FIR 4311 CSU Fire Prevention Code Enforcement Fire Safety & Protection Essay

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fir 4311

Columbian Southern University



Question 1 (Part 1)

What type of public education initiatives has your organization implemented? Have you seen a positive fire reaction? If your organization has not implemented any, or if you are not in an organization, after reading the resources in this unit, what programs do you feel would have a positive impact if your organization implemented them?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question 1 (Part 2)

For this assignment, you will conduct research to determine the number of fires in your area by occupancy and then develop a report, in essay form, to present to business owners on that occupancy type for prevention purposes. The goal of the report is to educate them on the importance and impact of fire inspections and fire codes to improve compliance and relationships.

In your report, include the following information listed below.

  • Identify      the steps in public fire education planning.
  • Outline      the codes required for fire safety in those buildings in your area.
  • State      the number of violations or fires in similar occupancies.
  • Explain      the behaviors of people during fires that researchers have discovered.
  • Explain      the cost of noncompliance in fires, both economic and social.
  • Outline      a proposed public education initiative to educate the business owners and      political leaders on how to prevent and maintain fire safety in the area.      Ensure that you identify methods to measure the effectiveness of fire and      life safety and public education programs.
  • Explain      to the stakeholder the importance of instilling a positive fire reaction.

Your essay should be two pages in length. This does not include the optional cover page and required references page. Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary. A minimum of two references are required for this assignment.

Question 2 (Part 1)

What professional standards does your organization use for the fire inspectors/fire prevention division? If you do not use national standards, what do you use, and what are the required qualifications? Are they appropriate in your opinion? Why, or why not?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question 2 (Part 2)

Many people do not understand the diversity of the fire inspector position and the training requirements needed to be successful. For this assignment, you will interview an active fire inspector or fire marshal. Ask specific questions about the duties and scope of the fire inspector, what training was needed, daily schedule, most difficult violation to enforce.

Note: Contacts for your local fire department can generally be found via the Internet or on your city’s or town’s government website. Other city public safety organizations frequently communicate so local law enforcement, public health, or the emergency medical services may have the number as well. Additionally, many organizations now have social media accounts of all types.

Prepare a minimum of six questions for this interview. After you conduct your interview, compile your research in an essay that focuses on the need for qualified and certified inspectors. Make sure to include a paragraph about the topics and interviewee, and a bulleted list of questions that were asked along with the interviewee’s responses.

Your report should include the following elements.

  • An      outline of the responsibilities of the fire inspector. Be sure to describe      why it is important to have properly trained fire inspectors.
  • Explain      what professional qualifications and standards are required in their      position and their importance.
  • Compare      and contrast the training and certification from the interview with      national standards.
  • Discuss      the allied organizations with which they work.
  • Summarize      what you learned in your interview.

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UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Fire Prevention Investigation Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 5. Discuss a comprehensive overview of the general fire safety provisions for occupied buildings. 5.1 Explain Model Fire Marshal Law and its connection to fire investigation. 6. Explain the rationale for general fire safety provisions as methods of fire protection. 6.1 Explain an arson investigation. 6.2 Explain the professional certification and training requirements for fire investigators. 9. Discuss the operational procedures for the construction of fire suppression systems. 9.1 Discuss fire suppression systems’ importance to arson. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 5.1, 6.2 6.1, 9.1 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Chapter 10 Unit VII Essay Unit Lesson Chapter 11 Unit VII Essay Required Unit Resources Chapter 10: Fire Prevention Responsibilities of the Public Sector Chapter 11: Fire Prevention Through Arson Suppression Unit Lesson Introduction As this course has progressively discussed the fire prevention division and what it does to reduce the risk of fire in our communities through public education, inspections, code enforcement, and plans review, this unit will now focus on what happens after a fire. Fire prevention responsibilities are all geared toward what fire marshals and inspectors do before the event. The reality is that people make mistakes and accidents happen that start conflagrations; sometimes these tragic events are even started intentionally and require a thorough investigation as to how the fire started and who or what is responsible. In simple terms, we want to find out who, what, where, when, and why. Depending on the nature and size of the incident, the cause and origin of the fire may be investigated and determined by trained and qualified company officers on the scene. Where there is a death, suspected arson, suspicion of wrongdoing, or a large event outside of the scope and capabilities of the officers on the scene, a fire marshal or fire investigator may be needed to conduct the investigation in a systematic way to determine the case and if there are criminal implications. Depending on the jurisdiction and organization, the way in which one investigates fires can vary. In most organizations, the fire investigations are conducted by trained and certified members of the fire prevention division and can be done by a specific investigator or be a duty of the fire marshal or fire inspector. Some organizations also use paid on-call consultants to either conduct or assist in their fire investigations or use the FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 1 state fire marshal’s office for assistance. One unique way is to utilize partnerships yourGUIDE region to UNITacross x STUDY assist. Title In California’s Central Valley, many of the fire departments in the area, metro and rural, participate in a regional Fire Investigator Strike Team (FIST) concept. With this concept, each department in the area donates a certain amount to the team annually. Each member of the FIST maintains a list of available investigators that are on call and available for use if an agency has a need for a fire investigator. If needed, the agency with the incident will notify the communications center and they send a FIST activation request. The first person or agency to respond is assigned and responds to the incident to help the requesting agency. Arson The crime of arson is a national problem in the United States. Here are some statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 2010.       15,475 law enforcement agencies provided 1-12 months of arson data and reported 56,825 arsons. Of the participating agencies, 14,747 provided expanded offense data regarding 48,619 arsons. Arsons involving structures (e.g., residential, storage, public, etc.) accounted for 45.5% of the total number of arson offenses. Mobile property was involved in 26.0% of arsons, and other types of property (such as crops, timber, fences, etc.) accounted for 28.5% of reported arsons. The average dollar loss due to arson was $17,612. Arsons of industrial/manufacturing structures resulted in the highest average dollar losses (an average of $133,717 per arson). Arson offenses decreased 7.6% in 2010 when compared with arson data reported in 2009. Nationwide, there were 19.6 arson offenses for every 100,000 inhabitants. In addition to the statistics, arson has other social and economic effects that dramatically impact the communities you serve that do not show on the data sheets. While there is already significant fire loss in the data that is reported, some other factors that affect our communities range from insurance rates increasing, work stoppage of the affected business possibly reducing employment in the area and income for the city. The loss of inventory for a business can affect its ability to recover, and there may often be disability and medical costs from injury or death resulting from the incident. Professional Standards The National Fire Protection Association sets professional standards for fire investigators as well as peace officer standards curriculum, such as PC 832, respectively. There are various agencies that are nationally accredited through IFSAC and Pro Board to deliver training that meets or exceeds these professional qualification standards. State certification boards are accredited by the National Board of Fire Service Professional Qualifications (NBFSPQ) (Pro Board, 2019). It also accredits any certifying NFPA standard agencies (Pro Board, 2019). The International Fire Service Accreditation Congress also accredits state programs. Certification at each level is earned when individuals successfully complete certain job performance objectives. Typically, fire investigator certification is determined by the jurisdiction and level of involvement. For example, certification for California State Fire Marshal Fire Investigator 1A is 40 hours and provides information on securing the fire scene and determining the origin and cause of the fire. The class may include the responsibilities of a fire investigators, how to secure the fireground for investigations, conducting inner and outer surveys, conducting interior inspections, determining fire patterns, examining fire debris, reconstructing the area of origin and more. Fire Investigator 1B is 33 hours and provides information for gathering on-scene documentation and evidence collection/preservation. Topics include photographing the scene, diagramming the scene, constructing investigative notes, processing evidence, establishing chain of custody, processing victims and fatalities, selecting evidence for analysis, maintaining a chain of custody, preparing a fire investigation report, and disposing of evidence. Fire Investigator 1C is 40 hours and provides information on legal considerations for a court proceeding. Topics include coordinating expert resources, formulating an opinion, presenting FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 2 investigative findings, and testifying during legal proceedings (CSFM, 2019). The 2014 editionGUIDE of NFPA 1033 UNIT x STUDY Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Investigator is the basis for these Titlecourses. These standards of professional qualifications are generally tied to job performance requirements that have been identified as those needed to be proficient in to meet a national minimal standard. Many states have state training programs, a state fire marshal’s office, certification tracks that prepare people to conduct fire investigation competencies such as investigation, evidence collection, and legal proceedings, etc. After employees go through the training, some states offer certification or credentials that verify the individual’s knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform that function. Depending on the position, there may be multiple certification tracks or certifications that someone may need to achieve to be competent as a fire investigator. For example, the certification track for an aspiring fire Investigator may include IFSAC or Pro Board certification in various fire investigation training, as well as peace officer investigations training. Of course, each state may vary their requirements but this is an example of the multiple certifications that would be needed to be minimally certified to be a fire investigator. Additionally, many states have task books that must be completed that document real-world experience and time performing the duties before being qualified to perform the job function. Typical Certification for Fire Investigator (CA) Legal Framework Since fire investigations can result in possible criminal implications, fire investigators must understand the applicable laws in guiding fire investigations, and the protections afforded to citizens. Investigators must abide by certain legal criteria when conducting investigations that must include process and procedures from the initiation of the investigation to court proceedings. The Bill of Rights must be adhered to at all times, and one that specifically come up in fire investigation is Amendment IV to the U.S. Constitution. This amendment protects the right of citizens to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable search and seizure, and that warrants may only be issued if there is a probable cause. Having said that, fire investigators can legally conduct a search during the cause and origin investigation. The U.S. Supreme Court in 1976 established minimum constitutional requirements in Michigan v. Tyler (1978) that requires a warrant after a reasonable time for investigation. Some of the gray areas that can exist, but are available for the fire investigator in the field in regard to post fire searches that do not require a warrant include the following:    situations where emergency conditions still exist (does not have to be the active firefight; it can also include times when a fire investigator and engine company remain on the scene in case of rekindle and significant overhaul); abandonment; or consent by the owner/occupant. Remember that you still have to be able to prove the emergency conditions still exist. If there is no longer an emergency then there must be another probable cause. In one example, a fire investigator was on the scene to determine the cause and origin of the fire and identified that there may be suspicious factors involved. The fire investigator left the scene, leaving an engine company behind for overhaul. After multiple hours went by, the investigator went back to collect evidence. When the case went to court, it was determined that that evidence was not admissible because there was not probable cause. An emergency condition did not exist that long after the fire to warrant the search. If an organization is looking to take the lead on conducting fire investigations, it is critical that those investigators have the proper training in the laws applicable to them during the investigative process. The Investigation Depending on the state or jurisdiction, it is the responsibility of law enforcement or the fire department, or a combination of the two for fire investigations. According to Love and Robertson (2015), many jurisdictions FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 3 give this responsibility almost solely to the fire department but in any case, fireUNIT investigation x STUDYresponsibilities GUIDE are generally carried out in one of three ways. Title    Full investigative authority is solely on the fire department. In this case the entire process, including cause and origin determination, investigation, and arrest powers are conducted by fire investigators. Full investigative authority is solely on law enforcement. In this case, the entire process including cause and origin determination, investigation, and arrest powers are conducted by police investigators. The responsibility is split, with fire service personnel being responsible for cause determination, followed by police investigation responsible for arrest. In some communities, a team concept is employed. In others, fire service personnel merely notify the police when arson is suspected. The fire investigation process is a systematic and scientific process that is intended to conduct seven key activities to determine the cause of a fire, reduce the frequency of future fires, and bring people who intentionally set fires to justice. NFPA 921 Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations provide the framework for fire investigations. Since this is not a fire investigations class, this unit will not get into great detail on fire investigation, but provide you a basic understanding of the process. FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Fire Origin and Cause Reporting In the case of fire investigations, reporting becomes one of the most crucial elements if called to court, pursuing criminal convictions of arsonists, or seeking cost recovery. The ability to conduct investigations in a systematic and scientific way that is documented in detail to successfully recovery funds or convict accused arsonists. The anatomy of a solid report will include the following components:   Provide a brief overview of what the investigation established including: o Property description o Damage o Injuries o Cause o Status, i.e., suspect(s) at large, investigation ongoing, etc. Investigation FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 5                              UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Initial observations/actions o Activity or conditions perceived at time of arrival Title o Actions taken in response to above o Document efforts to secure fire scene integrity Summary of statements o Get statement from occupants or any other people involved in the incident (owners and occupants), and witnesses as well (firefighters, police department, reporting party[s]), suspects, other. Some of the greatest information will be provided by the first in company. o Ensure you document statements and detail information that includes: Sequence of events Establishes description/identity, locations, and modus operandi of suspects and/or suspect vehicles o Must include, but not limited to: Time of occurrence Condition/location of any affected/involved persons/property, prior to and after the event Description of pertinent actions/statements of suspects or other people Any other pertinent information obtained through statements Multiple statements must be clearly described and identified one at a time. Scene Examination o General description of entire victim property. It is important to note anything out of the ordinary. Some common findings may include abnormal barriers that prevent or delay fire attack, empty flammable liquids containers, no furniture in the property of an otherwise occupied structure, etc. o General construction description of damaged property, note any modifications to traditional construction methods and materials. As discussed in previous units, certain types of construction use fire rated materials as fire stops to limit combustions and the spread of fire. In suspicious fire or during fire investigations you may come upon a situation that fire-resistant materials have been removed, damaged, or replaced with non-fire rated materials to aid in the spread of fire. Some examples may include interior fire stops missing, held open fire doors, poke through in fire rated separations, the wrong materials being used, piled construction materials, and other changes that are not normal to the construction found. o Chronological narrative of scene processing o Detailed, systematic, description of area of origin including: The pattern of fire damage. Note the areas of significant damage to least damage to most damage to identify a flow path. The pattern as described above will also help determine the possible cause and origin. Exposures Presence or absence of natural sources Presence or absence of accidental sources Presence or absence of incendiary evidence Remove fire debris and reconstruct the room of origin Identify areas of significant char depth. Char depth can vary based on how fire reacts to various construction materials. Specifically, in the case of char depth, we are refereeing to the amount of wood in depth and amount of pyrolysis that has occurred under fire. In flooring or sub flooring, just the presence of char can indicate the presence of flammable liquids used and charring of s significant depth with not accelerant may indicate that the fire burnt for some time before being reported. o Confirm fire suppression system conditions and operation o Detailed description of the scene layout and examination such as orientation of the structure such as points of entry/exit, location evidence was found, etc. Conclusion Explanation/reconstruction of the event based on: Scene corroborated information obtained in statements Investigator’s examination Ignition source Material first ignited Event that brought the two together Cause of the fire Natural Accidental Illegal/Arson FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 6           x STUDY GUIDE Undetermined (when two of the three causes cannot be ruled out as aUNIT cause) Disposition Title Summary/status of other action taken toward disposition of case Processing and preservation of evidence Results of area canvas Status of suspects/victims Notification of other parties Disposition of property Related cases (including the law enforcement agency having jurisdiction case number) Follow-up is required Scene examination can be straightforward or very complex. Investigators must be vigilant and aware of anything out of place. In one example, a city was having problems with several strip mall grocery store fires that were each under investigation for possible arson. At the third fire, a fire investigator was surveying the fire damage and patterns on the inside of the store. There was significant fire damage on one side of the store, but the firefighters saved the contents from the other half with little to no smoke or fire damage of the contents. As the fire investigator was surveying the unburned side, they noticed that on one aisle, cans of food had char/burn marks on them. What was odd was that this aisle had no fire damage from the fire. Upon further investigation, it was found that the owners were torching their business and taking all of the ready-to-use food items and contents to fill the next store before they burned it. These cans and other goods were from the previously burned store. Stay aware, and be sure in consecutive fires that are suspicious and similar in nature that you compare findings and research from other enforcement agencies. Summary While this course is focused on inspection and code enforcement, fire investigations play a critical role in the protection of responders and the community you serve. Many times, the results of fire investigations start new public safety initiatives, change inspection process and frequency and influence recommendations for changes in the next code cycle. Fire investigation also protects the department and the community from financial hardship and increases the safety of occupants and firefighters on the fireground. Fire investigators must have a comprehensive knowledge of the local fire code to potentially identify violations, seek cost recovery, and conduct competent fire investigative processes. References Babrauskas, V. (2004). Wood char depth: Interpretation in fire investigations. International Symposium on Fire Investigation [Symposium]. Fire Service College, Moreton-on-Marsh, United Kingdom. California State Fire Marshal. (2017). Fire investigator certification. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Love, M. T., & Robertson, J. C. (2015). Robertson's introduction to fire prevention (8th ed.). Pearson. Michigan v. Tyler, 36 U.S. 499 (1978). National Fire Protection Association. (2017). Guide for fire and explosion investigations. Pro Board. (n.d.). About us. FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 7 Suggested Unit Resources UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title In order to access the following resources, click the links below. In this article, Robert Avsec provides a look at the newest tools to help fire investigators conduct investigations with extensive dig outs. Avsec, R. (2014). What’s new in fire investigation tools. FireRescue1. The report below provides a review of a completed fire report. The report includes many of the items discussed in this unit. Review the report as needed to follow up on the basic components discussed in this unit. U.S. Fire Administration. (1989). Power off to hard-wired detector in nine-fatality house fire Peoria, Illinois (April 11, 1989). With supplement on role of smoke detectors in fatal townhouse fire Annapolis, Maryland. (Report 031 Major Fires Investigation Project). FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 8 UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE Fire Prevention Research and Impact Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Examine the interrelationship of regulatory practices in fire prevention. 2. Examine the building code development and modification process. 3. Explain the practice of fire-resistant materials used in construction. 5. Discuss a comprehensive overview of the general fire safety provisions for occupied buildings. 6. Explain the rationale for general fire safety provisions as methods of fire protection. 7. Determine characteristics of unsafe structures in accordance to fire codes. 9. Discuss the operational procedures for the construction of fire suppression systems. 10. Explain the professional development process for code enforcement practitioners. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 1 2, 3, 7, 9, 10 5 6 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Unit VIII Essay Unit VIII Essay Unit Lesson Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Unit VIII Essay Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Unit VIII Essay Required Unit Resources Chapter 12: Fire Prevention Research Chapter 13: Proving Fire Prevention Works Unit Lesson Introduction Throughout this course, we have explored fire inspection and code enforcement in detail, as well as all of the other interrelated programs the fire prevention division performs. Fire inspection and code enforcement play a significant role in reducing fire risk in our communities and they are greatly increasing the safety of firefighters in the performance of their duties. Many times, the public does not interact with the fire department with any sort of frequency. Those that do only know that the fire department will be there to help in their darkest hour, many times community members do not even know all the other functions the fire department performs. Additionally, much of the fire department’s success, whether statistically or anecdotally, is based on the FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 1 efficiency of emergency response. So, while we understand the value of a progressive inspection and code UNIT x STUDY GUIDE enforcement program, as well as the causal effect of public education, investigation, Title and plan review, the impact these initiatives have on reducing the risk of fire and other emergencies throughout the community are not well documented or promoted. So, how do we prove fire prevention works? A fire department’s budget is usually comprised of the following: personnel and benefits 80-85%, 7% operations, 3% fleet, and 5% for the rest (training, prevention, facility repair, etc.). This makes sense because operations and everything that supports it are how fire departments get out the door and provide emergency services each shift. However, it also means that the fire prevention division likely has a very small percentage of the budget and has to fight to keep what it has. In fact, some fire departments can have a fire prevention budget under 0.25% of the total budget. So, when these other divisions within the department or within the city need additional funds it looks to take money from areas that may not need it. Why does the fire prevention division need the money it has? What does it do to provide a return on investment? Can it maintain current performance with less funding? For this reason, we must learn to promote the value of inspection and code enforcement and fire prevention activities as a whole. Measuring the success of fire prevention efforts can be hard to do and may require specific benchmarks or goals that can be measured to show success. Additionally, there are measures that currently exist such as property loss numbers, injury or deaths from fire, or type and volume of calls in a specific area. These data points, as well as others may be influenced by many variables that need to be filtered for validity. Economic and social factors such as median family income, average age, population density, and gender breakdown of the population are some of the variables that can also affect these measures and need to be considered. The fire service as a whole is moving to be more statistically competent and report out on hundreds of quantitative data points that support the need for fire department services. Operationally, the fire department is asked to provide quantitative data regularly to show the success of emergency response. If fire prevention programs cannot do the same, continued support may be cut. So, what do we need to do to help measure and evaluate the success of fire prevention programs? What was the impact of that reach? How many inspections are required and how many have been done? Has there been a decrease in fires or other emergencies because of these inspections? This unit will discuss ways to prove fire prevention works. Vision 20/20 framework The Vision 20/20 report includes national strategies for fire loss prevention. It provides six strategies to fill gaps not currently given adequate attention and that offer the greatest potential benefit to all fire prevention efforts. By focusing national attention on these strategic areas, the report’s authors believe we could achieve a more fire safe nation. While this report is geared toward fire prevention nationally, many of the strategies should be addressed in every department to achieve maximum results. Specifically, strategy 6, defines a model fire prevention measurement. This strategy was a collaborative strategy put together with FEMA and is intended to “establish model evaluation and performance measures for fire prevention efforts and highlight models in prevention performance that others may replicate to achieve measurable, success ful results” (Crawford, 2010). FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 2 This report does two things; it identifies the obvious gap in the fire prevention divisions across the country in developing and advocating effective fire prevention measures, and two, it highlights the importance of this unit and your approach moving forward through your career to justify and advocate for new fire prevention resources. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Moving forward, this unit will discuss some basic fire prevention measures to discuss and implement in your department and provide you with a platform for innovative thinking to continuously address a few big questions: What am I doing well? What am I not doing? Is what I am doing effective? If so, how? If it is, can I prove it is worth the cost? These are some of the questions that you will have to answer; be prepared to show your worth. Your community will thank you. Recording Fire Safety Activities As discussed throughout the course, there are many fire safety activities that can be performed to reduce the risk of fire in our communities, the key is the develop benchmarks for measure and evaluate those measures for success. There will also be prevention efforts that may be purely based on the interaction with community members through experience. As an example, a fire department had been providing fire extinguisher training and service across the community as well as CPR, voluntary residential home fire inspections, and home escape planning with the area’s condominiums, town homes, and apartments. The fire department had been providing thes e services for years, but were now facing staffing cuts of four people in a 60-person department. As the cuts loomed and the fire department communicated the impact to the community, the biggest pushback came from those who received the community risk reduction training (CPR, escape planning, fire extinguisher training and maintenance) put on through the fire prevention division. After months of community and council discussions, it was determined that the department would not be able to provide those same services with the cuts, and maintained current staffing levels. While there were small quantitative measures such as community CPR saves, a reduction in dollars lost in areas with fire safety inspections, and a reduction in dollars lost when extinguishers were used prior to the fire department’s arrival, much of the pushback was from the relationships the fire department had built during that time. What types of fire safety activities do you record? If you are performing any fire prevention -related activity, you should be recording and reporting on it. In the public education arena, some items to report on can consist of the following.            Public education events attended Number of people contacted overall Number of people contacted per event type/topic Age of the people contacted (children, teens, adults, elderly) Number of fire drills conducted Department work hours expended Hours of public education provided Number of public education materials given out Number of people that retained information from education sessions by tests/evaluations (if performed) Number of positive reviews from people interacting or attending those events Number of car seat inspections FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 3    Number of emergency preparedness activities Reduction in fire type, related to public education campaigns Reduction in property loss UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The graphics provide some examples of reportable measures for public education fire prevention activities. In one instance, public education campaigns reduced home cooking fires in multifamily residential occupancies by 25% over the course of one year. The fire department had seen an increase in cooking fires in that occupancy type, and specifically in an older community with mostly older or retirement-age occupants. In reviewing incident and fire investigation reports, the department found that most of the occupants lacked fire safety education and fire protection systems to reduce these events. The department conducted a concerted public education campaign to educate occupants Example of a public education report on the hazards of cooking fires (North Central Fire District, 2019) and safe-cooking habits. Additionally, because the reports indicated that many of the fires had been on the stovetop, the department partnered with the owner and installed overhead canister-based cooking fire suppression systems in the occupancy using grant money. The financial impact was a reduction in thousands of dollars in previous fire loss, fewer calls for service to the area, enhanced the first in unit’s availability for other calls, and reduced the financial and physical impact on the apparatus and crews. In fact, this department was also able to show a reduced number of overlapping calls for the first unit, improving their availability profile. This is the exact type of information we need to be able to provide as a fire service regarding fire prevention activities. Fire Prevention Inspection Records Fire prevention inspection records are critical for reducing the legal Example of a Performance Scorecard impact on departments, ensuring legally mandated and high hazard (The City of Hartford Fire Department, 2016) inspections are completed, tracking fire code violation trends while documenting frequent flyers or special FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 4 hazard mitigation plans, collecting fees and/or cost recovery, weed abatement,UNIT identifying hazardous x STUDY GUIDE properties, scheduling inspections and re-inspections while documenting pre-plan Titleinformation. Fire prevention records also track the submissions of plans for review and the process of the review through final approval, as well as fire investigations status, cause, and document collection. All of these reports help the department keep the community safe by measuring their success and tracking trends to target for inspection, education, or investigation. Additionally, inspection records keep fire companies abreast of hazardous conditions that may include the status of suppression systems, water supply, code violations, hazardous materials, extended hose lays, structure size, complex layouts, and a variety of other issues that may affect firefighter safety on the fireground and the ability to access and remove potential occupants. Depending on the department, these reports frequently have business plans, owner contact information, Knox box locations, mechanical rooms, or other special information that may be needed by the department. Now that many departments are moving to an online-based RMS platform, these records are available on the apparatus mobile data terminals (MDT) or via another electronic device such as an iPad or phone. This gives the crews and fire marshal’s office the ability to download and preview pictures, look at real-time data, and research historical reports to prep for an inspection, reference on site, or after a fire. This reporting helps identify trouble areas for departments on which to focus. Some data that you may want to report and leverage in your jurisdictions may include the following.         Number of inspections scheduled versus completed Number of mandated inspections scheduled versus completed. Number of inspectable occupancies Occupancy type Number of violations total, by occupant type, by geographic location, by violation type, Number of repeat inspections/violations Money collected/recovered from inspection and code enforcement versus cost Hot work permits issued It is important to have baseline data each year and take at least the last 3 years of data to find trends or impact measurements to promote the value of inspections. In the last 3 years, have you seen a significant reduction of fire loss or community intervention research and correlate that to your inspection trends? Is there a trend in this reduced loss with a certain occupancy? Or, is there one that has seen code violations go down significantly, or one that has been targeted for public education messages/training, etc.? It may not always be right in front of you but the fire prevention division commonly has an impact in many parts of the community. Be aggressive, be innovative, and make sure what you are doing has a positive impact. MOST COMMON FIRE CODE VIOLATIONS Exit Lights Blocked Exits Sprinkler Clearance Electrical Panel Clearance Open Fire Doors 12% 25% 25% 20% 18% FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement Incident Reports and Fire Investigation Incident reports and fire investigations will provide a lot of good information to review that allow the inspector to dig deeper into current or potential problems. These reports are also critical to showing financial value to stakeholders. Incident and investigations reports help identify potential code violations in fires that allow the departments to seek cost recovery, shows the significance of code compliance, and provides financial justification for inspections. In one instance, a department responded to a fire in a commodities plant. These plants receive dead animals and recycle the materials and parts. At times there were hundreds of animals awaiting processing. When it gets full like that, the piles would creep too close to the 5 structure in violation of the fire code. The fatty tissues exposed to the heat canUNIT sometimes cause x STUDY GUIDE spontaneous combustion and in one case started a fire with immediate exposure to the building. After the Title responders mitigated the incident, much of their equipment and personal protective equipment was contaminated with animal fat and biohazards. The fire investigation found multiple code violations and the business was required to reimburse the department for the losses. In this case, the report also identified the need for pre-planning and education for the occupants on fire department response and fire code compliance. Research Organizations There are various fire service research organizations that have historically helped push the fire prevention agenda and many more that have just recently started making a significant impact. Some of the major organizations that fire inspectors or fire service personnel can pull for research papers, scientific studies, and other case studies regarding fire prevention include the following.        National Fire Academy, Executive Fire Officer Program research papers Underwriters Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fallen Firefighters Foundation Vision 20/20, National Strategies for Fire Loss Prevention Fire Protection Research Foundation National Fire Protection Association These are just of few of the agencies working to provide information to help fire service organizations better protect their communities through inspection and code enforcement initiatives as well as other community risk reduction measures. As the fire service works to develop measurable performance indicators in the fire prevention world these organization can assist. Summary Just as with any program you operate at your department, you must justify its existence in relationship to the cost and the program’s impact, if you cannot do either your programs may be in trouble. Love and Robertson (2015) sum it up perfectly: Whether fire prevention works or not may be seen as something in the eye of the beholder: the stakeholders in the case of public prevention programs. If they are unaware of the good services delivered by the fire prevention bureau, they are likely to take those services for granted and be misled about their importance. (p. 272) Learn to understand what is important to your stakeholders, how do they like to see data, are they all analytical or do some of them like to see the emotional connection fire prevention can make. If you can understand how your community thinks about a topic and how they like to see data presented to them, it will help you tremendously. Understand that there are many groups of stakeholders that see fire prevention ’s role many different ways. Find what drives them and use it to your advantage, everyone has a bottom line. Please use the resources available in this unit and throughout the course to make an impact on your programs. References Love, M. T., & Robertson, J. C. (2015). Robertson's introduction to fire prevention (8th ed.). Pearson. Crawford, J. (2010, June 28). National strategies for fire loss prevention [Symposium]. Model Prevention Program Symposium, Vancouver, WA. FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 6 Suggested Unit Resources UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title In order to access the following resources, click the links below. The article, “Cost of Fire: Economic Issues of Fire Prevention and Firefighting,” by the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) discusses the right position to have on fire safety. The loss statistics in the United States show we are not doing enough, but what is enough, and what are the costs? International Association of Fire Chiefs, (2013, August 20). Cost of fire: Economic issues of fire prevention and firefighting. The next IAFC article introduces you to the Vision 20/20 fire prevention advocacy toolkit. The toolkit’s online resources can help you quantify the impact fire prevention has on the health of a community and that fire prevention is indeed a positive economic driver. The article highlights the resources provided and shows readers the framework for return on investment. International Association of Fire Chiefs (2011, October 13). Proving the value of fire prevention. FIR 4311, Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement 7
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Explanation & Answer



Fire Safety and Protection
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Question One.
Part One.

My organization has developed viable partnerships with different stakeholders who play
a critical role in public education related to fire safety and protection. It is evident for the last few
years the management of the organization has worked with the media, emergency response
community, safety interest groups, and federal agencies to develop viable initiatives aimed at
enlightening the public about fire protection and safety. Some of the initiatives that the
organization has embarked on relate to developing guidelines on addressing risks in kitchens
because a significant number of fire incidents originate from the kitchen. The organization has
worked with media and other safety interest groups to educate the public on how to ensure that
fire safety is maintained in kitchens. Also, the organization has utilized social media to educate
the public about fire protection, and it has focused on communicating different interventions that
people can make to prevent fire incidents in this area. The partnership with all these stakeholders
has created a strong base in which the public has been educated about fire protection technology,
which is critical in promoting fire safety and protection. The awareness about fire protection
technology has played a critical role in reducing fire incidents because the public has started
using modern smoke alarms, fire sprinklers, and other fire notification and detection
Part Two.
Fire protection and safety are critical for everyone in society, and it is important for
everyone to observe fire codes and cooperate in fire inspections. Public education about fire
protection is essential in imparting critical knowledge to different members of society related to



reducing fire incidents. Public fire education entails a process that involves a planning process.
In this case, this process involves five steps that include conducting a community risk analysis,
developing community partnerships, creating appropriate intervention strategies, implementing
the strategy, and evaluating the results (Bertucci, 2012). There has been an improvement in the
way different fire codes have been observed in this area, but there are some areas that business
owners need to improve on. In this case, business occupancies need fire sprinklers, fire
extinguishers, and fire alarms. These codes are critical in any business occupancy, and bu...

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