitely no causal relationship between the two variables.
If you attend class regularly, you are more likely to do well on the exam than someone who does not attend class regularly.
The correlation provides definitive information pertaining to causation.
2.5 points
Question 10

In the equation Ŷ = 130 + 5(X1) + 3(X2), what is the y intercept?
130
5
3
8
2.5 points
Question 11

Reading left to right, a negative slope looks like a line going ________, while a positive slope looks like a line going ________.
uphill; downhill
downhill; downhill
downhill; uphill
uphill; uphill
2.5 points
Question 12

The Pearson correlation coefficient is symbolized:
r
x
c
t
2.5 points
Question 13

A positive correlation between head size and foot size indicates that:
having a large head causes a person to have large feet.
having large feet causes a person to have a large head.
people with larger feet also tend to have larger heads.
people with larger feet tend to have smaller heads.
2.5 points
Question 14

Once we have an equation for a straight line through our data, we can:
look at each value on the xaxis and predict its corresponding value on the yaxis.
speculate about the causal relationship.
use an independentsamples t test to compare means.
compute post hoc tests.
2.5 points
Question 15

Correlations help us look at the ________ between two variables.
causal relationship
time sequence
corelation
difference
2.5 points
Question 16

(Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes) The following figure depicts the relation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box during the regular 2006–2007 season. The 18 players were members of the New Jersey Devils hockey team who played in more than 40 games that season. Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes[img src="http://learn.liberty.edu/courses/1/PSYC355_B03_201440/ppg/respondus/pool_PSYC355_EXAM3_Ch1314_122013/image00252bc4fb7.gif" alt="" align="bottom" border="0"> Based on the scatterplot, what is the relation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box?
perfect positive
positive
negative
no relation
2.5 points
Question 17

Before calculating the correlation coefficient, it is advisable to create a ________ as a way of displaying the association between the two variables.
scatterplot
line graph
histogram
polygon
2.5 points
Question 18

The standardized regression coefficient is symbolized by:
ρ.
β.
μ.
ψ.
2.5 points
Question 19

Which of the following numbers would represent a perfect correlation?
–1.00
1.00
0
–1.00 or 1.00
2.5 points
Question 20

To predict a single dependent variable from more than one independent variable, which statistical technique would we use?
multiple regression
structural equation modeling
simple linear regression
correlation
2.5 points
Question 21

Regression is to ________ as correlation is to ________.
association; causation
causation; association
relation; prediction
prediction; relation
2.5 points
Question 22

When the Pearson correlation coefficient is computed on sample data, it is symbolized by ________, and when it is computed on population data, it is symbolized by ________.
r; R
ρ;r
r;ρ
R; r
2.5 points
Question 23

Based on research with her patients, Dr. Sabine knows that the correlation coefficient between scores on an anxiety scale and comfort at a social gathering is –0.35. According to guidelines established by Cohen, how could we characterize the strength of this relationship?
small
medium
large
very large
2.5 points
Question 24

Psychometricians are concerned with:
developing high quality tests and measures.
fixing psychological issues in people.
studying illness and the onset of psychological illness.
statistics and computers.
2.5 points
Question 25

The tendency of scores that are particularly high or low to drift toward the mean over time is called:
simple linear regression.
standard error of the mean.
regression to the mean.
standard error of the estimate.
2.5 points
Question 26

With regression we are concerned about variability around the ________, rather than variability around the ________ which would be the case in t tests or ANOVAs.
mean; outliers
median; tails of the distribution
line of best fit; mean
outliers; line of best fit
2.5 points
Question 27

A Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated for 48 individuals. What value of df should be used to determine statistical significance in hypothesis testing?
48
46
47
45
2.5 points
Question 28

Testretest reliability is determined by:
administering the same measure to the same sample at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance on the two administrations.
administering the same measure to two different samples at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance at the two different times
correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even numbered items of that same measure.
correlating the odd numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even numbered items of a different measure.
2.5 points
Question 29

Which of the following numbers would indicate the strongest relationship between two variables?
–0.25
0.59
0.65
–0.72
2.5 points
Question 30

In the formula Ŷ = a + b (X), a is the:
slope.
intercept.
predicted value for the dependent variable.
observed value on the independent variable.
2.5 points
Question 31

What kind of correlation would you expect to find between the age of a car (nonclassic. and its value?
positive
zero
negative
perfect positive
2.5 points
Question 32

What is the research hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
μ_{ 1} = μ_{ 2}
ρ= 0
ρ^{0}
r= 1
2.5 points
Question 33

Simple linear regression allows us to:
determine the relation among four or more variables.
predict an individual's score on a dependent variable from her score on multiple independent variables.
predict an individual's score on the dependent variable from her score on the independent variable.
infer the direction of causal relations.
2.5 points
Question 34

In the formula Ŷ = a + b (X), b is the:
slope.
intercept.
predicted value for the dependent variable.
observed value on the independent variable.
2.5 points
Question 35

The three main characteristics of the correlation coefficient include all of the following except:
it can be either positive or negative.
positive correlations are more common than negative correlations.
it is the strength of the coefficient, not its sign, that indicates how large it is.
it always falls between –1.0 and 1.0.
2.5 points
Question 36

Levene’s test evaluates the assumption that
the means of the groups are homogeneous, or equal.
the difference between the scores of the groups are significant.
the scores are normally distributed.
the variances of the groups are homogeneous, or equal.
2.5 points
Question 37

Below are the possible results of a oneway ANOVA with an alpha level set at .05. Which results are significant?
F(2, 31) = 7.98, p = .06
F(2, 31) = 9.87, p = .50
F(2, 31) = 12.3, p = .04
F(2, 31) = 10.7, p = .12
2.5 points
Question 38

The most common way for an independent samples t test to be reported in a research article is
t(45) = 3.5, p < .05.
t(i:29) < .05.
t(independent) = 2.9, significant.
independent t(15): 30, p: significant.
2.5 points
Question 3910

At the end of a hypothesis test (like any one of the ttests for example), the researcher must use the results to
try to prove that the research hypothesis is absolutely true.
make a decision about whether or not to reject the null hypothesis.
make a definitive statement that the null hypothesis is either true or false.
support his or her theoretical preconceptions, regardless of the outcome.
2.5 points
Question 40
A psychologist wants to determine whether different psychiatric diagnoses affect the length of stay for patients in a residential treatment facility. She collects data on length of stay for patients with three different diagnoses: affective disorders, drugrelated disorders, and cognitive disorders. She compares the scores of these three groups. Which type of test should she use to analyze the results?
independentsamples ttest 

bivariate regression analysis 

oneway ANOVA 

twoway ANOVA 
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