How the Theme of War Has Influenced 20th Century Art Discussion and Responses

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Let's lighten your load a bit this week and only write two (2) responses:

  1. Romanticism vs Realism: define each of these "isms" and compare and contrast them, featuring one example of each in your analysis.
  2. Define Impressionism and describe two specific examples of Impressionist works. What makes them belong to this "ism?"
  3. Explain how the theme of war has influenced 20th century art, including two examples in your explanation.
  4. Explain how the theme of psychology has influenced 20th century art, including two examples in your explanation.
  5. Choose one of the following artists and explain how they have contributed to art history with innovations: Picasso, Van Gogh, Dali. Give at least two examples of the artist's work to support your analysis of their contributions.

Whenever featuring an example, clearly identify the work's title, medium, date, and origin, and analyze it using course vocabulary(in the files) terms. Do not use the same example more than once.

Rubric( in the files)

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Introduction to Art Vocabulary and Chapter Terms Chapter Two and Three: Space: 2-d and 3-d Line: different types and their effect Shape: geometric, organic, abstract and nonrepresentational Light/shadow: effects and chiaroscuro Texture: Color: Intensity, saturated, naturalistic, arbitrary Linear perspective: Balance: Emphasis: focal point, contrast etc Proportion and Scale: Chapter 9: Relief sculpture: Freestanding sculpture Kinetic sculpture: Additive and subtractive sculpture Chapter 10: 3 types of columns: Doric, ionic, and Corinthian round arch, barrel vault, groin vault harmony with exterior setting – harmony of interior Chapter 12: Egyptian, Classical Greek and Hellenistic Greek, Roman: key characteristics, purposes, materials and examples Chapter 13: Byzantine (as style). Gothic Cathedral: history, purpose, key features and examples, general characteristics of medieval art: purposes, materials – contrast to Greek Chapter 14: Northern Renaissance, Southern Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Humanism, Fresco Chapter 15: Baroque, Counter Reformation, Naturalism, Chiaroscuro, Rococo Chapter 16: Chapter 17: Chapter 18: Chapter 19: Chapter 20: Romanticism, Realism, Neoclassicism Impressionism, Post-Impressionism Expressionism, Cubism, Analytical Cubism, Surrealism Abstract, Non-representational, Organic Abstraction Pop Art, Minimalism, Post-Modern Art History Test One Due 3/27/16 1. Describe three Egyptian works of art (architecture, painting or sculpture) which all reflect the same specific cultural value – explain. I chose to analyze three examples of female royalty: Queen Nefertiti, limestone, 1360 BC, Queen Nefertari presenting offerings, painting, 1250 BC, and Cleopatra VII, basalt sculpture, 10 BC (fig. 1) . Although created at various points Egypt’s cultural evolution, each figure exemplifies that society’s enduring, idealistic preoccupation with feminine beauty, which it associated with fertility and longevity. Nefertiti’s bust is a study in grace, with sinuous lines extending from the tip of the crown to the curve of the queen’s shoulder, providing an exaggerated suggestion of length and slenderness. What little of her upper torso is visible reinforces the viewer’s perception of lithe form. Her features are balanced and symmetrical, her skin is vibrant, and her lips, a full, lush red, suggesting vitality and youth. Although Nefertari is presented in profile, her torso is depicted similarly to Nefertiti’s, and here, the inference of grace is created by extending the length of the arms and fingers. The belt across her dress emphasizes a slim waist and wide hips, suggesting fertility. Both queens’ visages feature heavily lined eyes and aquiline noses, and shapely ears. It’s important to note that these depictions of Nefertiti and Nefertari were rendered during the height of Egypt’s empirical reign, while Cleopatra was introduced to the cultural consciousness nearly 2000 years later, in 10 BC. Nonetheless, she is depicted in a similar fashion, and the strict artistic adherence to consistency of tone and style is representative of the role of art, and artists, in European society, which was far less concerned with expression than with perpetuating reverence and servitude. In the basalt carving of Cleopatra, symmetry and length are again exemplified: slender shoulders, small, firm breasts, and an awareness of musculature all hint to the feminine ideals of the time. Similar to the painting of Nefertari, Cleopatra’s arms are longer than normal, her fingers are even in length, and her ears are shapely and prominently featured. Finally, it’s interesting to note that, although the three women’s facial features are similar, and their regality, inherent throughout, the statue of Cleopatra is the only example that features more masculine representations of royalty, expressed by the extension of the dominant foot and the combination of clenched fists and flexed shoulders. In addition, the sculpture of Cleopatra appears to have been influence by the Hellenistic approach to the human form. When this statue is considered alongside the earlier carving of Mycerenus and his Queen, from our textthere are several enhancements to the ideal feminine form, including the addition of nipples, rounding of the thighs and pubic area, and absence of any covering. 2. Describe the history and purpose of a Gothic cathedral, and identify 4 elements, using any one cathedral as reference. Gothic cathedrals were created to remind medieval society of their duty to God and to perpetuate a sense of civic duty. Building such a structure was a massive undertaking, requiring the commitment of members from all levels of society, from the physical efforts of the common laborer to the careful drafting talents of the skilled architecht and artists that conceptualized the physical form. These intricate buildings were designed to draw the eye upward, visually and subconsciously reminding medieval society to focus their attention away from earthly matters and toward the heavens. Each component of a gothic cathedral has both symbolic and practical purpose, but all are intended to reinforce the perceptions of light and height. The Meaux Cathedral, located in Etienne, France, is an excellent example of Gothic architecture, and features several key design elements that distinguish Gothic cathedrals from their Romanesque predecessors. Three pointed arches provide stability, allowing the structure to reach high above the village while extending the reach of the massive, rectangular spire that erupts from the leftmost arch. Inside the cathedral, ephemeral ribbed vaults toss the ceiling away, far above the heads of patrons, creating a firm cage that supports upward expansion while creating adequate stability to the perimeter so that segments of stone wall may be replaced with intricate stained glass windows, such as the rose window that dominates area over the central arch. These windows, which serve the practical purpose of drawing light into the cathedral, also add drama, their colors bleeding into the darkness of the nave, bringing the biblical scenes they contain into sharp relief. The iron lacework of the windows is complemented by decorative stone fretwork on the flying buttresses which support the spires of the church, and those buttresses, in turn, feature gargoyle finials which, like the stained glass adornments, serve a dual purpose: disguising the cathedral’s overhead drainage system while reminding the villagers of their transgressions and the need to repent, and thus enter the cathedral. Work Cited …………………… Substandard Adequate Excellent 1 Main idea is unclear or ineffectively placed, and/or it does not address the question. Main idea is clear, is located effectively, Main idea is clear, well located, and and it addresses the question. provocative, and it addresses the question. Sufficient details are used to adequately Numerous details are used to fully develop the main idea. develop the main idea. 2 Very few or no details are used to develop the main idea. 3 Introduction and/or conclusion are missing or inadequate. Introduction and conclusion are present Introduction and conclusion are present and adequate. and are very effective. 4 Ideas do not follow any consistent, logical A logical pattern of organization, pattern of organization. including some effective transitions, is present, with perhaps minor inconsistencies. A logical pattern of organization, including the consistent use of very effective transitions, is present with no inconsistencies. 5 Each paragraph does not focus on one supporting point. Each paragraph focuses on one related supporting point. Each paragraph focuses on one very strong supporting point. 6 Extraneous information is consistently present in focus of or details in supporting paragraphs. Slightly extraneous information might, infrequently, be present, not in focus of but only in details in supporting paragraphs. No extraneous information is present in either focus of or details in supporting paragraphs. 7 Essay has frequent errors in grammar, usage, and/or mechanics. Essay may contain some errors in The essay is essentially free of errors in grammar, usage, and/or mechanics, but grammar, usage, and/or mechanics. Any student demonstrates an understanding errors are few and minor. of these conventions.
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Submission date: 22-Nov-2020 02:21AM (UTC+0800)
Submission ID: 1453365104
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Art History Assignment-Outline
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Code: Course Title
Instructor’s Name
Due Date


Art History-Outline
✓ Define Impressionism And Describe Specific Examples Of Impressionist Works.
✓ How The Theme Of War Has Influenced 20th-Century Art. Examples And Explanations
✓ Response 1
✓ Response 2


Art History Assignment
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Code: Course Title
Instructor’s Name


Art History
Define Impressionism And Describe Specific Examples Of Impressio...

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