BYU Idaho Self-Efficacy Theory on Work Motivation Essay

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Running head: SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 1 Self-Efficacy Theory on Work Motivation Name Institution SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 2 Self-Efficacy Theory on Work Motivation Problem Statement Research on self-efficacy has largely focused on academic performance while minimally looking at effect of the theory on work motivation (Çetin and Aşkun, 2018; Touré‐Tillery & Fishbach, 2014). This creates a gap in the current literature regarding the effect of self-efficacy as a promoter of work motivation in behavioral change. Work motivation research has shown that self-efficacy is correlated with high motivation for work (Peterson, 2020). The attenuated differences among workers, however, depend on the context in which the workers operate. Similarly, Çetin and Aşkun (2018) researched connection between self-efficacy and work performance, including intrinsic motivation as a mediator. However, suggestions for further research in these studies show the need for identification of the value of self-efficacy in behavior change. While research on self-efficacy effects on performance has been conducted, its’ effectiveness on behavior change has not been adequately studied hence leaving a gap in the literature. Many managers and leaders work to change the attitudes and approaches of their workers towards better performance. Current literature fails to adequately study whether the selfefficacy theory can be used in creating extrinsic motivation for staff for behavioral change. This research identifies the apparent gap in the literature and seeks to fill it through mixed-methods study of the theory’s effectiveness. Purpose Statement The purpose of this study is to explore the connection between self-efficacy and motivation for behavioral change in organizational settings. The research paradigm will be a mixed method SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 3 approach employing quasi-experimental and observational designs to determine the effects of self-efficacy on behavioral change and the mediating role of motivation. Research Questions 1. How does self-efficacy theory explain work motivation as a promoter for behavioral change? 2. What is the effects of self-efficacy on behavioral change? 3. Does extrinsic motivation mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral change? Several constructs may be measured in connection to the three research questions. In question 1, work motivation is a major construct to be measured. In measuring work motivation, cognitive and affective measures may be used. For instance, goal activation can be measured using an individual’s ability to remember, recall, and recognize concepts and objects connected to a specific goal (Touré‐Tillery & Fishbach, 2014). Such cognitive tests can be used to determine the level of motivation a person has towards their job and work performance. It is important to measure motivation in all three research questions to quantify it in determining its mediating role between self-efficacy and behavioral change. Behavior change is another construct which should be measured when exploring the research questions. Behavior change can be measured using observable behaviors and tracking them over time. For example, employee reporting time to work may change over time hence creating measurable behavior change trends. Similarly, self-efficacy can be measured as the independent variable. Scales and questionnaires may be used in measuring the construct. For instance, the Strengths Self-Efficacy Scale (SSES) by Tsai et al. (2014) is a peer-reviewed scale SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 4 for measuring self-efficacy in day to day activities. These questionnaires are important for standardizing behavior and assessing self-efficacy as a construct. Hypotheses The research problem is determining the mediating effect of motivation in using self-efficacy to promote behavioral change in an organizational work environment. 1. How does self-efficacy theory explain work motivation as a promoter for behavioral change? Hypothesis: Self-efficacy can be increased through extrinsic motivation resulting in a positive behavioral change. Extrinsic motivation is a covariate variable affecting self-efficacy and leading to behavioral change. 2. What is the effects of self-efficacy on behavioral change? Null hypothesis H0: Self-efficacy has no significant correlation with behavioral change among workers Alternative hypothesis Ha: Self-efficacy has a positive correlation with behavioral change among workers 3. Does extrinsic motivation mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and behavioral change? Null hypothesis H0: Extrinsic motivation has no significant effects on the correlation between self-efficacy and behavioral change among workers Alternative hypothesis Ha: Extrinsic motivation has a significant positive effect on the correlation between self-efficacy and behavioral change among workers SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 5 SELF-EFFICACY THEORY 6 References Çetin, F., & Aşkun, D. (2018). The effect of occupational self-efficacy on work performance through intrinsic work motivation. Management Research Review, 41(2), 186-201. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-03-2017-0062 Peterson, R. A. (2020). Self-efficacy and personal selling: review and examination with an emphasis on sales performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 40(1), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2019.1654390 Touré‐Tillery, M., & Fishbach, A. (2014). How to measure motivation: A guide for the experimental social psychologist. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(7), 328341. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12110 Tsai, C. L., Chaichanasakul, A., Zhao, R., Flores, L. Y., & Lopez, S. J. (2014). Development and validation of the strengths self-efficacy scale (SSES). Journal of Career Assessment, 22(2), 221-232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072713493761 Method Section write the “Method Section” of your paper. Consider research methodologies and designs appropriate to solve your research problem. Then decide which research paradigm, i.e., qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methodology, you plan to use in your study. In addition, describe your strategies for data collection and analysis. Below are key areas you need to address to complete the Methods Section. Participants (1–2 pages) ● Population o Define the population. o State criteria for selecting participants. o State population size (if known) or approximate/estimated size. ● Sample and Sampling Procedures o Identify and justify the type of sampling strategy. o Explain specific procedures for how the sample will be drawn. ▪ Sampling frame (Inclusion and exclusion criteria) o Use a power analysis to determine sample size and include: ▪ Justification for the effect size, alpha level, and power level chosen ▪ Citation of the source of calculation or the tool used to calculate sample size Procedures (1–2 pages) ● Procedures For Recruitment, Participation, and Data Collection (students collecting their own data) o Thoroughly describe recruiting procedures and particular demographic information that will be collected. o Describe how participants will be provided informed consent. o Describe how data are collected. o Explain how participants exit the study (for example, debriefing procedures, etc.). o Describe any follow-up procedures (such as requirements to return for follow-up interviews, treatments, etc.). ● Procedures For Recruitment, Participation, and Data Collection (students using archival data) o Include all procedures for recruitment, participation, and/or data collection associated with the main study. o Describe the bounds of the data to be extracted (e.g., records from 2005-2008). o Describe the procedure for gaining access to the data. o Describe necessary permissions to gain access to the data (with permission letters located in the IRB application). Measures/Instrumentation (2–3 pages) ● Instrumentation and Operationalization of Constructs o Identify each data collection instrument and source (published or researcher produced) o For published instruments provide: ▪ Name of developer(s) ▪ Appropriateness to the current study ▪ Mention of permission from developer to use which permission letter included in the appendix ▪ Published reliability and validity values relevant to their use in the study ▪ Where/with what populations used previously and how validity/reliability are/were established in the study sample o For researcher-developed instruments provide: ▪ Basis for development ● Literature sources ● Other bases (such as pilot study) ● Evidence of reliability (internal consistency, test-retest, etc.) ● Evidence of construct validity ▪ Establish sufficiency of instrumentation to answer research questions o For studies involving an intervention or the manipulation of the IV: ▪ Identify materials/programs applied as treatment or manipulation. ▪ Provide information on the developer of the materials/programs/manipulations. ● If published, state where, how, and with what populations used previously ● If researcher developed, state basis for development and how developed. ▪ Provide evidence that another agency will sponsor intervention studies (such as clinical interventions). o Operationalization: For each variable describe: ▪ Its operational definition ▪ How each variable is measured or manipulated ▪ How the variable/scale score is calculated and what the scores represent Data Analysis Plan (1–2 pages) o Identify software used for analyses. o Provide explanation of data cleaning and screening procedures as appropriate to the study. o Restate the research questions and hypotheses here as written in Chapter 1. o Describe in detail the analysis plan including the elements below including: ▪ Statistical tests that will be used to test the hypothesis ▪ Rationale for inclusion of potential covariates / confounding variables ▪ How results will be interpreted (key parameter estimates, confidence intervals/probability values, odds ratios, etc.) Running head: Background 1 Introduction Work motivation is a critical factor determining employee willingness to cultivate their efforts toward achieving organizational and individual professional goals. Motivated employees tend to find satisfaction in their jobs, and in return, give their best in accomplishing organizational goals. For decades, psychologists have been studying motivation theories and coming up with different models that can be used to understand work motivation (Badubi, 2017). While this project aims to develop background information on the self-efficacy theory of work motivation, it is essential to look at other relevant theories that apply to work motivation and how they either supplement or complement each other. It is worth noting that several motivational theories can be used to work motivation. However, this section will look at some of the standard and widespread theories. Some of the theories include Hertzberg's two-factor theory, the Hawthorne effect, the three-dimensional theory of attribution, and the Porter-Lawler model. The two-factor theory explains that employees are motivated to perform better when the incentives like achievement, recognition, the job itself, responsibility, and advancement led to job satisfaction (Badubi, 2017). Hertzberg proposed this theory after conducting a study on 200 accountants and 50 engineers about what makes an individual happy (Alshmemri, 2017). The three-dimensional attribution theory by Bernard Weiner assumes that individuals attempt to attach reasons to how other people act, which in turn affects their behaviors in the future (M. Badubi, 2017). On the other hand, the Hawthorne theory, first described by Henry a. Landsberger in 1950, shows that when employees perceive a certain level of attention directed towards them, then they become motivated and perform better. Lastly, the PorterLawler model is a comprehensive and more complete motivation theory, inclusive of diverse aspects (M. Badubi, 2017). Hence, it is notable that the factors or situations that can either impede or facilitate work motivation are several. Each of them focuses on either a single Background 2 aspect or a wide array of issues. However, self-efficacy theory, which can be defined as a person's trust in their ability to show behaviors needed to attain explicit performance accomplishments, focuses more on individual-based factors than physical characteristics, as is familiar with most theories. The proposed study's main objective is to provide a clear understanding of the self-efficacy theory and how it works as a work motivation factor in facilitating behavior change through literature review. This theory is significant within the workplace setting because it can be activated by factors such as word of mouth to achieve specific outcomes. Zeigler-hill and Shackelford (2020) define self-efficacy as one of the most common and often researched cognitive theories of motivation. Since this study's main objective is to provide a clear understanding of the self-efficacy theory and how it works as a work motivation factor in facilitating behavior change, it is essential to understand the fundamental features. The authors argued that the two critical components of behavior are anticipated selfefficacy and expectancies-perceived positive and negative consequences. They claimed that the self-efficacy theory provides a comprehensive basis, which can partially house the impacts of self-talk on performance and provide a basis for motivating employees to achieve the best for themselves and the company. The study on the direct and indirect relationship between job satisfaction, productivity, and overall work motivation has been well documented. Chan et al. (2015) studied the mediating role of self-efficacy and work-life balance of job and family satisfaction. Through empirical analysis of 12-month apart data collection from a heterogeneous sample of Australian employees, the employees found that self-efficacy had an indirect impact on employee motivation. Based on the study outcomes, job satisfaction had a positive relationship with motivation by promoting the work-life balance-a flexible way of balancing between work and life, commonly used as a motivational mechanism. This is an Background 3 indication of the significance of self-efficacy on achieving productivity and enhanced job satisfaction. Self-efficacy can be applied in the learning institution to determine what makes students perform better in technical sources like information technology. The basis for such studies is to determine the overall impact of this motivation theory across several frameworks, upon which similar findings can be translated into human resource contexts to formulate strategies for successful task performance and job satisfaction. Hatlevik, Throndsen, Loi, and Gudmundsdottir (2018) conducted a study to determine how selfefficacy can be contextualized with information and communication technology in 15 countries, using data from the international computer and information literacy study 2013. Based on the study outcomes, the authors established a clear positive relationship between computer literacy and self-efficacy when variables such as gender-based issues and socioeconomic factors are controlled. Such findings are in line with those of Ireland, c. (2016). The latter reported on the significance of self-efficacy in reducing oral presentation apprehension in public speaking among students. The author noted that "focuses on the development of self-efficacy, which has been identified to be a key area for reducing oral communication apprehension in public speaking contexts" (1474). The study's contextualization provides a basis that can be used in the application of self-efficacy theory in work motivation; after all, learning is a form of work that requires the motivation to achieve success. When compared with other theoretical models of motivation, self-efficacy is associated with success, not only in the context of work motivation but coming back from success. Hsu, Wiklund, and Cotton (2017) conducted an empirical assessment to determine the conflicting predictions of self-efficacy and prospect theory in the context of success and failure for failed entrepreneurial attempts. The evaluation's basis was to determine the Background 4 motivational incentives that promote successful or failed reentry into a market where one had failed before. The study outcomes indicated that "prospect theory explains reentry intentions of entrepreneurs who have lost money when their self–efficacy is moderate or low." However, the study results were based on only two empirical research outcomes, which is a relatively smaller sample size to determine the validity and generalizability of the study conclusions. Similar to the findings of Hsu, Wiklund, and Cotton (2017), other studies have compared self-efficacy theory and its significance as physical activity (pa) behavior. In research that involved comparing between personal activity and self-efficacy models, (Lewis, Williams, Frayeh & Marcus, 2015) shown that enjoyment seeking attributes overcame the need for achieving self-efficacy in physical activity performances and that the focus for interventions should be on promoting or strengthening perceived enjoyment, rather than the self-efficacy aspect of the motivational approach. However, the scholars noted a gap in understanding the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment and their overall effect on physical activity, leaving a window for further studies. The implications of such studies on self-efficacy and physical activity as a motivational factor can be related to the findings of Romain and Bernard (2018). The duo reported on the significance of psychological, motivational interventions to promote physical activity among mentally ill patients. Through self-efficacy, the patients see the value for being active participants, dive into the activities, and use their perceived ability as the driving force towards long-term success. Hence, both findings on the effects of pa seem to contradict each other, but show the potential for the theory on work motivation. Ozyilmaz, Erdogan, and Karaeminogullari (2017) looked at the link between individual's trust with oneself abilities, or self-efficacy, have a significant relationship with the trust on the organizational process, and creates an overall effect on behavioral attitude on Background 5 their respective tasks, with positive relations leading to better outcomes. In other words, high trust in organization buffers the impacts self‐efficacy has on intentions to terminate their employment. Hence, as the authors put it, the findings show that "the motivational value of trust in oneself is stronger to the degree to which employees also have high trust in the system, whereas low trust in the system neutralizes the motivational benefits of self‐efficacy" (p. 181). Motivation is an outcome of confidence in one's ability to succeed in any activity. This is the conclusion of a study to investigate self-efficacy's role in performance (Stankov, Kleitman & Jackson, 2015). The trio argues that the trait of confidence has a high correlation with self-efficacy, citing the relationship between the two and how each impacts each other. In contrast, confidence has high validity in their predictive abilities. Self-efficacy tends to lag in that power. Specifically, they argue that while self-efficacy is domain-oriented, confidence is comprehensive and cuts across several domains. Regardless, they conclude that while the two might have distinctions based on factors such as predictive power, broadness, and practical functionality, the two are in some aspects related, especially in terms of motivational applicability. People who believe that they can do specific tasks are said to have a strong efficacy, similar to those who believe in achieving positive outcomes from executing the task. Physical actions are a response to the processes that take place in the human brain. An individual can perform an act if the biological response is favorable to the brain nerve cell simulations. This forms the basis for the definition of allostatic self-efficacy, which is a metacognitive layer that updates beliefs about the brain's capacity to successfully regulate bodily states (Stephan et al., 2016). The authors performed an in-depth analysis of allostatic self-efficacy, which is arguably the foundations for the neurological processes behind the perceived ability to execute responsibilities. The study findings indicate an opportunity for Background 6 understanding depression and fatigue, factors that are associated with situations that demoralize an individual to perform specific tasks. Applying the self-efficacy successfully in the workplace as a motivational approach to increase productivity requires understanding how to disentangle motivation from selfefficacy. Most of the studies that have been reviewed in this section seem to focus on the overall implications of self-efficacy without going deep into how it helps achieve motivation. In disentangling motivation from self-efficacy: implications for measurement, theorydevelopment, and intervention, Stephan et al. (2016) provide something unique: the approach that can be used to harness motivation from self-efficacy. This is significant because while some people can understand self-efficacy literally and accept that they can perform some activities, they may lack the ability to do so due to lack of capabilities such as physical strength or intellectual capacity, and may require a different approach and motivation. A social cognitive theory of self-regulation encompasses another central mechanism of self-directedness that exerts a substantial impact on human thought, affect, motivation, and action. This is the self-efficacy mechanism, which plays a central role in the exercise of personal agency. It is a crucial factor in self-regulation and a driver for causal processes. Selfregulation plays a critical role in behavioral activities' motivation apart from forming the basis for purposeful behaviors. These are some of the main arguments that form the foundation of a study by Usher and Schunk (2018) in the social cognitive theoretical perspective of self-regulation. Self-efficacy is among the social cognitive theories that explain human behavior and self-regulation. The integration of technology in the teaching platform can be of significance in helping employees improve their self-efficacy, motivating them to work towards reaching the organizations' objectives as they strengthen their professional abilities. This in line with the Background 7 arguments of (Mertasari & Candiasa, 2019). Using the case of mathematics teachers in the education sectors, the authors found that including the teachers in the teaching community's online platform increases their self-efficacy, which translates into a motivated workforce to deliver their best. Technology opens up new learning opportunities and helps the workforce gain an information-based experience in what they do, allowing them to focus on maximizing their outputs (Getachew & Birhane, 2016). Hence, it applies across both workers and employees and has an overall effect on organizational performance. As a model for work motivation, self-efficacy theory is attached to its ability to modify and facilitate job satisfaction, organizational perception, and task execution. These are the conclusions of (Machmud, 2018) in the influence of self-efficacy on satisfaction and work-related performance. The study's primary arguments were that self-efficacy, through high job satisfaction and positive attitudes towards organizational processes, help improve performance. Based on a survey-based data collection and a structural equation-based data analysis using the SmartPLS 3 program, the author found that "self-efficacy improves the employee's perceptions regarding relationships with work and satisfaction in work," which enables them to work towards accomplishing the long-term organizational goals. In almost all of the above articles, the significance of self-efficacy at work has been based on the cognitive and task-based dimensions. Loeb (2016) took a different approach towards explaining the implications of self-efficacy on work outcomes. The author looked at the social and emotional dimensions, alongside the cognitive context. Expanding on the other two dimensions, Loeb notes, will expand existing research on the implications of selfefficacy as a work motivation tool that can be used to achieve both short-term and long-term success. Background 8 Intrinsic motivation is the belief that to perform a particular task, one must be motivated. This belief is the foundation of the self-efficacy theory. Understanding this notion, Dabas and Pandey (2015) argued that human resources should understand how best to increase employee motivation. The claim that among the factors that determine self-efficacy is the work environment, which also significantly impacts performance, motivation, and productivity. Creating a diverse workplace culture, supporting talent development, and employee development opportunities create a workplace environment that supports selfefficacy, motivating employees to stay and increase their productivity. Self-efficacy is not all about benefiting the organization; it is a tool that can be used to develop talent and accomplish individual goals. Work motivation is not all about increasing productivity but growing career expertise and developing professional abilities. An employee with a high level of self-efficacy is most likely to achieve more than those who lack the confidence in achieving what they want. These are arguments presented by Khalique and Singh (2019). The authors argue that despite performance being at the center of employee motivation through increased self-efficacy, the results do not always need to be traced to the organization's profit margin, public value, or success, but how best the employee meets their individual goals. These goals include decision making and problem-solving skills, team management, and people relations, among other factors. After all, a motivated employee without the best decision-making skill has a limited chance of attaining long-term organizational success. Organizations should differentiate between self-efficacy and self-esteem as these are terms that can be easily confused. However, most importantly, to achieve the best outcomes in employing this theory of motivation, there is a need to identify self-efficacy deficiencies among employees and design the best approaches to cultivate them. Widyawati (2020) supports the strategic employment of measures to improve employees' confidence in Background 9 executing specific tasks for optimal performance. Making self-efficacy development a priority helps nurture each one's confidence, increase employee performance, and improve organizational productivity. Several studies have shown a high potential of achieving high productivity, talent development, employee retention, and overall improved performance through self-efficacy. However, some studies have shown otherwise, with areas of improvement, such as a need for research on the relationship between perceived enjoyment and self-efficacy and their impact on motivation to work harder on achieving the best outcomes in PA. Studies that have compared self-efficacy theory on motivation with other motivation theories like prospect theory, attributions theory, and several others have shown a mixture of findings, with some contradicting other outcomes. Nonetheless, self-efficacy is a component of each person's existence, although this trait's strength or awareness varies. With the self-efficacy theory, employees and organizations have a great deal of attaining better outcomes in their daily processes and life encounters (Çetin & Aşkun, 2018). It only requires identifying the areas an employee is good at and investing in making the best of it through improved self-efficacy. Conclusion As we begin developing and having different educational encounters, our feeling of self keeps on fortifying itself. Good emotions like self-rule, love, and backing from family, instruction, and consolation go about as impetuses to self-efficacy. An individual with high self-efficacy is bound to feel sure, see disappointments as chances to attempt once more, and an extraordinary group entertainer. Self-efficacy continues developing all through life as we obtain new abilities, have new encounters, face challenges, and continue investing energy to succeed. It is significant for a representative to manufacture a definite feeling of self-efficacy to perform well and adapt to difficulties in the work environment. Background 10 References Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., & Maude, P. (2017). Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5), 12-16. Badubi, R. M. (2017). Theories of motivation and their application in organizations: A risk analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 43-50. https://doi.org/doi: 10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004 Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). Disentangling motivation from self-efficacy: Implications for measurement, theory-development, and intervention. Health Psychology Review, 10(2), 129-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2016.1162666 Çetin, F., & Aşkun, D. (2018). The effect of occupational self-efficacy on work performance through intrinsic work motivation. Management Research Review, 41(2), 186-201. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-03-2017-0062 Chan, X. W., Kalliath, T., Brough, P., Siu, O., O'Driscoll, M. P., & Timms, C. (2016). Work– family enrichment and satisfaction: The mediating role of self-efficacy and work–life balance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(15), 1755-1776. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1075574 Dabas, D., & Pandey, N. (2015). Dabas, D., & Pandey, N. (2015). Role of self efficacy and intrinsic motivation on work place environment. International Journal of Education Background 11 and Psychological Research, 4(1), 51-55. http://ijepr.org/panels/admin/papers/159ij12.pdf Getachew, K., & Birhane, A. (2016). Improving students’ self-efficacy and academic performance in Applied Mathematics through innovative classroom-based strategy at Jimma University, Ethiopia Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 4(1), 119-143. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-4(1)-2016pp119-143 Hatlevik, O. E., Throndsen, I., Loi, M., & Gudmundsdottir, G. B. (2018). Students’ ICT selfefficacy and computer and information literacy: Determinants and relationships. Computers & Education, 118, 107-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.11.011 Klaas, E. S., Zina, M. M., Christoph, D. M., Lilian A.E. Weber, Paliwal, S., Gard, T., Tittgemeyer, M., Stephen, M. F., Haker, H., Anil, K. S., & Frederike, H. P. (2016). Allostatic self-efficacy: A metacognitive theory of dyshomeostasis-induced fatigue and depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00550 Hsu, D., Wiklund, J., & Cotton, R. (2017). Success, failure, and entrepreneurial reentry: An experimental assessment of the veracity of self–efficacy and prospect theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), 19-47. doi: 10.1111/etap.12166 Ireland, C. (2016). Student Oral Presentations: Developing Skills and Reducing the Apprehension. Inted2016 Proceedings, 10(11), 1474–1483. https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2016.1317 Background 12 Khalique., S., & Singh., M.K. (2019). Role of Self Efficacy in Improving Employees Performance. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (Ijert) Ncriets 7 (12) Lewis, B. A., Williams, D. M., Frayeh, A., & Marcus, B. H. (2016). Self-efficacy versus perceived enjoyment as predictors of physical activity behaviour. Psychology & Health, 31(4), 456-469. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2015.1111372 Loeb, C. (2016). Self-Efficacy at Work: Social, Emotional, And Cognitive Dimensions. Mälardalen University Press. Machmud, S. (2018). The influence of self-efficacy on satisfaction and work-related performance. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 4(4), 43-47. doi: 10.18775/ijmsba.1849-5664-5419.2014.44.1005 Mertasari, N., & Candiasa, I. (2020). Improving self-efficacy in the teaching of prospective mathematics teachers by involving them in the online teacher community. Paper presented at the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, , 1516(1) 012038. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1516/1/012038 Mustika, I. N., & Widyawati, S. R. (2020). The influence of employee engagement, self esteem, self-efficacy on employee performance in small business. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 11(04), 21771–21775-21771–21775. Ozyilmaz, A., Erdogan, B., & Karaeminogullari, A. (2018). Trust in organization as a moderator of the relationship between self‐efficacy and workplace outcomes: A social cognitive theory‐based examination. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 181-204. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12189 Background 13 Romain, A. J., & Bernard, P. (2018). Behavioral and psychological approaches in exercisebased interventions in severe mental illness. In B. Stubbs, & S. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Exercise-based interventions for mental illness physical activity as part of clinical treatment (pp. 187-207). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12812605-9.00010-1 Stankov, L., Kleitman, S., & Jackson, S. A. (2015). Measures of the trait of confidence. In G. J. Boyle, D. H. Saklofske & G. Matthews (Eds.), (pp. 158-189). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00007-3 Usher, E. L., & Schunk, D. H. (2018). Social cognitive theoretical perspective of selfregulation. In D. H. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Educational psychology handbook series. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 19–35). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Widyawati, S. (2020). The Influence of Employee Engagement, Self Esteem, Self-Efficacy on Employee Performance in Small Business. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 11(04). doi: 10.15520/ijcrr.v11i04.799 Zeigler-Hill, V., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2020). Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Self-Efficacy Theory, 56–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3319-28099-8 Running head: Introduction 1 Introduction: Self-efficacy theory Some of the factors that limit people from achieving their goals, objectives, or responsibilities; both professional and personal lack of trust in one's ability. They lack the motivation to go beyond their doubts towards achieving the required or expected goals. However, with good self-esteem and believe that they can do so, individuals have been found to have a high potential of achieving more outstanding outcomes. One of the theories used to explain the possibility or the potentiality of an individual to achieve more remarkable results is the self-efficacy theory. Self-efficacy can be defined as a person’s trust in their ability to show behaviors needed to attain explicit performance accomplishments. The proposed study's main objective is to provide a clear understanding of the selfefficacy theory and how it works as a work motivation factor in facilitating behavior change. Self-efficacy theory is a part of Bandura's (1997) social cognitive theory. The two critical features of behavior are anticipated self-efficacy and expectancies-perceived positive and negative consequences. This theory is significant within the workplace setting because it can be activated by factors such as word of mouth to achieve specific outcomes. Hence, the selection of this topic relies on two primary factors. First, this theory has been central in the context of human motivation and can easily be applied across several workplace settings based on this feature. Secondly, the self-efficacy theory provides a comprehensive basis, which can partially house the impacts of self-talk on performance. Although verbal persuasion impacts are limited in promoting productivity on performance, Bandura and others have noted its significance as a self-efficacy source. Introduction 2 Reference Section Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). Disentangling motivation from self-efficacy: implications for measurement, theory-development, and intervention. Health Psychology Review, 10(2), 129–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2016.1162666 Çetin, F., & Aşkun, D. (2018). The effect of occupational self-efficacy on work performance through intrinsic work motivation. Management Research Review, 41(2), 186-201. doi: 10.1108/mrr-03-2017-0062 Chan, X. W., Kalliath, T., Brough, P., Siu, O.-L., O'Driscoll, M. P., & Timms, C. (2015). Work-family enrichment and satisfaction: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work-life balance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(15), 1755–1776. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1075574 Dabas, D., & Pandey, N. (2015). Role of Self Efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation on Work Place Environment. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR), 4(1), 52-55. Retrieved from http://ijepr.org/panels/admin/papers/159ij12.pdf Getachew, K., & Birhane, A. (2016). Improving students’ self-efficacy and academic performance in Applied Mathematics through innovative classroom-based strategy at Jimma University, Ethiopia. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 4(1), 119. doi: 10.18543/tjhe-4(1)-2016pp119-143 Hatlevik, O., Throndsen, I., Loi, M., & Gudmundsdottir, G. (2018). Students’ ICT selfefficacy and computer and information literacy: Determinants and relationships. Computers & Education, 118, 107-119. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.11.011 Introduction 3 Hsu, D., Wiklund, J., & Cotton, R. (2017). Success, Failure, and Entrepreneurial Reentry: An Experimental Assessment of the Veracity of Self–Efficacy and Prospect Theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), 19-47. doi: 10.1111/etap.12166 Ireland, C. (2016). Student Oral Presentations: Developing the Skills and Reducing the Apprehension. Inted2016 Proceedings, 10(11), 1474–1483. https://doi.org/10.21125/inted.2016.1317 Khalique., S., & Singh., M.K. (2019). Role of Self Efficacy in Improving Employees Performance. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (Ijert) Ncriets 7 (12) Lewis, B., Williams, D., Frayeh, A., & Marcus, B. (2015). Self-efficacy versus perceived enjoyment as predictors of physical activity behaviour. Psychology & Health, 31(4), 456-469. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1111372 Loeb, C. (2016). Self-Efficacy at Work: Social, Emotional, And Cognitive Dimensions. Mälardalen University Press. M. Badubi, R. (2017). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51. doi: 10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004 Machmud, S. (2018). The Influence of Self-Efficacy on Satisfaction and Work-Related Performance. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 4(4), 43-47. doi: 10.18775/ijmsba.1849-5664-5419.2014.44.1005 Introduction 4 Mertasari, N., & Candiasa, I. (2020). Improving self-efficacy in the teaching of prospective mathematics teachers by involving them in the online teacher community. Journal Of Physics: Conference Series, 1516, 012038. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1516/1/012038 Ozyilmaz, A., Erdogan, B., & Karaeminogullari, A. (2017). Trust in organization as a moderator of the relationship between self-efficacy and workplace outcomes: A social cognitive theory-based examination. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 91(1), 181–204. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12189 Romain, A., & Bernard, P. (2018). Behavioral and Psychological Approaches in ExerciseBased Interventions in Severe Mental Illness. Exercise-Based Interventions for Mental Illness, 187-207. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-812605-9.00010-1 Stankov, L., Kleitman, S., & Jackson, S. A. (2015). Measures of the Trait of Confidence. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs, 158–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-386915-9.00007-3 Stephan, K., Manjaly, Z., Mathys, C., Weber, L., Paliwal, S., & Gard, T. et al. (2016). Allostatic Self-efficacy: A Metacognitive Theory of Dyshomeostasis-Induced Fatigue and Depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00550 Usher, E. L., & Schunk, D. H. (2018). Social cognitive theoretical perspective of selfregulation. In D. H. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Educational psychology handbook series. Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (p. 19–35). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Widyawati, S. (2020). The Influence of Employee Engagement, Self Esteem, Self-Efficacy on Employee Performance in Small Business. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, 11(04). doi: 10.15520/ijcrr.v11i04.799 Introduction 5 Zeigler-Hill, V., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2020). Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Self-Efficacy Theory, 56–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3319-28099-8 Literature Search Strategy The procedure for locating the identified peer-reviewed articles in the Reference Section involved two main steps. First, I developed a research question that would guide me through identifying most of the articles. The research question was: How does self-efficacy theory explain work motivation as a promoter for behavioural change? Using a "research question that corresponds with the purpose of your research ... to go to get the information needed to complete their paper rather than using sources available" is an effective way of conducting literature search ("Topic, Research Purpose and Research Question", 2018, p. 34). The research question helped identify articles in databases such as SAGE, Library databases, ProQuest, and PwC research. Secondly, the procedure was based on the use of keywords, phrases, and truncated themes: work motivation, behavioural changes, self-efficacy, selfefficacy theory. Using Google Scholar, these keywords and phrases helped capture peerreviewed articles from both narrowed and broad topics. Introduction 6 References Bandura, Albert (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman, p. 604, Topic, Research Purpose and Research Question. (2018). Retrieved 18 August 2020, from https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-assets/87236_book_item_87236.pdf
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Running head: SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

1

Self-Efficacy Theory on Work Motivation
Name
Institution

SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

2
Methodology

The population identification criteria will rely on the constructs for measuring in the
study. In this case, the population will consist of workers in the organizational setting. The
workers are form different work places and organizations yet they should have common
characteristics that are of interest to the research. These characteristics are definable as the
particular constructs we wish to measure in this research. The criteria for selection will comprise
of stratified sampling of the workers based on their roles in the organization. More so, the
selection will involve workers in five different organizations in different industries to avoid
biases of data. They should have the possibility to respond to the questionnaires and monitoring
them during work. In this case, the estimated population size is approximately 200 employees.
Stratified sampling will enhance inclusion of the numerical composition of the employees
from all organizations. The workers are first grouped according to the number of years they have
worked in the organization. The next step is using random sampling of 40% employees for each
stratum. The sampling technique will ensure that the research derives appropriate purpose and
value of information from the employees. The sample frame will include an estimate of 500
employees from each organization. The selective organizations are the best performing in each of
the five industries namely; technology, hospitality, financing, logistics and manufacturing.
The study utilizes large sampled population to due to use of huge power statistic and
research design. However, the sample is not outrageously large to avoid resources constraints
such as money and time. The effect size is estimated 200 employees. The research employs an
alpha level smaller than 0.05 to avoid occurrence of error and end up rejecting a null hypothesis.
In this case, the target power level is high above 0.90. The research will use creative research
systems to calculate the sample size.

SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

3

Procedures
The researchers will use third party assistance to approach the population. In this case,
the researcher must approach the managers in each organization and gain the consent to inform
the employees. Second approach includes use of scripted presentation to inform every one of the
research intentions and procedure of data collection. The recruitment will take place in the office
and individually to avoid situational influences. The participants are free from making individual
decisions hence there is no social media platforms involved in the study process.
Questionnaires and Strengths Self-Efficacy Scale are the tools for collecting data on the
various constructs. Further, vital tools include review of the employee past trends and
information such as time to work trend and behavioral change. The managers will provide the
data on past records and employee performance. The participants have the right to exit the study
through informing the researcher. They are not bound to providing the reasons for leaving and
can exit at any time without restrictions. Follow-up procedures include interviews and contact
through email address provided.
The researchers will use standardized data extraction forms to acquire information from
various studies. The studies should have accomplished the time range, peer-reviewed and
relevant to the research question. Other constraints for selection include area of study, study
sector and the variables. The studies for, the databases are in between the year 2016 to 2019.
The first phase of collecting data is selecting the suitable data sources which are SAGE,
Library databases, ProQuest, and PwC research. The second phase is sampling using the main
keywords identified earlier in the research. The researchers will utilize cost-benefit approach
whereby they will avoid restricted and expensive studies. Whenever, permission is mandatory
use of letters in the IRB location will help in acquiring consent.

SELF-EFFICACY THEORY

4

Measures
The data collection instruments for the study are questionnaires, interviews and archival
documents. The questionnaire is researcher produced and consists of selective questions that will
build on constructs. The various sources for the archival documents are SAGE, Library
databases, ProQuest, and PwC research. SAGE is an online platform developed by the SAGE
group plc. and founded by Graham Wylie, David Goldman and Paul Milford Muller. Library
databases are developed by EBSCO and Congregational Library and archives Boston to digitize
research content. ProQuest is a publishing company founded by Eugene Power to constantly
provide applications and products for libraries. PwC research is a company that deals with
research and insights while they publish publications from various researchers online.
The platforms are relevant tot eh study since they publish peer-reviewed studies, articles
and journals. More so, they have adequate resources form a wide range of selection and large
number of studies worldwide. Most researchers appreciate the value of the platforms in securing
their content from copy thefts. They are reliable since they have a wide range of acceptance in
the world and attain academic qualifications.
The basis for the questionnaire includes motivation for the respondents to complete the
various questions. The research finds and utilizes other surveys conducted on the same topic.
These sources will help with identification of the right questions to include ion the questionnaire
and calibration of the length. The...


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