# SUNY Empire State College Snells Law and Total Internal Reflection Lab Report

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yrkkk123

Science

SUNY Empire State College

PHYS

## Description

Hello,

I was wondering if someone would be able to help me with my physics lab. It involves Snell’s Law and Total Internal Reflection. It requires an abstract (Abstract section should have more summary of results and conclusions), introduction, materials and methods, results/observations, and conclusions (conclusion should have more discussion of specific results and how they validate the theory behind each experiment). Also includes data tables and questions. Attached is the lab template. Thank you!

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Physic s II Lab Assignment 7: Snell’s Law and Total Internal Reflection Instructor’s Overview This lab activity is our first hand-on experience with optical phenomena. We will experience Snell’s Law, a fundamental optical law dealing with the refraction of light rays. The concept of indices of refraction, critical to Snell’s Law, will be explored in this lab. In fact, you will be performing an experiment to measure the index of refraction of water. The concept of total internal reflection, a special case of Snell’s Law, is also explored in this lab. Total internal reflection is the optical phenomenon that is used in fiber optic communications systems. This lab is based on Lab 24 of your eScience Lab kit. Our lab consists of two components. Here is a high-level view: • In Experiment 1, you will use a plane mirror and laser to quantify the Law of Reflection. • In Experiment 2, you will verify Snell’s Law, measure the index of refraction of water, and observe the phenomenon of total internal reflection. Take detailed notes as you perform the experiment and fill out the sections below. This document serves as your lab report. Please include detailed descriptions of your experimental methods and observations. What you’ll need for this lab activity From the eScience kit • Plane mirror • Mirror support • Laser pointer • Protractors (2) • Refraction cell You provide • Sheet of paper • Water JWH 1 Physics II Experiment Tips/Comments: Law of Reflection • Open the rear compartment of your laser pointer and remove the circular white insulating material in between the batteries. The laser pointer will not operate if this insulating material present. • Exercise care when using your laser pointer. Make sure not to look directly into the beam and make sure that other people, particularly curious kids, are not in the path of either the direct or reflected laser beam. • If you are having a hard time visualizing the Law of Reflection experimental setup, here is a photo of mine: I’m holding the laser with my left hand lining up the angle of incidence with the aid of the protractor. In my right hand I’m holding a target piece of paper close to the protractor so I can read off the reflected angle. JWH 2 Physics II Snell’s Law • Here is the protractor and refraction cell setup for the Snell’s Law experiment: In this image I’m holding the laser with my right hand, carefully lining up the angle of incidence with the aid of the front protractor. In my left hand I’m holding a target piece of paper close to the rear protractor so I can read off the refracted angle: JWH 3 Physics II Date: Student: Abstract: (At least 150 words) Introduction (At least 150 words) Material and Methods (Explain methods) Experiment 1: Law of Reflection Results/Observations (At least 100 words) JWH 4 Physics II Laser and Mirror Reflection Data Incident Angle i (degrees) Reflected Angle r (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 JWH 5 Physics II Experiment 2: Snell’s Law Results/Observations (at least 100 words) Incident Angle i (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Laser and Refraction Cell Data Refracted Angle r Sin(i) (degrees) Sin(r) Experiment 1: Law of Reflection – Analysis and Discussion Based on your experimental results, please answer the following questions: 1. Describe the relationship between the incident and reflected angle. Insert a plot of reflected angle (y-axis) vs. incident angle (x-axis). JWH 6 Physics II 2. Is this true for all materials? Describe the concepts of specular and diffuse reflection? 3. Insert images of examples of specular and diffuse reflecting surfaces. Include descriptions of your images. Experiment 2: Snell’s Law – Analysis and Discussion Based on your experimental results, please answer the following questions: 1. There are two boundaries where the laser beam changes medium. Describe the two boundaries and determine which one causes the light to refract? 2. The two mediums in this experiment are water and air. Which medium is the medium for the incident ray? Which medium is the medium for the refracted ray? 3. Complete the Laser and Refraction Cell Data table by computing the sine of the incident and refracted angles. Plot a graph of sin(θi) versus sin(θr) in an application such as Excel. Execute a linear regression fit and display the fit equation as well as the correlation coefficient. Insert your plot below. JWH 7 Physics II 4. Compare the slope of the best-fit line to the index of refraction for water (n = 1.33) with a percent error calculation. Explain any discrepancies. Note for questions 5 and 6 For question 5, I'm looking for your observed/measured value for the critical angle. This is an observation, not a calculation. The calculation comes in question 6. The other aspect of question 6 is to perform a % error calculation between what you observed (question 5) and what you calculated. 5. What is your observed critical angle for the laser beam travelling from air to water? 6. The index of refraction for water is n=1.33. Use this value to calculate the theoretical critical angle for the laser travelling from water to air. Compare this value to the one you experimentally determined with a percent error calculation. 7. Do you always observe a reflected ray of light as you increase the incident angle? What happens to the intensity of the reflected light as you increase the incident angle and eventually cross the critical angle? JWH 8 Physics II Conclusions (at least 150 words) References JWH 9 Physics II
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Lab Assignment 7: Snell’s Law and Total Internal Reflection
Instructor’s Overview

Phy
sic
s II

This lab activity is our first hand-on experience with optical phenomena. We will
experience Snell’s Law, a fundamental optical law dealing with the refraction of
light rays. The concept of indices of refraction, critical to Snell’s Law, will be
explored in this lab. In fact, you will be performing an experiment to measure the
index of refraction of water. The concept of total internal reflection, a special
case of Snell’s Law, is also explored in this lab. Total internal reflection is the
optical phenomenon that is used in fiber optic communications systems.
This lab is based on Lab 24 of your eScience Lab kit.
Our lab consists of two components. Here is a high-level view:
• In Experiment 1, you will use a plane mirror and laser to quantify the Law
of Reflection.
• In Experiment 2, you will verify Snell’s Law, measure the index of
refraction of water, and observe the phenomenon of total internal
reflection.
Take detailed notes as you perform the experiment and fill out the sections
descriptions of your experimental methods and observations.
What you’ll need for this lab activity

From the eScience kit
• Plane mirror
• Mirror support
• Laser pointer
• Protractors (2)
• Refraction cell
You provide
• Sheet of paper
• Water

JWH

1

Physics II

Law of Reflection
• Open the rear compartment of your laser pointer and remove the circular white
insulating material in between the batteries. The laser pointer will not operate
if this insulating material present.

• Exercise care when using your laser pointer. Make sure not to look directly
into the beam and make sure that other people, particularly curious kids, are
not in the path of either the direct or reflected laser beam.
• If you are having a hard time visualizing the Law of Reflection experimental
setup, here is a photo of mine:

I’m holding the laser with my left hand lining up the angle of incidence with the
aid of the protractor. In my right hand I’m holding a target piece of paper close
to the protractor so I can read off the reflected angle.
JWH

2

Physics II

Snell’s Law

Here is the protractor and refraction cell setup for the Snell’s Law experiment:

In this image I’m holding the laser with my right hand, carefully lining up the angle
of incidence with the aid of the front protractor. In my left hand I’m holding a
target piece of paper close to the rear protractor so I can read off the refracted
angle:

JWH

3

Physics II

Date:
Student:
Abstract:
(At least 150 words)
In this practice, it was possible to verify in the first ...

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