MANA 5320 University of Texas at Tyler Organizational Behavior Questions

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

Study guide for test 1 MANA 5320

Critical Thinking

  • A.Identify and discuss each element of the critical thinking model discussed in class.

B.Discuss the question of a federally mandated minimum wage using all elements of the critical thinking model.

2. A.Identify and discuss each element of the critical thinking model discussed in class.

B.Discuss the usefulness of affirmative actions as a means to foster opportunity for selected groups using all elements of the critical thinking model.

3. A.Identify and discuss each element of the critical thinking model discussed in class.

B.Discuss the question of the use of stereotyping using all elements of the critical thinking model.

Motivation and Reward

4. What are the major dimensions of behaviorist and cognitive theories of motivation?

5. Would a very strong need for achievement ever be dysfunctional for a manager's performance?

Expectancy Theory

6. Organizational behaviorists often debate the issue of increasing employee motivation by altering job content versus job context.

a. Explain the job content versus job controversy to motivation.

B Identify several motivational theories which support each position.

c. Which position do you support and why?


7. A number of problems plague organizational reward systems.One problem is the over reliance on systems rewards at the expense of individual rewards.Another is the failure of systems rewards to motivate even membership.Yet another problem is the limited number of individual rewards available and the failure of these limited numbers to be effective in motivating performance.

a. Explain the concepts of systems rewards and individual rewards.Give examples of each.

b. Using the examples in part a, explain why the systems rewards often fail to motivate membership and suggest possible solutions that may increase their impact on membership motivations.

c. Why have organizations increased their use of systems rewards within organization over the last fifty years.

8. It was suggested in class that Expectancy Theory of Motivation is not in conflict with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory or Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation but "adds a new and valuable dimension".In essence, compare and contrast.

9. Herzberg's Two Factor theory has been described as a limited motivational theory which tends to be culturally bound and more descriptive than prescriptive.

a. Identify and explain all parts of Herzberg's Two Factor theory.

b. Compare and contrast Herzberg's Two Factor Theory with operant conditioning and explain why the operant model is a more general and prescriptive theory.

10.Identify and explain David McClelland’s Need Theory?

11. Coach Paul Wyczawski says his team is not motivated like it should be, and he does not understand why.He has hired you as a consultant to diagnose the nature of the team's motivational problems.Coach Wyczawski asked you to approach this job within the context of Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation.What all would you do to arrive at the diagnosis?(Please underline the key words in your answer to facilitate readability.)

12.a. Using your knowledge of the expectancy theory of motivation, identify the necessary conditions for money to motivate performance.

b. Salary as used in many organizations often fails to motivate greater performance.Explain and be specific in your answer.

13. Relate performance appraisal to the expectancy theory of motivation by explaining the impact of performance appraisal on EI, EII, and preference if any.(In your answer please define EI, EII, and preference.)

14. Identify the concept of individual rewards and systems rewards and explain their impact on motivation.

15. Identify the limitations or problems associated with the expectancy model of motivation.

16. Define the following concepts as they relate to your behavior and expectations in this course:

a. Effort

b. Performance

c. Outcome

In addition, define the following:

a. EI

b. EII

c. Net preference

17. Using Herzberg's article, "Motivation-Hygiene Profiles," explain how these profiles can be used in conjunction with expectancy theory to increase employee motivation.In your answer briefly describe Herzberg's Two Factor Theory.

18. Ralph has a not-so-good background in mathematics.His high school teachers were not strong, and Ralph did not really put much into his math subjects.His aptitude tests almost always suggest he is better in non-math related areas.When he came to USM as a freshman, Ralph put off taking any math in his first year and made B's and C's in all of his courses.But in the fall of his sophomore year, he registered for finite math.To encourage his son to do well in finite, Ralph's dad told him he would pay for a 3-day skiing trip to Colorado in December if he made a B or better.Ralph said he would enjoy such a trip, but he actually was not all that enthusiastic about it.But one thing he knows for sure, his father is a man of his word.

Use expectancy theory as your frame of reference.

a. What is Ralph's probable level of motivation in the finite math course when the semester started?

b. What are all the reasons why his motivation is at the level you indicated in part a?

c. What all could be done (be specific) to raise Ralph's motivation to a higher level?

d. Of the suggestions you made in part c, which one do you believe would have the greatest impact?

19. Discuss and identify the uses of the following diagnostic techniques for identifying EII problems.Define EII in your answer.

a. Communication

b. Organizational analysis

c. Managerial analysis

20. Using the expectancy theory of motivation, diagnose your own level of motivation in this course by answering the following questions.(Unless you have perfect scores on all the quizzes you have a motivation level of less than 1.)

a. What is your probable level of motivation in this course?

b. What are all the reasons why your motivation is at the level you indicate in part a?

c. What could be done (be specific) to raise your motivation to a higher level?Give all of them.

d. Of the suggestions you made in part c, which one do you believe would have the greatest impact?

21.a.Using the expectancy theory of motivation, what is effort, performance, and outcomes in this course?

b. Using the expectancy theory of motivation, briefly define the following concepts:EI, EII, and net preference.

c. What is your level of motivation in this course?Discuss why your level of motivation is at this level.

22.A friend approaches you about a problem employee where he works.Your friend explains that the problem employee has a bad attitude.Convince your friend that he should be concerned about the problem employee's behavior and not his attitude.(In essence, give as many reasons as possible to explain why the emphasis should be on behavior as opposed to attitude.)

23. One of your colleagues at work has come to you.He said he has been "accused" twice in the past week of being a poor listener.He asks you what a person can do to be a better listener.Tell him seven ways to improve.

24. You have been approached by the owner, big boss, or head honcho of an organization where you currently work or have worked and he or she wants to learn about organizational culture. Specifically:

A. Explain the following concepts:organizational culture, public knowledge, private knowledge and rule governed behavior.

B. Identify and explain key roles in the transmittal of organizational culture.

C. Using material from part A and B as well as your knowledge of formal organizational rewards and other knowledge you may have, develop a model for altering the culture of the organization referred to inthe original question.

25. Organizational culture is receiving increasing attention in the literature.

  • Identify the concept of organizational culture.In short, what is it and why is it important?

b. Identify the concepts of public knowledge and private knowledge.

  • Discuss how rule governed behavior is disseminated within an organization with special attention being given to specific roles such as storytellers, heroes, etc.

d. Develop a paradigm for management to change the culture or influence control over the culture.

26. It has been suggested in class that the annual merit pay increases do not motivate greater levels of performance but are important in terms of equity.

a. Identify and explain Adam's Theory of Inequity.

b. Explain the concept of pay equity.

c. Explain why the annual merit pay increase is unlikely to motivate greater levels of performance even when based on actual performance levels.

27. In the article, "Pay Secrecy the Boomerang Effect," it was suggested that pay secrecy may be harmful to employee productivity

A. Briefly explain the following theories:

1.Festinger's Social Comparison Theory

2.Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory

3.Adam's Theory of Inequity

B.In a broader context then pay secrecy, how are these

theories relevant to management?


28. A number of problems plague organizational reward systems.One problem is the over reliance on systems rewards at the expense of individual rewards.Another is the failure of systems rewards to motivate membership.Yet, another problem is the limited number of individual rewards available and the failure of these to be effective in motivating performance.

a. Explain the concepts of systems rewards and individual rewards.Give examples of each.

b. Using the examples in part a, explain why the systems rewards often fail to motivate membership and suggest possible solutions that may increase their impact on membership motivation.

c. Organizations have increasingly relied on systems rewards at the expense of individual rewards over the last 50 years.What factors would account for this trend.

29. You have been approached by a top executive who wants to know the motivational impact of annual merit pay increases. Include in your answer references to the expectancy theory of motivation, reinforcement schedules, organizational culture and Adam's theory of equity.

30. The use of punishment and discipline are a real part of organization life and "there is considerable evidence that punishment can be an effective tool under certain conditions".Identify the condition that can help punishment be an effective means of altering behavior and include a brief discussion of that "Hot Stove Rule."

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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Surname 1
Name
Course
Instructor
Date
Organizational behavior
1. A. Identify and discuss each element of the critical thinking model discussed in class.
Question/Reflection - determines the exact issue that needs solving.
Purpose - includes the goals and objectives of a given thought.
Information - includes the facts surrounding the issue.
Creativity - refers to the speaker’s perspective and selection of options.
Interpretation/ analysis - looks at the method used to get the solutions and an analysis of the
raised ideas (Elder and Paul, 46)
Concepts and theories - are the principles and laws involved in solving the issue.
Implications - includes the consequences of the final decision.

B. Discuss the question of a federally mandated minimum wage using all elements of
the critical thinking model.
A federally mandated minimum wage is the smallest salary that employers are allowed to
give their employees.
Question/reflection - was what should be the smallest wage and whether employees
would be accountable enough.
Purpose explains the importance of protecting employees and employers against
exploitation.
Information includes the facts of the issue, including the income of the business.
Creativity refers to the speaker’s perspective, which was the government as the sole
policymaker.

Surname 2
Interpretation and analysis look at the method used to get the solutions, including an
economic analysis of business incomes.
Concepts are the methodology used to determine the minimum wages.
Implications include whether the business will survive after paying the minimum wage.

2. Discuss the usefulness of affirmative actions to foster opportunity for selected
groups using all elements of the critical thinking model.
An affirmative action is an act of eliminating underrepresentation by using an individual's race,
color, religion, sex, and nationality.
Question and Reflection – whether all populations are equally represented in all economic fields.
Purpose – there is a relevance in coming up with ways to create equality for all ethnic groups and
races.
Information – the fact is that equality eliminates issues like racism.
Creativity – everyone believes they are entitled to a good life by being given equal opportunities.
Interpretation and analysis – the solution will be attained by an intensive analysis of an
individual’s background.
Concepts and theories – humanity needs to apply the fundamental rule of equality in all
interactions to create a social balance among groups.
Implications – the result is that issues like racism will be eliminated and enhancement of
workplace diversity.

3. Discuss the question of the use of stereotyping using all elements of the critical
thinking model.
Question/Reflection – the existence of stereotyping as a problem among individuals
Purpose – does stereotyping perform any purpose in our interactions, and what are its extremely
negative consequences?
Information - includes the facts surrounding the issue is that stereotyping exists and has been
used to undermine other people hence causing an imbalance in society.

Surname 3
Creativity – stereotyping usually includes assumptions that that may be untrue or partially true,
which creates a wrong image of a person or something.
Interpretation/ analysis – stereotyping leads to prejudice and other unfair outcomes.
Concepts and theories – the social learning theory helps understand why people come up with
assumptions about things and events that they cannot access direct information about.
Implications – the consequence of the need to eliminate stereotyping is that people will have to
abandon the wrong assumptions.

Motivation and Reward
4. What are the major dimensions of behaviorist and cognitive theories of motivation?
All theories of motivation work towards psychological manipulating an individual for the
best outcome and the desired result. Both behaviorist and cognitive theories include
studying a group of people and inducing aspects of change. Behavior theories intend to
influence how a person acts while cognitive theories manipulate their attitudes, beliefs,
knowledge, and thoughts.
5. Would a very strong need for achievement ever be dysfunctional for a manager's
performance?
A manager can affect their performance because of an extreme desire for achievement.
This is usually common for those looking for their popularity and the fulfillment of goals
credited to them. While some managers might seek achievement for the business’
success, others are interested in power and self-glorification and might use the wrong
means of attaining short-term success.
Expectancy Theory
6. Organizational behaviorists often debate the issue of increasing employee
motivation by altering job content versus job context.
a. Explain the job content versus job controversy to motivation
Job content includes the specific activities that the employee will be involved in. These
are particular elements that can be named and explained during the hiring process. Job
controversy is a set of complex activities with distinct elements that introduce debatable
possibilities. It includes the conditions that job demands and are subject to a debatable
approach.

Surname 4
b. Identify several motivational theories that support each position.
Maslows theory of the hierarchy of needs states that the employee gets motivated when
their needs are met, which can be achieved through detailed job content. Vroom's theory
of expectancy supports the job context approach, where people are likely to be highly
productive when they know that their efforts will lead to success and that they will be
rewarded for their success.
c. Which position do you support, and why?
I support job context as a method of motivation because of the clarity in terms of conditions.
It is most helpful for the employees working under unions because everything is clarified in
their contract. The job context is more flexible because the various working conditions can
be used as motivation factors. However, flexibility might not be favorable for the employee.
7. A number of problems plague organizational reward systems. One problem is the
over-reliance on systems rewards at the expense of individual rewards. ...


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