San Francisco State University Event Planning Discussion

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#1: List and briefly describe the five stages of the event planning process.

#2: Outline the scope of college and university food service. What are the advantages of managing a college dining hall versus a commercial restaurant?

#3: List and briefly describe four primary responsibilities of a convention and visitor’s bureau (CVB).

#4: Discuss the multiplier effect of tourism dollars on a community. Could you argue that the effect is not always positive? Defend your position with examples.

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Managed Services Dr. Aday HTM 110 Chapter 8 OVERVIEW Several features distinguish managed services operations from commercial foodservices: ­ In managed services, it is necessary to meet both the needs of the guest and the institution ­ In some operations, the guests may or may not have alternative dining options available and are a captive clientele ­ Many managed operations are housed in host organizations that do not have foodservice as their primary business OVERVIEW Features distinguishing managed services operations from commercial foodservices (continued): ­ Managed services operations produce food in largequantity batches for service and consumption within fixed time periods ­ The volume of business is more consistent and therefore easier to cater AIRLINES AND AIRPORTS Airlines may either provide meals from their own in-flight business or have the service provided by a contractor In-flight foodservice management operators plan menus, develop product specifications, and arrange purchasing contracts AIRLINES AND AIRPORTS Airlines regard in-flight foodservice as an expense that needs to be controlled To trim costs, most domestic airlines now sell snacks instead of meals on a number of short flights and even on flights that span main meal times As airlines have decreased in-flight foodservice, airport restaurants have picked up the business, and the number of chain restaurants in terminals have increased MILITARY There are about 1.5 million soldiers, sailors, and aviators on active duty in the U.S. Feeding military personnel includes feeding troops and officers in clubs, dining halls, and military hospitals, as well as in the field $6 billion dollars each year MILITARY The military still provides their own food service when it comes to mobilization Trends: ­Contract of officer’s club ­Fine dining to casual style ­Menu management ­Prepared foods ­Use of fast-food restaurants on bases ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS National School Lunch Act of 1946: ­Federal funding is provided in the amount of $2.72 per student meal ­If students receive good meals, the military would have healthier recruits ­Such a program would make use of the surplus food that farmers produced ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS Much work has gone into establishing the nutritional requirements for children Much debate has arisen as to whether fast-food chains should enter the schools Nutrition education programs are now a required part of the nation’s school lunch program COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Residence halls Sports concessions Conferences Cafeterias/student unions Faculty clubs Convenience stores Administrative catering Outside catering COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Challenging because the clients live on campus and eat most of their meals at one of the campus dining facilities Daily rate is the amount of money required per day from each person to pay for the foodservice College foodservice operations now offer a variety of meal plans for students Campuses are seeing tremendous growth in branded concepts, privatization, and campus cards MANAGING MANAGED SERVICES A foodservice manager’s responsibilities in a small or midsize operation are frequently more extensive than those of managers of the larger operations ­Larger units have more people to whom certain functions can be delegated, such as human resources ­A number of support staff positions offer career opportunities not only within managed services but also in all facets of hospitality operations and arrangements SUSTAINABLE MANAGED SERVICES Hospital foodservice directors often say that offering healthy choices in their cafeterias is a key department mission. But many operators are quick to add that they still offer the so-called unhealthy options to prevent a drop in participation and revenues. When providing healthier choices for menus, many organizations have found significantly healthier employees HEALTH CARE FACILITIES Health care managed services are provided to: ­ Hospital patients ­ Long-term care and assisted-living residents ­ Visitors and employees The challenge in providing health care meals is that every patient has different nutritional needs Ensuring that each meal reach the proper patient is critical Every meal must be triple checked for accuracy HEALTH CARE FACILITIES The service is given by tray, cafeteria, dining room, coffee shop, catering, and vending The main focus of hospital foodservice is the tray line Experts agree that because economic pressures will increase, foodservice managers will need to use a more high-tech approach to incorporate labor-saving sous-vide and cook-chill methods BUSINESS & INDUSTRY Contractors: Companies that operate foodservice for the client on a contractual basis Self-operators: Companies that operate their own foodservice operations Liaison Personnel: A liaison is responsible for translating corporate philosophy to the contractor and for overseeing the contractor to make certain that he or she abides by the terms of the contract MANAGED SERVICE OTHER THAN FOOD Many companies such as Sodexo have recognized the potential to increase their market opportunities by developing service capabilities beyond food. This also offers hospitality managers the opportunity to expand their career paths as well. Typically, hospitals, colleges, schools, and businesses outsource other service departments the same as they do food. MANAGED SERVICE OTHER THAN FOOD These services often come under the area of facilities management and offer the following services: Housekeeping/custodial/environment services Maintenance and engineering Grounds and landscaping Procurement and materials management Office and mail services Concierge services Patient transportation services (hospitals) LEISURE AND RECREATION Stadiums Arenas Theme parks State parks National parks Zoos Aquariums Venues where food and beverage are provided for large numbers of people STADIUM POINTS OF SERVICE Leisure and recreation facilities usually have several points of service where food and beverage are provided ­ Hot dog stands ­ Restaurants ­ In the stands ­ Superboxes, suites, and skyboxes http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/bos/downloads/y2016/Luxury-SuiteMenu-2016.pdf OTHER FACILITIES Most of the U.S. national parks are contracted to these companies These parks have hotels, restaurants, snack bars, gift shops, and a myriad of other service outlets where tourists can spend their money. In addition to parks, other venues where food and beverage are offered include zoos, aquariums, tennis tournaments such as the U.S. Open in New York, and professional golf tournaments. THE END Tourism Dr. Aday HTM 110 Chapter 9 § World’s largest industry! § World Tourism Organization: § A specialized agency of the United Nations § The leading international organization in the field § Plays a role in the § Development of sustainable tourism. § Development of universally accessible tourism. § Continuation of economic development. § International understanding, peace, prosperity, and respect for human rights and freedoms § For many developing countries, tourism represents a large percentage of GDP and a way of gaining a positive balance of trade with other nations § “Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.” § From the UNWTO definition of Tourism § San Francisco § $738M in Taxes § 24.6M visitors § $9.3B in spending § 76,250 jobs § $2.3B in pay § The WTO and the World Travel & Tourism Council declare the travel and tourism industry to have the following characteristics: § 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year economic driver § Accounts for 9.1% of the GDP = Gross Domestic Product - Worldwide § Employs 259 million people (8.8% of the global workforce) § Leading producer of tax revenues § Tourism: § Provides governments with substantial tax revenues § Offers the greatest global employment prospects § This trend is caused by: § The opening of borders. § An increase in disposable income and vacations. § Reasonably-priced airfares. § An increase in the number of people with time and money. § More people with the urge to travel. § International arrivals expected to reach over 1.8 billion by 2030 § Europe, East Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas are the top receiving areas § There is interdependency between the various segments of tourism: Travel, lodging, foodservice, and recreation § Each segment is, to an extent, dependent on another for business § The historical development of tourism has been divided into five distinct ages or periods: § Pre-Industrial (prior to 1840) § The railway age § The automobile age § The jet aircraft age § The Cruise ship age § Travel in the middle ages was mostly for religious or trade reasons § People made pilgrimages to various shrines: Muslims to Mecca and Christians to Jerusalem or Rome § Changes in the technology of travel have had widespread implications for society in the United States § Rail travel influenced the building of towns and cities caused hotels to be built near rail depots, and opened up the West § Auto travel produced the motel and a network of highways § One of the main factors that led to railroads in the U.S. was the need to move goods and people from one region of the country to another § The train made mass travel possible for everyone § Cars and buses caused a decline in rail travel § Facing a possible collapse of passenger rail services, Congress passed the Rail Passenger Service Act in 1970 (amended in 2001) § Taking the train makes good sense in densely populated areas such as those in Western Europe and parts of Asia, and highspeed networks are already well developed, often drawing most of the traffic that formerly went by air. § Several European nations have banded together to offer non- European visitors unlimited first-class rail service for a reduced lump sum. § Began in 1895 in Germany § Today, it is the American way of life § Largest segment of ground transportation § Creates accessibility to remote locations § Rental Cars § 5,000 rental companies in the U.S. § 75% of car rentals take place at airports § The top five rental car company agencies in the United States are Hertz, Avis, Enterprise, National, and Budget § Convenient and economic mode of travel § Allows travelers to relax and enjoy the ride § Types of bus service: § Local, charter, tour, commuter, airport, urban, and rapid transit § The largest and most recognized is the Gray Line § An integral factor in travel and tourism § 5,500 planes are in the air over the U.S. any day § Competition between airlines to provide lower fairs has had a significant impact on increased air travel § Travelers are paying less, but carriers are spending more on fuel and other costs (cutbacks and layoffs) § Projected travel:1 billion by 2012! § Airline alliances will allow them access to each other’s “feeder markets” and to resources that will enable them to flourish in what will ultimately be a worldwide deregulation § A feeder market is a market that provides the source—in this case, passengers for the particular destination § Enables passengers to travel from one smaller city to another smaller city via a hub or even two hubs § The hub-and-spoke system has two main benefits: Airlines can service more cities at a lower cost § Airlines can maximize passenger loads from small cities, thereby saving fuel § Hub-and-Spoke System § Boeing’s first new airplane model in several years, the Dreamliner 787, takes advantage of huge advances made in aviation technology § Is capable of flying long-haul routes using up to 20 percent less fuel § Up to 50 percent of the primary structure of the plane, including the fuselage and wing, is made of components such as carbon fiber, which reduces the weight of the plane § Able to fly up to 9,700 miles without refueling, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner could easily manage a flight between New York and Moscow, Manila, or Sao Paulo or between Boston and Athens. § Richard Aboulafia, chief analyst with Teal Group, comments, “If you look at it from an airline standpoint: you don’t have a choice. If you don’t have a 787-class aircraft and your competitor does, he can under price you and out-profit you.” § Longest Non-Stop Flights § 1. Dubai, UAE – Panama City, Panama § Boeing 777 § Duration 17hr 35mins § 8,580 miles § 2. DFW to Sydney, Australia § Airbus A380 § 16 hrs § 8,589 miles § Fixed costs do not change: § Lease of airplanes, the maintenance of airline-owned or leased terminals, interest on borrowed money, insurance, and pensions § Variable costs rise and fall: § Wages and salaries, advertising and promotion, fuel costs, passenger food and drink, and landing fees § The biggest single cost for airline operation is labor—which is typically 30–45% of total operating costs § A key statistic in analyzing profitability is the load factor—percent of seats filled on all flights, including planes being flown empty to be in position for the next day’s schedule § Fuel Prices § 11.1.16 - $5 per gallon average in U.S. § 50,000 gallons for 747 § Price of $250,000 § The cruise market has increased dramatically in recent years § About 9 million Americans cruise each year § Rates vary from about $95–$850 per person per day § Carnival Cruise Lines is the most financially successful— netting about 20% of sales § Most cruise ships sail under foreign flags because they were built abroad for the following reasons: § U.S. labor costs for ships, officers, and crew—in addition to maritime unions—are too high to compete in the world market § U.S. ships are not permitted to operate casino-type gambling § Many foreign shipyards are government subsidized to keep workers employed, thereby lowering construction costs § Mass market: Consists of people with incomes in the $35,000– $74,000 range; average cost per person is $95–$195 per day § Middle market: Consists of people with incomes in the $75,000–$99,000 range; average cost per person is $175–$350 per day § Luxury market: Consists of people with incomes higher than $100,000; average cost per person is more than $400 per day § International travelers spend $94 billion in travel in U.S. § $100 billion generated in tax receipts § 59.7 million international travelers visit the U.S. each year § Tourism industry represents 1 in 10 jobs generated § When a tourist spends money to travel, to stay in a hotel, or to eat in a restaurant, that money is recycled by those businesses to purchase more goods, thereby generating further use of the money § In addition, employees of businesses who serve tourists spend a higher proportion of their money locally on various goods and services § § § § § § § § § § § § National Tourism Organization (NTO) Travel Industry of America (TIA) State Offices of Tourism City-Level Offices of Tourism Convention & Visitors Bureaus (CVBs) National Offices of Tourism (NOT’s) Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA) Tour operators Travel agencies Travel corporations Tour Wholesalers and Consolidators Destination management companies § Business travel has declined due to the general economic climate § In addition, increases in airfares, incidences in terrorism, and businesses reducing their travel budgets have negatively affected business travel. § Business travelers tend to be younger, spend more money, travel further, however they do not stay as long as leisure travelers § Tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on communities § World tourism organizations recognize that tourism is a means of enhancing international understanding, peace, prosperity, and universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all § Provided the number of tourists is manageable and they respect the host community’s sociocultural norms and values, tourism provides an opportunity for social interactions § Ecotourism is focused more on individual values—it is “tourism with a conscience” § Those who implement and participate in ecotourism activities should follow the following principles: § Minimize impact § Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect § Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts § Provide direct financial benefits for conservation § Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people § Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental, and social climate § Support international human rights and labor agreements § Generally, most ecotourism destinations are located in underdeveloped and developing countries § Ecotourism projects tend to be developed on a small scale § They are kept small in order to allow more in-depth tours and educational opportunities § According to the UNWTO definition, sustainable tourism refers to the environmental, economic, and sociocultural aspects of tourism development, with the establishment of a suitable balance between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability § The increasing number of tourists visiting destinations has heightened concerns about the environment, physical resources of the place, and sociocultural degradation § Places a broad obligation on society § Sustainable tourism should: a) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development. b) Respect the sociocultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. c) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations. § Culture and heritage are “our legacies from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultures and natural heritages are irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.” § UNESCO has designated a number of World Heritage Sites worthy of protection and preservation because of the outstanding value to humanity of their natural and cultural heritage § There are 19 sites within the U.S. § Cultural tourism: Motivated by interest in cultural events § Heritage tourism: Motivated by historic preservation § Nature tourism: Motivated by nature § Culinary tourism: Culinary adventures are at least a contributing motivation § Volunteer tourism: Motivations include opportunity to travel safely and cheaply and to experience different cultures § Ecotourism, sustainable tourism, and heritage tourism will § § § § § § § § continue to grow Tourist arrivals will continue to increase Governments will increasingly recognize the importance of tourism More bilateral treaties signed The promotion and development of tourism will move more from the public sector (government) to the private sector (involved industry segments) Technology will continue to advance Marketing partnerships and corporate alliances will increase Employment prospects will continue to improve Ticketless air travel will continue to increase § Ticketless air travel will continue to rise § Increased Internet bookings § Managing destinations will continue to be a challenge § Low-cost, no-frills airlines will continue to gain market share § Airlines will entice travelers to book trips via the airline’s website § Automatic airport check-ins will become more popular § Cruise industry will continue to expand § Increase in alternative cruises § Increased concern for the health and safety of travel and tourism § Nature, culinary, and volunteer tourism will increase Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs LEArNiNG oBJECTiVES After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Discuss the relationship of recreation and leisure to wellness. • Explain the origins and extent of government-sponsored recreation. • Distinguish between commercial and noncommercial recreation. • Name and describe various types of recreational clubs. • Identify some of the major attractions in the United States. • Describe the operations of a country club. 427 428   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming Recreational activities include both active and passive activities. Passive ­activities include all kinds of sports—team and individual. Baseball, ­softball, football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, swimming, jogging, skiing, hiking, ­aerobics, rock climbing, and camping are all active forms of recreation. ­Passive recreational activities include reading, fishing, playing and listening to music, gardening, playing computer games, and watching t­elevision or movies. Recreation is an integral part of our nation’s total social, economic, and natural resource environment. It is a basic component of our lives and well being.1 Learning Objective 1 Discuss the relationship of recreation and leisure to wellness. Recreation, Leisure, and Wellness As postindustrial society has become more complex, life has become more stressed. The need to develop the wholeness of the person has become increasingly important. Compared to a generation ago, the stress levels of business executives are much higher. The term burnout—and indeed the word stress—has become a part of our everyday vocabulary only in recent years. Recreation is all about creating a balance, a harmony in life that will maintain wellness and wholeness. Recreation allows people to have fun together and to form lasting relationships built on the experiences they have enjoyed together. This recreational process is called bonding. Bonding is hard to describe, yet the experience of increased interpersonal feeling for friends or business associates as a result of a recreational pursuit is common. These relationships result in personal growth and development. The word recreation implies the use of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one’s body or mind.2 Recreation is synonymous with lifestyle and the development of a positive attitude. An example of this is the increased feeling of well being experienced after a recreational activity. Some people make the mistake of trying to pursue happiness as a personal goal. It is not enough for a person to say, “I want to be happy; therefore, I will recreate.” Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote in the Windsurfing is definitely an active mid-nineteenth century: “Happiness in this recreational activity. world, when it comes, comes incidentally. Make it the object of pursuit, and it leads us a wild-goose chase, and is never attained. Follow some other object, and very possibly we may find that we have caught happiness without dreaming of it.”3 Recreation is a process that seeks to establish a milieu conducive to the discovery and development of characteristics that can lead to happiness. Happiness and well being, therefore, are incidental outcomes of recreation. Thus, happiness may be enhanced Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  429 by the pursuit of recreational activities. Personal recreational goals are equally as important as any other business or personal goals. These goals might include running a mile in under six minutes or maintaining a baseball batting average above .300. The fact that a person sets and strives to achieve goals requires personal organization. This helps improve the quality of life. Leisure is best described as time free from work, or discretionary time. Some recreation professionals use the words leisure and recreation interchangeably, while others define leisure as the productive, creative, or contemplative use of free time. History, by this latter definition, shows again and again a direct link between leisure and the advancement of civilization. Ironically, however, much of the ­leisure we, as a society, enjoy is the direct result of increased technological and productivity advancements or just plain hard work. ▶ Check Your Knowledge Hiking is a great exercise and an ideal way to get back to nature. 1. Discuss the relationship of recreation and leisure to wellness. Government-Sponsored Recreation Various levels of government that constitute government-sponsored recreation are intertwined, yet distinct, in the parks, recreation, and leisure services. The founding fathers of America said it best when they affirmed the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence. Government raises revenue from income taxes, sales taxes, and property taxes. Additionally, government raises special revenue from recreation-related activities such as automobile and recreational vehicles, boats, motor fuels, transient occupancy taxes (TOTs) on hotel accommodations, state lotteries, and others. The monies are distributed among the various recreation- and leisure-related organizations at the federal, state/provincial, city, and town levels. Recreation and leisure activities are extremely varied, ranging from cultural pursuits such as museums, arts and crafts, music, theater, and dance to sports (individual and team), outdoor recreation such as hiking and camping, amusement parks, theme parks, community centers, playgrounds, libraries, and gardens. People select recreational pursuits based on their interests and capabilities. Parks and recreation groups are up against numerous challenges, especially as leisure and recreational resources become more highly valued assets Learning Objective 2 Explain the origins and extent of government-sponsored recreation. 430   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming in the community. Funding for staff and services is one area these groups find challenging. Following are some other issues with which recreation professionals must deal: • Comprehensive recreation planning • Land classification systems • Federal revenue sharing • Acquisition- and development-funding programs • Land-use planning and zoning • State and local financing • Off-road vehicle impacts and policy • Use of easements for recreation • Designation of areas (such as wilderness, wild and scenic rivers, national trails, nature preserves) • Differences in purposes and resources (of the numerous local, state/ provincial, and federal agencies that control more than one-third of the nation’s land, much of which is used for recreation) National Parks in the United States The prevailing image of a national park is one of grand natural playgrounds, such as Yellowstone National Park, but there is much more to parks than that.4 The United States has 407 designated areas throughout the country and the U.S. territories. The National Park Service was founded in 1916 by Congress to conserve park resources and to provide for their use by the public in a way that leaves them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations. In addition to the better-known parks such as Yellowstone and Yosemite, the park service also manages many other heritage attractions, including the Freedom Trail in Boston, Independence Hall in Philadelphia, the Antietam National Battlefield in Sharpsburg, Maryland, and the USS The splendor of nature awaits us in our national parks. Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The park service is also charged with caring for myriad cultural artifacts, including ancient pottery, sailing vessels, colonial-period clothing, and Civil War documents. The ever-expanding mandate of the park service also calls for understanding and preserving the environment. It monitors the ecosystem from the Arctic tundra to coral atolls, researches the air and water quality around the nation, and participates in global studies Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  431 on acid rain, climate change, and biological diversity. The idea of preserving exceptional lands for public use as national parks arose after the Civil War when America’s receding wilderness left unique national resources vulnerable to exploitation. Recent years have seen phenomenal growth in the system, with three new areas created in the last 20 years. These include new kinds of parks, such as urban recreational areas, free-flowing rivers, longdistance trails, and historic sites honoring our nation’s social achievements. The system’s current roster of 407 areas covers more than 80 million acres of land, with individual areas ranging in size from the 13-million-acre Wrangell– St. Elias National Park and Preserve in Alaska to the Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial (a Philadelphia row house commemorating a hero of the American Revolution), which covers two one-hundredths of an acre. Annual visitation to the national park system approaches 300 million visitors, who take advantage of the full range of services and programs. 5 The focus once placed on preserving the scenery of the most natural parks has shifted as the system has grown and changed. Today, emphasis is placed on preserving the vitality of each park’s ecosystem and on the protection of unique or endangered plant and animal species. National Park Management The National Park Service is in the Department of the Interior and is overseen by a director who reports to the Secretary of the Interior. The director of the National Park Service establishes and approves service-wide natural resource policies and standards. The director is ultimately responsible for establishing natural and cultural resource programs that conserve natural resources unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations and for ensuring that such programs are in compliance with directives, policies, and laws.6 Each national park has a superintendent, and the superintendent is responsible for understanding the park’s resources and their condition. The superintendent is responsible for establishing and managing park backcountry-management programs and ensuring that they comply with directives, policies, and laws. The superintendent initiates the development of backcountry recreational use plans as necessary. The superintendent should coordinate the visitor use-management plans with neighboring land managers as appropriate. Each superintendent with designated or eligible wilderness should designate a wilderness coordinator to review all activities ongoing in the wilderness.7 The National Park Service budget request for 2014 and 2015 was around $3 billion, employing a staff of 22,000 permanent, temporary, and seasonal employees. Beyond these appropriated funds, the National Park Service is also authorized to collect and retain revenue from the following specified sources:8 • Recreation fees: approximately $172.9 million per year • Park concessions franchise fees: approximately $60 million per year 432   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming • Filming and photography special use fees: approximately $1.2 million per year • Additional funding comes from individual donations. Managing a national park is a complex task that involves skilled professionals from many fields. Park management is not achieved by merely relying on experience and instincts. Whenever possible, it is based on solid scientific research, conducted not only by park staff, but by universities and independent researchers as well. Financial constraints are always an issue while managing our national parks.9 The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is the most visited of the national parks, receiving over 9 million visitors a year. This park has the following main operating departments: Ranger—rangers provide the chief response and visitor protection and are the sole law enforcement in the park. Rangers operate the campgrounds, perform search and rescue, and provide emergency medical services. Resource Education—creates curriculum and delivers courses ranging from elementary students to adults and seniors. Known as “walks, talks, and tours,” they cover pre-visitation to guided tours of the park. Resource Management and Science—is responsible for the ongoing health of the natural and cultural resources. Facility Management—responsible for a $2 billion infrastructure of roads, 350 nonhistoric buildings, and 72 bathrooms. Administration—takes care of human resources, purchasing, contracts, and property management. Remember that the park service has the mission to conserve natural resources. This can prove very challenging, as nonnative pests and diseases threaten the biological diversity of the park, such as the case of the woolly adelgid, an aphid-like pest that kills hemlock trees. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park has over 90,000 acres of hemlock trees that are likely to be killed by these pests unless something can be found to stop the pests quickly. Let’s look at another national park, Cape Lookout National Seashore. There are natural and cultural resources and numerous historic structures that are managed within the 56 miles of seashore. In all national parks, the need for efficient, innovative park management is especially important in order to protect the very best of this nation’s rich heritage. And the law of the land dictates that, in turn, these resources, and the American public that owns them, deserve the very best that the National Park Service can give them.10 The National Park Service is required to maintain an up-to-date general management plan (GMP) for each unit of the park system. The purpose of each GMP is to ensure that the park has a clearly defined direction for asset preservation and visitor use. This foundation for decision-making is to be Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  433 developed by an interdisciplinary team, in consultation with relevant offices within the park service, other federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the general public. The GMP should be based on use of scientific information related to existing and potential asset conditions, visitor experiences, environmental impacts, and relative costs of alternative courses of action. The GMP should take the long view, which may project many years into the future, when dealing with time frames. The plan should consider the park in its full ecological, scenic, and cultural contexts as a unit of the National Park Service and as part of a surrounding region.11 No two days are alike in the park service. On one day, a meth lab may be discovered; on another, a tornado may create havoc or visitors may get lost and need rescuing. Yet every day at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park there are thousands of visitors to take care of at the visitor center. Each visitor has questions ranging from “Where are the bathrooms?” to “Can I see a bear?” Public Recreation and Parks Agencies During the early part of the nineteenth century in the United States, the parks movement expanded rapidly as a responsibility of government and voluntary organizations. By the early 1900s, 14 cities had made provisions for supervised play facilities, and the playground movement gained momentum. Private initiative and financial support were instrumental in convincing city government to provide tax dollars to build and maintain new play areas. Street basketball is a great About the same time, municipal parks were created in a number team sport. of cities. Boston established the first metropolitan park system in 1892. In 1898, the New England Park Association (predecessor of the American Institute of Park Executives) was established to bring together park superintendents and promote their professional concerns. Increasingly, the concept that city governments should provide recreation facilities, programs, and services became widely accepted. Golf courses, swimming pools, bathing beaches, picnic areas, winter sports facilities, game fields, and playgrounds were constructed. ▶ Check Your Knowledge 1. Name a few parks in the United States and in Canada. What are some characteristics that make the parks you named special? 2. Explain the origins and extent of government-sponsored recreation. 3. Name your favorite park. Share with your classmates why it is your favorite. 434   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming Learning Objective 3 Distinguish between commercial and noncommercial recreation. Learning Objective 4 Name and describe various types of recreational clubs. Commercial Recreation—Attractions Recreation management came of age in the 1920s and 1930s, when recreation and social programs were offered as a community service. Colleges and universities began offering degree programs in this area. Both public and private sector recreation management has grown rapidly since 1950. Commercial recreation, often called eco- or adventure tourism, provides residents and visitors with access to an area’s spectacular wilderness through a variety of guided outdoor activities. Specifically, commercial recreation is defined as outdoor recreational activities provided on a fee-for-service basis, with a focus on experiences associated with the natural environment. 12 Commercial recreation includes theme parks, attractions, and clubs. Theme Parks The idea of theme parks all began in the 1920s in Buena Park, California, with a small berry farm and tea room. As owner Walter Knott’s restaurant business grew, different attractions were added to the site to keep waiting customers amused. After a gradual expansion, over 80 years after its humble beginnings, Knott’s Berry Farm has become one of the largest independent theme parks in the United States. Today, Knott’s Berry Farm is 160 acres of rides, attractions, live entertainment, historical exhibits, dining, and specialty shops. The park features four themes—Ghost Town, Fiesta Village, the Boardwalk, and Camp Snoopy, which is the official home of Snoopy and the Peanuts characters. In addition, the California Marketplace is located right outside the park, and offers 15 unique shops and restaurants. A water park is an example of Knott’s Berry Farm has truly been a great influence on the a single-themed park. American theme park industry. Hundreds of parks, both independent and corporate owned, started to develop following the birth of Knott’s. Creator Walter Knott may have figured out why amusement parks became so popular so quickly. He was quoted as saying, “The more complex the world becomes, the more people turn to the past and the simple things in life. We [the amusement park operators] try to give them some of those things.”13 Even with the ever-increasing competition, Knott’s continues to attract guests with its authentic historical artifacts, relaxed atmosphere, emphasis on learning, famous food, varied entertainment, innovative rides, and specialty shopping.14 Knott’s Berry Farm is now owned and operated by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. Size and Scope of the Theme Park Industry Visiting theme parks has always been a favorite tourist activity. Theme parks attempt to create an atmosphere of another place and time, and they usually emphasize one dominant theme around which architecture, landscape, rides, shows, foodservices, costumed personnel, and retailing are orchestrated. In this definition, the concept of themes is crucial to the operation of the parks, Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  435 with rides, entertainment, and food all used to create several different environments.15 Theme parks and attractions vary according to theme, which might be historical, cultural, geographical, and so on. Some parks and attractions focus on a single theme, such as the marine zoological SeaWorld parks. Other parks and attractions focus on multiple themes, such as Kings Island in Ohio, a family entertainment center divided into seven theme areas: Action Zone, Coney Mall, X-Base, International Street, Oktoberfest, Planet Snoopy, Rivertown, and Soak City. Another example is California’s Great America, a 100-acre family Roller coasters are staples at most amusement parks. entertainment center that includes the following areas and attractions: Action Zone, All American Corners, Celebration Plaza, County Fair, Orleans Place, Planet Snoopy, and Boomerang Bay. There is an abundance of theme parks located throughout the United States, visited by more than 300 million people each year. The estimated 400 theme parks and attractions throughout the United States generate more than $12 billion in revenue and account for an estimated 600,000 jobs annually, which significantly contributes to the country’s economic activity. These parks have a variety of attractions, from animals and sea life to thrill rides and motion simulators. There are parks with educational themes and parks where people go simply to have a good time.16 H o w t o M a n a g e Th e m e P a r k D a y - t o - D a y O p e r at i o n s Courtesy of James McManemon, M.S., University of South Florida Sarasota–Manatee There are hundreds of theme parks in the United States alone, and while we commonly think of popular Florida theme parks such as Disney World, Universal Studios, SeaWorld, and Busch Gardens, the majority of theme parks are lesser-known and smaller parks throughout the country like Little Amerricka in Wisconsin, Dutch Wonderland in Pennsylvania, and Holiday World & Splashin’ Safari in Indiana. Mark Froman, the manager of a smaller underthe-radar North Carolina theme park, shared some of his responsibilities for overseeing the day-to-day operations of the theme park when it is active during the busy spring and summer season. 436   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming H o w t o M a n a g e Th e m e P a r k D a y - t o - D a y O p e r a t i o n s (Continued) 1. Ensure a positive environment: Each day, as park manager, I arrive at the park at 6:00 a . m ., several hours before opening and walk the grounds to make sure the initial appearance of the park is spotless. I pick up any trash I find that was missed by the night cleaning crew, and I check each bathroom for proper levels of cleanliness to ensure that all health and safety standards are in place before the first guest is admitted into the property. In addition, I will conduct several additional walkthroughs during park hours to again check for health and safety standards and to make sure park employees are on task. We expect that each park employee provides a high level of customer service and follows park policies. During all walkthroughs, I take notes on both park appearance and staff performance in order to ensure that any issues I see will be addressed at the next staff meetings. 2. Customer care liaison: At this smaller theme park, as park manager, I am directly responsible for handling customer complaints in real time. If a customer has expressed dissatisfaction with the park ­experience or has an issue that needs to be handled on site, I, as park manager, am immediately radioed to the scene. While the park takes great pride in providing great customer service and a positive experience, there are still generally a few issues or complaints per day ranging from ticketing issues to general inquiries about the park. One day, a guest simply wanted to know if they could receive either a refund or complimentary tickets to return on another day because the guest’s child had started to feel ill less than an hour after admittance and the guest had to leave to attend to the child’s health. Another day, there was a guest who presented two complimentary tickets that were expired and was upset when the tickets could not be redeemed at the admission office. In this case, although policy does not typically allow redemption of expired tickets, as park manager, I made an exception because the customers were repeat guests and had traveled from out of state specifically to visit the park for several days. 3. Park maintenance: During theme park hours, should a maintenance issue arise with any ride, game, or other theme park feature, as manager, I am called to the scene first and made aware of the issue. It is the park manager’s responsibility to determine the proper procedure for closing the area to guests and informing them of the issue, calling in the maintenance staff to begin working on the issue, and informing guests of the estimated time before the ride will be open again to the public. At the end of each day, the manager meets with staff members and is made aware of any feedback, concerns, or ideas for improving the guest experience. As park manager, I always encourage park staff members to take ownership of the park and set goals for monthly attendance. At our park, we allocate a staff salary bonus based on meeting our goals. This provides staff members with an incentive to constantly voice their opinions to improve the park operation. 4. Staff manager: As park manager, I am also responsible for creating and adjusting the weekly staff schedule. Because many park staff members are high school and college students on summer vacation, there is occasional turnover and weekly schedule changes needed due to staff calling in sick. When a staff member calls in sick, it’s necessary to work quickly to fill the shift with another staff member. Additionally, if a staff member quits in the middle of the week, it’s necessary to quickly interview and hire a new employee to fill the position. I keep a steady number of resumes and applications on file for that purpose, but in the interim, I will ask other staff members to fill the shift until a new hire is made. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  437 Many of the country’s most well-known parks are located in Florida. Walt Disney World, SeaWorld, and Universal Orlando Resort are just a few of the many parks located in Orlando. Busch Gardens and Adventure Island are both in Tampa. Busch Gardens, located in both Tampa, Florida, and Williamsburg, Virginia, is perhaps the most well known of the animal-themed parks. Busch Gardens is like a zoo with a twist. It features equal amounts of thrill rides and animal attractions. Guests can take a train ride through the Serengeti Plain®, where zebras and antelope run wild, hop aboard a giant tube ride through the Congo River Rapids®, or ride on one of the parks’ many worldrecord-holding roller coasters. Many cities in the United States are well known for their festivals, which bring in droves of vacationers year after year. One of the most well known is Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) in New Orleans. Mardi Gras began over a hundred years ago as a carnival and has evolved into a world-renowned party. Mardi Gras takes place every year in February, the day before Ash Wednesday, the beginning of Lent. The days leading up to Fat Tuesday are filled with wild parades, costume contests, concerts, and overall partying. The famous Bourbon Street is the scene for most of the party-going crowd, and it is often too crowded even to walk around. Beads are big at Mardi Gras, and thousands are given out each year. The culture of New Orleans greatly adds to the festiveness of Mardi Gras, because traditional jazz and blues can always be heard on most street corners. Another famous site of interest is the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee. The Grand Ole Opry is a live radio show in which country music guests are featured. Begun almost 90 years ago, the Grand Ole Opry is what made Nashville the “Music City.” Since the Opry’s start, Nashville created a theme park, Opryland (closed in 1997), and a hotel, the Gaylord Opryland Resort. Famous musicians come from all over the world to showcase their talents, and tourists flock from everywhere to hear the sounds of the Opry and see the sites that Nashville has to offer. Introducing Walt Disney: A Man with a Vision In 1923, at the age of 21, Walt Disney arrived in Los Angeles from Kansas City to start a new business. The first endeavor of Walt Disney and his brother Roy was a series of shorts (a brief film shown before a feature-length movie) called Alice Comedies, which featured a child actress playing with animated characters. Realizing that something new was needed to capture the audience, in 1927, Disney began a series called Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. It was well received by the public, but Disney lost the rights as a result of a dispute with his distributor. Walt Disney then conjured up the concept of a mouse character. Mickey and Minnie Mouse first appeared in Steamboat Willie, which also 438   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming Walt Disney. incorporated music and sound, on November 18, 1928. Huge audiences were ecstatic about the work of the Disney Brothers, who became overnight successes. During the next few years, Walt and Roy made many Mickey Mouse films, which earned them enough to develop other projects, including full-length motion pictures in Technicolor. According to Disney, “Disneyland really began when my two daughters were very young. Saturday was always Daddy’s Day, and I would take them to the merry-go-round and sit on a bench eating peanuts while they rode. And sitting there alone, I felt there should be something built, some kind of family park where parents and children could have fun together.”17 Walt’s original dream was not easy to bring to reality. During the bleak war years, not only was much of his overseas market closed, but the steady stream of income that paid for innovation dried up. However, even during the bleak years, Walt never gave up. Instead, he was excited to learn of the public’s interest in movie studios and the possibility of opening the studios to allow the public to visit the birthplace of Snow White, Pinocchio, and other Disney characters. After its creation, Disneyland had its growing pains—largerthan-expected opening day crowds, long lines at the popular rides, and a cash flow that was so tight that the cashiers had to rush the admission money to the bank to make payroll. Fortunately, since those early days, Disneyland and the Disney characters have become a part of the American dream. By the early 1960s, Walt had turned most of his attention from film to real estate. Because he was upset when cheap motels and souvenir shops popped up around Disneyland, for his next venture, Walt Disney World, he bought 27,500 acres around the park. The center of Walt Disney World was to be the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow (Epcot). Regrettably, Epcot and Walt Disney World were his dying dreams; Walt Disney succumbed to cancer in 1966. However, Walt’s legacy carries on. The ensuing years since Walt’s death have included phenomenal Disney successes with Epcot, movies, a TV station, the Disney Channel, Disney stores, and Disney’s Hollywood Studios theme park (formerly Disney-MGM Studios). In April 1992, Euro Disneyland, now Disneyland Paris, opened near Paris. For a variety of reasons (location, cost, climate, and culture), it was initially a failure, until his Royal Highness Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal of Saudi Arabia purchased up to 25 percent of the Disneyland Paris Resort. Both Walt Disney World and Disneyland have excellent college programs that enable selected students to work during the summer months in a variety of hotel, foodservice, and related park positions. Disney has also introduced a faculty internship that allows faculty to intern in a similar variety of positions. Walt Disney World is composed of four major theme parks: Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney’s Animal Kingdom, and Disney’s Hollywood Studios, with more than 100 attractions, 31 resort hotels, spectacular nighttime entertainment, and vast shopping, dining, and recreation facilities that cover thousands of acres in this tropical paradise. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  439 Walt Disney World includes tennis courts, championship golf, marinas, swimming pools, jogging and bike trails, water skiing, and motor boating. Walt Disney World is always full of new surprises: It now features an unusual water adventure park—a “snow-covered” mountain with a ski resort theme called Blizzard Beach. The Disney hotels are architecturally exciting and offer a number of amenities. The fun-filled Disney’s AllStar Sports Resort and Disney’s colorful All-Star Music Resort are categorized as value-class hotels. Disney’s Wilderness Lodge is one of the park’s jewels, with its impressive tall-timber atrium lobby and rooms built around a Rocky Mountain–like geyser pool. In all, the Walt Disney World. park has a cast of thousands of hosts, hostesses, and entertainers famous for their warm smiles and commitment to making every night an especially good one for Disney guests. There is more to enjoy than ever at Walt Disney World in Mickey’s PhilharMagic, which incorporates new 3D movie technology in the Fantasyland area of the Magic Kingdom; Splash Mountain, a popular log flume ride in Frontierland at the Magic Kingdom; Mission: SPACE, a motion simulator ride at Epcot that mimics what an astronaut experiences; and, at Disney’s Hollywood Studios, the ultimate thriller, the Twilight Zone Tower of Terror. Magic Kingdom The heart of Walt Disney World and its first famous theme park is the Magic Kingdom. It is a giant theatrical stage where guests become part of exciting Disney adventures. It is also the home of Mickey Mouse, Snow White, Peter Pan, Tom Sawyer, Davy Crockett, and the Swiss Family Robinson. More than 40 major shows and ride-through attractions, not to mention shops and unique dining facilities, fill its six lands of imagination. Each land carries out its theme in fascinating detail—architecture, transportation, music, costumes, dining, shopping, and entertainment are designed to create a total atmosphere where guests can leave the ordinary world behind. The six lands are as follows:18 Main Street, USA Experience turn-of-the-century charm with horse-drawn trolleys, horseless carriages, plenty of souvenir shops, a penny arcade, and a grand-circle tour of the park on the Walt Disney World Railroad. Adventureland Explore exotic places with the Pirates of the Caribbean, the Swiss Family Treehouse, the Magic Carpets of Aladdin, and Walt Disney’s Enchanted Tiki Room. Frontierland Experience thrills on Splash Mountain and Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, musical fun in the Country Bear Jamboree, recreation in the Frontierland Shootin’ Arcade, and adventure in the Tom Sawyer Island caves and its raft rides. Liberty Square Go steam boating on the Rivers of America, find mystery in the Haunted Mansion, and view the impressive Hall of Presidents with the addition of President Barack Obama in a speaking role. 440   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming Fantasyland Cinderella Castle is the gateway to Fantasyland, where you’ll find the Enchanted Tales with Belle and Main Street Philharmonic at Storybook Circus. Take the Journey of the Little Mermaid and go Under the Sea with Ariel, dine at Be Our Guest Restaurant and Gaston’s Tavern, or ride the Seven Dwarfs Mine Train. Storybook Circus includes attractions like Dumbo the Flying Elephant, Walt Disney World Railroad, and Casey Jr. Splash ‘N’ Soak Station. Tomorrowland Travel to a sci-fi city of the future with the whirling Astro Orbiter, the shoot-em-up Buzz Lightyear’s Space Ranger Spin, the interactive Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor, the adventurous Stitch’s Great The monorail track at Walt Disney World. Escape!, the speedy Space Mountain, the Tomorrowland Speedway, the elevated Tomorrowland Transit Authority People Mover, and Walt Disney’s Carousel of Progress, one of Disney’s oldest productions. Epcot Epcot is a unique, permanent, and ever-changing world’s fair with two major themes: Future World and World Showcase. Highlights include IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, a nightly spectacle of fireworks, fountains, lasers, and classical music. Future World shows an amazing exposition of technology for the near future for home, work, and play in Innoventions. The newest consumer products are continually added. Major pavilions exploring past, present, and future are shown in the Spaceship Earth story of communications (Spaceship Earth is the geosphere symbol of Epcot). The Universe of Energy giant dinosaurs help explain the origin and future of energy. There are also Mission: SPACE, which launches visitors into a simulated space adventure; Test Track, a high-speed vehicle-simulation ride; Journey Into Imagination, a tour through various sensory labs; and The Seas with Nemo & Friends, which houses the world’s second-largest indoor ocean with thousands of tropical sea creatures.19 The Epcot World Showcase are pavilions centered around a reflective lagoon where guests can see replicas of world-famous landmarks and sample the native foods, entertainment, and culture of 11 nations:20 Mexico Mexico’s fiesta plaza and boat trip on Gran Fiesta Tour Starring The Three Caballeros, plus La Hacienda de San Angel for authentic Mexican cuisine Norway Stave Church Gallery, an exhibit centered on the origins of the movie Frozen, and the Akershus Royal Banquet Hall restaurant Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  441 China Reflections of China Stunning Circle-Vision 360° film tours and ancient and modern China, plus the Nine Dragons Restaurant Germany An authentic Biergarten restaurant Italy St. Mark’s Square street players and Tutto Italia Restaurant United States The American Adventure’s stirring historical drama Japan Replica of Japan’s Imperial Palace plus the Teppan Edo restaurant Morocco Morocco’s palatial Restaurant Marrakesh France “Impressions de France” film tour of the French countryside, plus Les Chefs de France and Monsieur Paul restaurants United Kingdom Shakespearean street players, plus the Rose and Crown Dining Room pub Canada “O Canada!,” a 360° Circle-Vision film narrated by Martin Short Each showcase has additional snack facilities and a variety of shops featuring arts, crafts, and merchandise from each nation. Disney’s Hollywood Studios With over 100 major shows, shops, restaurants, ride-through adventures, and backstage tours, Disney’s Hollywood Studios combines real working motion picture, animation, and television studios with exciting movie attractions. The reproduction of Grauman’s Chinese Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard houses the Great Movie Ride. Other major attractions include the Twilight Zone Tower of Terror, a stunning 13-story elevator fall; fast-paced adventure on the Rock ‘n’ Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith; New York Street of Streets of America; exciting shows at Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! and Muppet*Vision 3D; plus a thrilling Star Wars adventure on Star Tours. Especially entertaining for Disney fans is The Magic of Disney Animation, where guests can visit the Animation Academy and sit in on a class hosted by a Disney artist. Favorite Disney films become entertaining stage presentations in the Voyage of the Little Mermaid theater and in Beauty and the Beast, a live, 25-minute musical revue at Theater of the Stars. The best restaurants at Disney’s Hollywood Studios include the Hollywood Brown Derby, Hollywood & Vine, 50’s Prime Time Café, Sci-Fi Dine-In Theater Restaurant, and Mama Melrose’s Ristorante Italiano.21 Disney’s Animal Kingdom Theme Park is the newest addition to Walt Disney World. Animal Kingdom focuses on nature and the animal world around us. Guests can go on time-traveling rides and come face to face with animals from the prehistoric past to the present. Shows are put on featuring Disney’s most popular animal-based films, such as Lion King and A Bug’s Life. Safari tours that bring guests up close and personal with live giraffes, elephants, and hippopotamuses are also offered at Animal Kingdom. Walt Disney World’s two water parks are Disney’s Blizzard Beach Water Park and Disney’s Typhoon Lagoon Water Park. Blizzard Beach has a unique ski-resort theme, while Typhoon Lagoon is based on the legend that a 442   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming powerful storm swept through, leaving pools and rapids in its wake. Both parks offer a variety of slides, tube rides, pools, and moving rivers that drift throughout the parks. All this and much more are what help make Walt Disney World the most popular destination resort in the world. Since its opening in 1971, millions of guests, including kings and celebrities from around the world and all seven U.S. presidents in office since the opening (excluding President Obama), have visited the parks. What causes the most comments from guests is the cleanliness, the friendliness of its cast, and the unbelievable attention to detail—a blend of showmanship and imagination that provides an endless variety of adventure and enjoyment.22 Universal Studios Universal Studios Hollywood has been giving guided tours on its famous movie sets for almost 40 years, and tens of thousands of people visit Universal every day.23 Since its founding, Universal Studios has become the most formidable competitor facing the Walt Disney Company. In Orlando, Florida, Universal Studios has enjoyed huge success, despite encroaching on the kingdom of Disney. In addition to its Hollywood and Orlando parks, Universal has since expanded into Singapore and Japan. Future locations are planned for Moscow, Russia and Beijing, People’s Republic of China. One reason for Universal’s success is its adaptation of movies into thrill rides; another is its commitment to guest participation. Guests get to help make sound effects and can participate in stunts, making Universal Studios more than just a “look behind the scenes.” Universal Studios is also a good example of what is predicted to occur in the future regarding amusement and theme parks. It is offering more realistic thrill rides by combining new technologies and state-of-the-art equipment. Also, the company has realized that visitors tend to go to theme parks just because they happen to be in the area. By greatly expanding the experience, NBC Universal is hoping that its improvements will make travelers want to visit Universal Studios Theme Parks as a one-stop destination. Let’s take a closer look at the Universal theme parks: Universal Studios Hollywood was the first Universal park and boasts the title of the world’s largest movie studio and theme park. As part of the new studio tour, visitors are taken into the tomb of the Revenge of the Mummy, experience a major earthquake, and are right in the middle of a Hollywood movie shoot. Afterward, guests can relax at the Universal CityWalk, a street that claims to offer the best in food, nightlife, shopping, and entertainment. Universal Orlando is a destination in itself, with two theme parks, several themed resorts, and a bustling CityWalk. In Universal Orlando, like in the Hollywood park, you can explore the exciting world of movie making. Its newest and most exciting park, Universal’s Islands of Adventure, Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  443 gives you the best in roller coasters and thrill rides, whereas Wet ’n Wild Orlando gives you the opportunity to enjoy a range of cool waterslides, among other things. If you’re not already exhausted by the mere thought of it, why not check out CityWalk for some food, shopping, and a taste of the hottest nightlife in town. Myriads of venues, popular with tourists and locals alike, offer an amazing variety of cool bars, hot clubs, and live music. Universal Studios Japan features over 20 rides and shows, some brand new and others old favorites, plus great dining and shopping. The newest attraction, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, opened in 2014 and is modeled after the areas with the same name at the Universal Orlando and Universal Studios Hollywood. Universal Studios Singapore is the newest addition and is located within Singapore’s first integrated resort.24 T e c h n olo g y Spo t l i g h t Courtesy of James McManemon, M.S., University of South Florida Sarasota–Manatee Use of Technology in Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs Some of the technologies utilized in the recreation and clubs area are common to the rest of the hospitality industry. Depending on the size and amenities of an establishment, the following information technology systems can be used: call centers (for sales and customer service), point-of-sale systems (for retail distribution, food and beverage, rentals), and ticketing systems (for issuing tickets and passes). Besides these, there are some specific systems that can be implemented in the resorts and clubs. Golf club property management systems would usually make the following functions available to users. The first is wide reservations options: online booking and group reservations. These systems usually can copy the guest’s name on several tee times and thus help to save time on data entry. Another important function in golf clubs is tee-time management. This feature allows instant checking of t­ ee-time availability to provide guests with a complete picture of what’s available. Also, this module enables managing separate times and rates for different types of guests: public, member, twilight, and so forth. Besides this, club agents can relocate (drag and drop) one or multiple players from one tee time to another with ease. Some of the providers of club management software are Jonas Software, RTP|ONE, and CSI Software. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is rapidly entering the recreation and clubs niche of the hospitality industry. This is a technology that uses communication through radio waves for the purposes of tracking and identifying people or objects. RFID chips can be embedded in guest cards or wristbands. They enable authorization at the access points as well as retrieval of the guest’s profile, picture, and membership privileges. The necessary components for this system are RFID chips and an antenna or reader. The RFID antenna picks up a unique serial number from the microchip when a ticket, pass, or wristband with the RFID chip is presented. This technology helps to enhance fraud prevention on the management side and provides hands-free convenience on the guest side. RFID access systems have been widely used at European ski resorts, and now they are also spreading to the American market. In addition, RFID systems can have electronic wallet functionality. Often, RFID is (continued) 444   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming T e c h n olo g y Spo t l i g h t (Continued) implemented in beach resorts, where guests receive an opportunity to pay at different retail outlets without carrying an actual wallet. This provides the convenience of electronic payment to guests and encourages shopping. Moreover, RFID wristbands can be utilized at huge resorts and amusement parks in order to track children if they are lost. Information kiosks appear often at large parks and resorts. Usually this technology allows park visitors to purchase park passes and other services on park grounds. Kiosks can be supplemented with digital displays that provide visitors with relevant information. These technologies optimize the use of parks’ personnel, maximize the use of parks’ resources, and ensure information is available to park visitors. These displays can digitally present pictures or event schedules of different parts of a resort or a park. This helps to attract guests to particular areas at the right time (e.g., when there is an event taking place), as well as enables guests to plan a better recreation experience according to their interests. SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment is a subsidiary of SeaWorld Entertainment, Inc. that also includes Busch Gardens. The animal parks not only offer guests from around the world the opportunity to see and experience the wonders of many marine and land animals, but they also have highly developed educational programs. These programs reach millions of people a year—in the parks, on TV, and over the Internet—informing them on topics such as endangered animals, the environment, and the wonders of the ocean. In addition, SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment is active in the areas of conservation, research, and wildlife assistance worldwide. The company is dedicated to preserving marine life. It uses innovative programs to research various wildlife dilemmas. It also participates in breeding, animal rescue, rehabilitation, and conservation efforts throughout the year. What SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment does for the preservation of Bottlenose dolphins can be seen performing at animals is important to the existence of its SeaWorld. theme parks because the research and rescue programs are subsidized through guest revenue. Also, each park offers unique shows and attractions that combine entertainment and education with a strong commitment to research and conservation. C u r r e n t l y, S e a Wo r l d P a r k s a n d Entertainment25 runs the following parks in the United States: SeaWorld The three SeaWorld parks are located in California (San Diego), Florida Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  445 (Orlando), and Texas (San Antonio). Each park has various themes, marine and animal attractions, shows, rides, and educational exhibits. SeaWorld is based on the creatures of the sea. Guests can pet dolphins and other fish; watch shows featuring Shamu, the famous killer whale; and learn all about the mysteries of the sea. Several rides are also available at SeaWorld, and countless exhibits feature everything from stingrays to penguins. Busch Gardens These theme parks, located in both Tampa, Florida, and Williamsburg, Virginia, feature exciting thrill rides and attractions in addition to large zoos and safari parks. The theme for the Williamsburg Park is classic Europe. It re-creates the seventeenth-century charm of the Old World European atmosphere with a journey through nine authentically detailed European hamlets. Busch Gardens in Tampa has a distinctly African theme. Adventure Island Also located in Tampa, Adventure Island is the only splash park in the Tampa Bay area. It is also the only water theme park on Florida’s west coast featuring several unique water play areas and thrilling splash rides. The water park comprises more than 30 acres of fun-filled water rides, cafés, and shops. Water Country USA Also located in Williamsburg, Water Country USA is Virginia’s largest family water park, featuring state-of-the-art water rides and attractions, all set to a retro surf theme, plus live entertainment, shopping, and restaurants.26 Like Adventure Island, Water Country has an educational atmosphere to help guests, especially children, learn water safety techniques. Aquatica These water parks are located in Orlando, San Antonio, and San Diego. They are known as SeaWorld’s water parks. Aquatica Orlando’s theme is the southern Pacific and features Australian- and New Zealandbased mascots. The park also features dolphins, which you ride by on one of the attractions. Sesame Place This 14-acre park is located in Langhorne, Pennsylvania, and is dedicated totally to a Sesame Street theme. It was designed with the goal of stimulating children’s natural curiosity to learn and explore, while building self-confidence as they interact with other children. Discovery Cove Adjacent to SeaWorld in Orlando, Florida, Discovery Cove is where you can immerse yourself in adventure. It offers up-close encounters with dolphins and other exotic sea life. Guests can swim with dolphins and snorkel through a coral reef, a tropical river, waterfalls, and an amazing freshwater lagoon, among other things.27 Hershey’s What does the name Hershey bring to mind? 28 It was at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago that Hershey first became fascinated with the art of chocolate. Then, Milton Hershey, a small-time candy manufacturer, decided he wanted to make chocolate to coat his caramels. He opened his 446   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming new establishment in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and named it the Hershey Chocolate Company. In the 1900s, the company started to produce mass quantities of milk chocolate, which resulted in immediate success. Soon after, Hershey decided that there was a need to increase his production facilities. He built a new factory on the farmland of south-central Pennsylvania in Derry Township. The following decades brought many product-line expansions. In 1968, the company was renamed the Hershey Foods Corporation. Today, the company is the leading manufacturer of chocolate, nonchocolate confectionery, and grocery products in North America. In 1907, Milton Hershey opened Hershey Park as a leisure park for employees of Hershey’s company. He wanted to create a place for his employees to relax and have some fun when they were not on the job. The park was small and simple, offering employees a place to picnic, canoe, and walk around the beautifully landscaped grounds. In 1908, the park started its soon-to-be huge expansion with the addition of a merry-go-round. In the years to come, the park continued to add more rides and attractions. As the park continued to expand, the company decided to open the park’s doors to the public. It became a small regional park with a pay-asyou-ride policy. In 1971, the park underwent redevelopment to turn the small regional park into a large theme park. In addition, the company decided to add a one-time admission fee to eliminate the pay-as-you-ride policy and changed its name from Hershey Park to Hersheypark. Today, the park sits on more than 110 acres and is the home of more than 60 rides and attractions. ▶ Check Your Knowledge 1. Distinguish between commercial and noncommercial recreation. 2. Why did Walt Disney really create Disneyland? 3. Discuss your favorite theme park with your class. Explain why it is your favorite. Learning Objective 5 Identify some of the major attractions in the United States. Regional Theme Parks Just to show how varied the attractions industry is, consider the state of Florida and its attractions association. The Florida Attractions Association, founded in 1949, is a trade association representing over 90 leading ­attractions, including astronautical, historical, cultural, military, and scientific museums; botanical gardens; castles; collections of the unique and different; dinner entertainments; dolphin and marine parks; exhibitions of alligators, lions, monkeys, parrots, butterflies, and manatees; Native American villages; musical ­entertainment complexes; sightseeing trains, cruises, and boat tours; state parks; theme parks; towers; water parks; and zoological parks. In addition to some of the larger theme parks mentioned in the preceding section, there are others that cater to thousands of visitors each year. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  447 The Miami Seaquarium is a 38-acre tropical paradise, a place where dolphins walk on water, killer whales fly through the air, and endangered sea turtles and manatees find a safe haven. There are several different marine animal shows and an educational program that focuses on the mysteries of the sea even top marine scientists can’t explain. In order to broaden its appeal and bring in additional revenue, the Miami Seaquarium has developed a company program for events and a schools and Scouts program to appeal to the youth market. Marineland Dolphin Adventure in Miami began in 1938 in an effort to duplicate the variety of marine life as it exists in the wild for the purpose of making films. It was a hit with Hollywood and was used in a number of movies. Today, the park offers an array of dolphin adventures including opportunities to touch and feed the dolphins, to simulate being a trainer for the day, to make art with the dolphins, and take kayak tours in the local estuary. Dollywood In 1961, a small attraction with a Civil War theme called Rebel Railroad opened its doors to the public.29 In the 1970s, the name Rebel Railroad was changed to Goldrush Junction, and the theme was changed to resemble the Wild West. This attraction is now known all across the world as Dollywood. The name came about in 1986 when Dolly Parton became a co-owner of the park. The park sits on 150 acres in the foothills of the Smoky Mountains in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. In addition to having all the rides of an amusement park, Dollywood is enriched by the culture of the Smoky Mountains. The park includes crafts such as blacksmithing, glass blowing, and woodcarving. It also hosts several festivals, concerts, and musical events. Today, Dollywood brings in more than 3 million visitors during its operating season and continues to be Tennessee’s number one tourist attraction. Additionally, Dollywood’s DreamMore Resort opened in July 2015 and is expected to double in the number of visitors it attracts each year.30 Legoland Legoland is a theme park partly owned by the Lego Group. 31 In 1968, Legoland Billund Resort in Denmark opened and now has over 1 million visitors annually. The parks are themed after—you guessed it—Legos, the brightly colored plastic bricks, gears, minifigures, and other pieces that are assembled to create models of almost anything. The parks are marketed toward young families. This is emphasized in the rides: All the parks have roller coasters that are not quite as extreme as the roller coasters found in other theme parks. Today there are six Legoland parks located in Billund, Denmark; Windsor, United Kingdom; Carlsbad, California; Günzburg, Germany; Winter Haven, Florida; and Malaysia. Each park features a miniland, which is made up of millions of bricks that create models of landmarks and scenes from all around the world. Legoland Windsor is one of Britain’s most popular attractions. Legoland’s theme parks are owned and operated by Merlin Entertainments.32 448   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming Gatorland Gatorland is a 110-acre theme park and wildlife preserve located in Orlando, Florida.33 It all started when Owen Godwin built an alligator pit in his backyard. After World War II, Godwin bought a 16-acre plot located off Florida’s second-most-traveled highway. He decided that he wanted to build an attraction on his land that would provide a close-up view of Florida’s animals in their native habitat. In 1949, Godwin opened the attraction’s doors to the public under the name of the Florida Wildlife Institute, which he shortly after changed to the Snake Village and Alligator Farm. In 1954, Godwin once again changed the name of the attraction to its current name, Gatorland. The 1960s brought growth to the tourism industry in Florida. As the industry grew, Gatorland continued to expand by adding a number of exhibits and attractions. Today, Gatorland features alligators, crocodiles, a breeding marsh, reptilian shows, a petting zoo, a swamp walk, educational programs, and train rides. In addition, it offers the following shows: Gator Jumparoo, which features alligators jumping four to five feet out of the water to retrieve food; Gator Wrestlin’, an alligator wrestling show in which wranglers catch an alligator by hand; and Up Close Encounters, where visitors meet wildlife from around the globe. One of the oldest attractions in the area, Gatorland continues to be privately owned by Godwin’s family. Wet ’n Wild Wet ’n Wild was founded by George Millay in Orlando, Florida, in 1977.34 George Millay is also known as the creator of SeaWorld. Wet ’n Wild is considered the first major water park to be opened in the United States. Millay received the first Lifetime Achievement Award from the World Waterpark Association for creation of Wet ’n Wild. The association named him the official “Father of the Waterpark.” Today, Wet ’n Wild is a chain of water parks with locations in Florida and North Carolina. The Wet ’n Wild located in Emerald Pointe, North Carolina features more than 36 rides and attractions that are classified from mild to wild. Wet ’n Wild Orlando also offers something for everyone. The rides fall into three categories: Super Thrills, Group Thrills, and Family Fun. In 1998, Millay sold the Orlando park to the Universal Studios Recreation Group. Animal Attractions Another sector that has been growing substantially is the one of animal attractions. Although they are usually not the main reason people visit a state or city, zoos, aquariums, and wild animal parks attract millions of visitors every year. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  449 Zoos Every kid’s dream, and just as much fun for parents, zoos are one of those things that just don’t seem to go out of style. They are forms of tourist attractions that people may visit when in a destination city such as New York, Chicago, or San Diego. Approximately 181 million people visit a U.S. zoo every year.35 The first zoo in the United States was the Philadelphia Zoo, built in 1859. Even today, zoos are extremely popular in the United States and Canada, and almost every major city has one. In fact, the popularity of zoos was proven when the Walt Disney Company unveiled its Animal Kingdom as one way to combine the effects of visiting a zoo with the attractions of a theme park. Busch Gardens and SeaWorld also have similar parks. Following are examples of two of the most popular and noteworthy American zoos. San Diego Zoo, California The San Diego Zoo attracts many tourists from across the country for a variety of reasons. It may be in part because of the favorable climate that allows the zoo to operate all year round. Also, the zoo has a large collection of animals, interactive programs, and educational programs for children. The world-famous San Diego Zoo is located in historic Balboa Park in downtown San Diego, California. Founded in 1916 by Dr. Henry Wegeforth, the zoo’s original collection totaled 50 animals. Today, it is home to over 3,700 animals of more than 650 different species. The zoo also features a prominent botanical collection with more than 700,000 exotic plants.36 The zoo’s breeding programs help not only to enhance the zoo, but also to provide hope for the survival of many endangered animals. The first giant panda born in the United States to survive to adulthood, Hua Mei, was born at the San Diego Zoo.37 The National Zoo The National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., is part of the respected Smithsonian Institution. More than 2,000 animals from nearly 400 species make their home in this zoo. 38 Among the rare animals featured at the National Zoo are a giant panda, komodo dragons, rare Sumatran tigers, and Asian elephants. The National Zoo is located in a quiet residential area only minutes away from other Smithsonian museums, the Capitol, and the White House. It is not only a place to observe the behavior of certain animals, but also a place that works actively to educate visitors on conservation issues and the various interactions among living organisms. The National Zoo breeds endangered species and reintroduces the animals into their natural habitats. The zoo also participates in other visitor education programs and biological research.39 Aquariums Aquariums are attractions that provide thrilling educational experiences to millions of tourists each year. They are also multimillion-dollar showpieces, 450   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming displaying creatures vastly different from us who dwell on land. For example, each year, 1.8 million visitors pass through the doors of the National Aquarium in Baltimore.40 This impressive aquarium seeks to stimulate public interest in and knowledge about the aquatic world, focusing on the beauty of these species in their natural environments. It uses only the most modern interpretative techniques to engage and get an emotional response from visitors. In fact, many visitors walk out with a desire to become more environmentally responsible.41 ▶ Check Your Knowledge 1. Name at least two regional theme parks and discuss similarities and ­distinctive differences. 2. Identify some of the main attractions found in the United States. 3. Name some rare animals you can find at the National Zoo. Historic Places and Sites Travelers and tourists have visited historic sites for thousands of years. The first sites visited in recorded history were the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which included the Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt), the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (modern-day Iraq), the Statue of Zeus at The Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt. Olympia (Greece), the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus (modernday Turkey), the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (modern-day Turkey), the Colossus of Rhodes (Greece), and the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Egypt). Historic places, sites, and museums are a part of what is now called heritage tourism. Heritage tourism has gained prominence in recent years, particularly with baby boomers and older adults. These groups are less likely to engage in adventure tourism and usually prefer more passive activities. Tourists visiting historic places/sites and museums are interested in the national culture. The various historic attractions appeal to a broad spectrum of the community because they are diverse and located throughout the nation. The National Park Service maintains properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places is the United States’ official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worthy of preservation. The more than 90,000 listings represent significant icons of American culture, history, engineering, and architecture.42 Historic sites include buildings that have been restored and that are now being used as private houses as well as hotels, inns, churches, libraries, galleries, and museums. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  451 Because of declining funds, galleries, museums, and heritage sites have had to become creative in raising money. They have not only had to cover operating costs but also cater to an increasing number of visitors. To selfgenerate revenues, they have had to become more entrepreneurial while continuing to meet their heritage preservation and educational goals. Revenue generation has often been achieved through an increased concentration on partnerships, promotions, and packages in which the sites team up with other operators in the tourism industry, such as tour companies, hotels, restaurants, and car rental companies. Heritage tourism is discussed more in depth in Chapter 9, but consider the following for a look at a few of the most important U.S. historical attractions: • Monticello was the home of the famous statesman Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, architect of American ideals as well as noble buildings, and father of the University of Virginia. The domed mansion of Monticello is set in the beautiful Virginia countryside and is well worth a visit. • The Alamo is a small mission in San Antonio, Texas, with a rich historical background. During Texas’s fight for independence from Mexico, a vicious battle took place in this town. Almost 200 Texans held out for 13 days in a group of fortified mission buildings against General Santa Anna’s army of about 2,400 soldiers. The battle resulted in a tragic Texan defeat. Not long after that, Texans everywhere united in a rallying cry: “Remember the Alamo!”43 And people still do. • The French Quarter in New Orleans is an original part of the city, full of life and history. Unlike historic districts in many other cities, it is still growing and evolving, regardless of the recent natural disasters. Locals constantly wrestle with the issue of balancing evolutionary changes with the need to preserve history. Visitors can have a great time when they visit during Mardi Gras. • The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site is located in the residential section of Sweet Auburn, Atlanta. Two blocks west of the home is Ebenezer Baptist Church, the pastorate of King’s grandfather and father. It was in these surroundings of home, church, and neighborhood that “M. L.” experienced his childhood. Here, he learned about family and Christian love, segregation in the days of Jim Crow laws, diligence, and tolerance. This important site is a reminder of King’s significant contribution to the civil rights movement. • The Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee, is a live radio show in which country music guests are featured. Started more than 90 years ago, the Grand Ole Opry is what made Nashville “Music City.” Since the Opry’s start, Nashville created a theme park, Opryland (now closed), and a hotel, the Gaylord Opryland Resort. Famous musicians come from all over the world to showcase their talents, and tourists flock from everywhere to hear the sounds of the Opry and see the sites that Nashville has to offer.44 452   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming • The Freedom Trail is a walking tour through downtown Boston that passes through 17 points of interest, plus other exhibits, monuments, and shrines just off the trail, some of which are a part of the Boston National Historical Park. This interesting walk through a part of U.S. history includes both the Massachusetts State House and the Old South Meeting House. The Old South Meeting House was the site of many important town meetings concerning the British colonial rule, including those that sparked the Boston Tea Party. Today, there is a multimedia exhibition depicting the area’s 300-year history. The building and two other restored structures today house a bustling marketplace of more than 100 specialty shops, restaurants, and bars. Paul Revere’s house is the only seventeenth-century structure left in downtown Boston. It was from this house that the silversmith left for his historic ride on April 18, 1775. Another site on the Freedom Trail is the Bunker Hill Monument. • The Liberty Bell is housed on Market Street in Philadelphia. The bell’s inscription reads, “Proclaim Liberty throughout All the Land unto All the Inhabitants thereof,” which in fact is taken from the Bible, Leviticus 25:10. For many years, it was known as the State House bell. Its popularity rose when a group of abolitionists, remembering its inscription, adopted the bell as a symbol of their cause; they nicknamed it their liberty bell. In the late 1800s, the bell went on tour around the United States. This trip was an effort to show the war-torn country that there had been a time in history when they had fought and died for a common cause. In 1915, when the tour ended, the Liberty Bell, as it was then known, went home to Philadelphia, where it remains to this day. Throughout American history, the Liberty Bell has served as a simple reminder, a symbol of freedom, independence, and liberty, not just in the United States but also all over the world. ▶ Check Your Knowledge 1. What were the first historic sites visited in recorded history? 2. Name some important U.S. historical attractions. Museums Some experts have speculated that people visit museums because of some innate fascination with the past and with diverse cultures. Nobody knows for sure, but it is a fact that the number of museums in the United States has more than quadrupled since 1950. There are many types of museums, including general, art, science and technology, natural history, history, and military. Someone has to manage these operations, and the more people that travel to experience them, the more career opportunities are available in the travel, hotel, and restaurant industries. Here are a couple of the big names in the museum sector. Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  453 The Smithsonian Institution Established in 1846 by a man who never visited the United States, this wellknown institution now holds almost 140 million artifacts, works of art, and specimens. It is composed of the following museums and ­galleries: the Anacostia Community Museum; the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery; the Cooper-Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum; the Freer Gallery of Art; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Air and Space Museum; the African American History and Culture Museum; the African Art Museum; the American History Museum; the Natural History Museum; the American Indian Museum; the Portrait Gallery; the Postal Museum; the American Art Museum; and the Renwick Gallery. There are also nine research facilities in the United States and abroad, and 168 affiliate museums, as well as the National Zoo.45 The institution’s goal is to increase and diffuse knowledge, and it is also dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and history.46 Smithsonian museums attract approximately 30 million visitors annually, and entrance is free. The National Zoo attracts over 1.5 million visitors annually.47 In addition to its museums and research facilities, parts of the Smithsonian collection can be viewed online at http://www.si.edu. The Field Museum, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History is an institution of public learning that seeks to inspire public knowledge and curiosity by its varied collections, broad research, storied exhibits, and educational programs. The museum, located in Chicago, invites visitors to immerse themselves in scientific discovery.48 The museum was founded in 1893 as a place to house biological and anthropological collections for a world exposition. These types of objects continue to form the basis of the museum’s collections. In addition, the museum conducts research in the areas of geology, paleontology, archaeology, and ethnography. Furthermore, the museum houses collections consisting of more than 20 million items.49 Permanent exhibits at the Field Museum range from dinosaurs to minerals and gems, plants, animals, and cultural exhibits. Temporary exhibits are also displayed from time to time. One example of this was a program entitled “The Art of the Motorcycle.” This exhibit discussed the motorcycle as a cultural icon and also its technological design. Performance Arts Have you ever wished that you could just take off and follow your favorite band on tour? Although some people do, most of us do not have the money or time to do so. However, that does not stop us from enjoying an occasional concert, musical, theater production, comedy show, and so forth when we 454   PART III  Tourism, Recreation, Attractions, Clubs, and Gaming are at home or on the road. While these shows and productions are usually not the primary purpose of leisure travel, in some circumstances they might be. In Orlando or Las Vegas, for example, certain shows have taken up permanent residence. The public knows this and therefore may take a trip to Orlando or Las Vegas at their convenience so that they may see a certain production. In places like New York City and London, stopping off to see a Broadway production or a concert may be an unplanned bonus. Theaters once were immensely important. In a time before people had access to modern inventions like radio or television, books and theater were the only entertainment available. During the industrial era of the early 1900s, the importance of theaters began to wane somewhat as people became too busy juggling work and spending time with family. In addition, many people could not afford such luxuries. In modern times, however, the theater is again gaining importance. Old theaters from the vaudeville days are now being resurrected and reopened to the public—and the public is responding. Increasing numbers of people visit the theater or opera on weekends, holidays, or just for an evening out on the town. Theater is no longer attractive only to the upper classes; affordable prices make it reasonable entertainment for almost anyone. Concerts, musicals, and comedy shows are also becoming increasingly affordable and are included in many people’s vacations schedules. As we move up the hierarchy of needs, self-actualization becomes a greater motivation, and more and more people satisfy that need with a dose of culture and performing arts. ▶ Check Your Knowledge 1. What are the goals of the Smithsonian Institution? 2. Why are theaters, concerts, musicals, and comedy shows regaining importance? Destinations Some destinations are major attractions in themselves. For example, a trip to Europe might include visits to cities such as London, Paris, Rome, Athens, and Madrid or just focus on one country, where visitors enjoy not only the city but also the countryside. The following sections describe some of the world’s most popular destinations. Athens, Greece Athens, the capital city of Greece, is one of the world’s oldest cities—the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state, a center for the arts, learning, and philosophy, Chapter 10 Recreation, Attractions, and Clubs  455 and home of Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum.50 History abounds in Athens, as evidenced by the Parthenon—a temple to the Greek goddess Athena built in the fifth century b.c. on the Acropolis, a flat rock above the city. Today, Athens is a bustling city of more than 3 million—all of whom seem to be on the move, hence its notorious congestion.51 Of the millions of tourists who go to Greece, many, after visiting Athens, take a ferryboat ride to the famed Greek Islands in the Aegean Sea. Crete, the largest island, is rugged and mountainous with beautiful beaches and a reconstruction of the palace of King Minos, which is the largest Bronze Age archeological site on Crete, dating back to between 1700 and 1400 b.c. It was probably the ceremonial and political center of Minoan civilization and culture. The strikingly beautiful island of Santorini is a remaining part of the cone of an extinct volcano that erupted some 3,500 years ago. Some of the picturesque white buildings cling to the rim of the volcano and are among the most photographed in the world. The best way up to the town on top of the hill is by donkey ride. Mykonos is a trendy island with its famed windmills and fabulous beaches, some of them nude beaches. Other often-visited islands include Rhodes, with plenty of ruins, good beaches, and nightlife, and Corfu, off the west coast of Greece, with its lush vegetation due to higher rainfall than the other islands and its excellent beaches, museum, and nightlife—including a casino—making it a favorite of package tour groups. London London was once the center of an empire that included approximately onequarter of the globe. The name suggests history, pageantry, royalty, theater, shopping, museums, music, fashion, and now even food. London has several interesting areas such as Chelsea and the River Thames Big Ben and Westminster Abbey make London a and Hampstead on the hill with its quaint pubs and row houses. popular destination. Trafalgar Square, named after the Battle of Trafalgar in which Nelson defeated the French, is where a statue of Lord Nelson stands atop a tall column. The four large lions that guard the statue were reputedly made from the cannons of the French fleet. Nearby is Piccadilly Circus, the cor...
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Event Planning

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Question 1: List and briefly describe the five stages of the event planning process.
The event planning process has five vital stages. Research is the first phase, and it
involves determining the primary objective of holding a special event and the person responsible
for it. Additionally, it includes identifying the place, themes of the event, and the likely
outcomes. Identification and addressing these concerns facilitate movement to the next step.
Secondly, the design stage offers the necessary freedom in creativity and implementing new
ideas supporting the special event's goals. It includes brainstorming new innovative ideas or
developing adaptations to past events to make them better and more relatable. This stage forms
the basis for all the subsequent phases and activities. Thirdly, planning depends on the available
budget. After establishing the budget, the other steps throughout the process involve contracting
out services and arranging the necessary activities essential in the event. Key determinants that
determine the critical actions in the planning phase include the event size and type.
Fourth, coordination is about controlling or directing the activities of all the team
members. It is concerned about the event's human resource aspect. As leaders, event managers
are responsible for motivating the team to accomplish the desired goal. Their roles i...


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