Scholarly Research on Ethics, writing homework help


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Powerpoint presentation. I need hourly draft of the extent you have reached. Should be 15 to 18 slides. Experts only. I will not pay for crappy work. And have 0 tolerance to more than %5 plagiarism. 2 more files after assigning task. 2750 words.

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9-26-2016, IS 304 1864, Sponaugle ● ● Page 1 What is argument ○ Form of reasoning that tries to establish a supposed truth ○ Formal structure ■ Any number of premises. One or more ■ One and only one conclusion. All premises lead to same conclusion. ○ Descriptive arguments ■ Ones that can easily be proven by going and observing ○ Normative arguments ■ Can’t be proven by observation, relies entirely on reasoning ○ Fallacious argument ■ An argument with faulty reasoning ○ Informal fallacies ■ Ad hominem - a person’s arguments are wrong because of the person who is saying them ● If someone argues they’re an expert, you can argue and use an ad hominem against that ■ Slippery slope - say something is wrong because something it could lead to is bad ■ Appeal to authority - authority is not always appropriate to appeal to in each situation. Need to also use exact quotes from a particular person. ■ False Cause fallacy - assume something happened because something happened directly before that. “The sun goes down because they street lights came on” ■ Begging the question - assuming your answer is correct ■ Fallacy of composition/fallacy of division - the whole is as simple as it’s parts, the parts have same characteristics as whole and reverse ■ Fallacy of ambiguity ■ Appeal to people - popular opinion is not necessarily true ■ The many/ any argument ■ Virtuality fallacy - because something happens in the virtual world, it does not cause any harm ■ Misunderstanding statistics ○ Need to analyze normal language in order to determine structure of argument and convert to standard form Testing arguments ○ Test for validity ○ Test for soundness - for valid arguments ■ Are all the premises true? ■ Sound if they are ( Strong). Not if any are false.(Weak) ○ Testing invalid arguments ■ Inductive - ones that are true most of the time(Strong) 9-26-2016, IS 304 1864, Sponaugle ■ ● Page 2 Fallacious - usually false(weak) ● Can be true and fallacious ○ Do not check a valid argument if it is inductive! ■ Valid arguments must be tested for soundness ■ Valid are always true Seven step strategy ○ Step 1 - convert to standard form ○ Step 2 - Test reasoning for validity. Assume premises or true and answer if conclusion will always be true based on ○ Sept 3 - is it valid? ○ Step 4 ■ 4a - argument is valid and all premises are true, argument is sound ■ 4b - argument is valid but premises are false, unsound ○ Step 5 ■ 5a - if conclusion is likely to be true because of premises, argument is inductive ■ 5b - if unlikely, then is fallacious ○ Step 6 - determine if premises are true or false ○ Step 7 - make an overall assessment of argument ■ Do not need to reject fallacious argument or accept a sound 10-3-2016,IS304 1864, Spongaugle ● Page 1 Seven step strategy for evaluating arguments ○ Step 1 - convert to standard form ○ Step 2 - Test reasoning for validity. Assume premises or true and answer if conclusion will always be true based on ○ Sept 3 - is it valid? ○ Step 4 for valid arguments ■ 4a - argument is valid and all premises are true in the real world, argument is sound ■ 4b - argument is valid but premises are false, unsound ○ Step 5 for invalid arguments ■ 5a - if conclusion is likely to be true most of the time (most of the time is subjective), argument is inductive ■ 5b - if unlikely, then is fallacious (faulty reasoning or logic) ○ Step 6 - determine if premises are true or false ○ Step 7 - make an overall assessment of argument ■ Do not need to reject fallacious argument or accept a sound 9­19­2016, IS 304 1864, Sponaugle Page 1  ● Can use newspaper articles for research paper  ● What is a profession  ○ Occupational fields with certain defining attributes and requirements   ○ Examples: doctor, lawyers, accountants  ● Is there such a thing as a computer professional?  ○ How would you define it?  ○ Is a computer professional a true professional like all the other professionals?   ■ From a legal perspective no  ■ Not licensed   ■ Not held liable for malpractice  ● Can be sued for negligence which is less sever  ■ Can make a case from perspective of it being a calling that requires long  and intensive academic preparation  ● Professional ethics  ○ Do members of a profession need specialized rules?  ○ Yes to govern situations unique to the profession  ■ Higher obligation  ● IT workers do have opportunity to  ○ Do good or cause harm  ○ Enable others to do good or cause harm  ○ Influence other to do good or cause harm  ● Safety critical system  ○ Computer systems that can have direct life threatening impact  ○ Examples: Power plants, car software, airplanes and air traffic control, mass  transportation, medical treatment  9-21-2016, IS 304 1864, Sponaugle ● Page 1 Employee loyalty ○ Do employers and employees have duty to be loyal to one another ○ Some believe it is self evident, others say mutual benefit is what creates loyalty ○ Some argue there is no sense of loyalty between two ■ Duska argues corporations can’t be loyal to employees since they only work to earn profit for shareholders ■ If benefiting employees helps make profits, then appearance of loyalty is there, but no real loyalty or mutual enrichment ■ For this reason, employees should not feel loyalty ■ Corporations want you to believe you should be loyal ■ Sometimes there can be loyalty, but not in corporations ● Mostly small, single owner businesses ○ IT workers have greater access to sensitive information ■ Greater obligation? ● Whistle blowing ○ Going public with information about an illegal or dangerous act that company is responsible for ○ De George conditions for blowing whistle ■ Permitted to blow whistle ● Harm that will be done to the public is serious and considerable ● The employee has made their concern known to management ● The employee has received no satisfaction from their supervisors and exhausted all methods ■ Obligated to blow the whistle ● All previous criteria ● There’s documentable evidence to prove organization is wrong to a reasonable impartial observer ● There’s strong evidence that make information public will prevent the harm ■ Some people say De George is too lenient ● If first 3 are true, you have an obligation to try and prevent harm ● Alpern believes employees who have a career that has great potential to harm society has greater responsibility to try and prevent any harm ■ Some believe De George is too strict ● Might cause people to harm self when not necessary ● Only have to blow whistle in very extreme case ■ Alternative ● McFarland - believes collective should blow whistle together ● Only blow whistle when it is probable to bring success 9-21-2016, IS 304 1864, Sponaugle Page 2 ● ● ● ● ● ● Members of a profession as a whole have an obligation, individuals do not Responsibility ○ Blame for an event factors in 2 things ■ Causality - actions cause something to happen ■ Intent - if you intend for something to happen, but it doesn’t happen can be held accountable ○ Can be blamed for either of these, having both makes it worse though Liability ○ Looks at legal blame ○ Does not care about responsibility in a legal sense Many hands problem in computing context ○ Many people develop computer systems ○ Who can you hold accountable if something goes horribly wrong ○ Corporations do take actions to ensure good ethics ■ Don’t want employees to harm the company Protecting society ○ Certifications and licensing ○ Government licensing ○ IT professionals can be sued for negligence, but not possible to charged with malpractice Issues ○ Piracy - employees using work software for personal use ○ Inappropriate use of company resources ○ Inappropriate sharing of private data and confidential information September 7, 2016 – IS304 1864 – Sponaugle Page 1  Ethics is not the same as morality  There is sometimes no ethical decision that can be made  When analyzing a situation, only look at choices given  Can make assumptions that don't conflict with choices  What is ethics  Set of principles of right conduct  Study of general nature of morals and specific choices to be made  Rules governing a professions behavior  Acting ethically  Do the right thing  Traits we consider it ethical ■ Honesty, respect, fairness, responsibility, compassion, moral courage  Ethical person does not need rules, they act ethically for the sake of doing so  Moral courage  Physical courage faces danger without retreating  Mental courage - harm to reputation, face it it anyway. Do right thing even if it is unpopular  Moral courage - able to face ethical dilemma without flinching or retreating  Ethics - set of beliefs about what’s right wrong  Virtues - habits that incline people to do what is acceptable  Vices - habits of unacceptable behavior  Virtues and vices define moral values  Integrity - able to be consistent in actions and moral code  Don’t change from situation from situation  Does not need to be good. Can do bad with integrity  Morals - personal beliefs of right and wrong  Ethics - standards or code of behavior expected by a group September 7, 2016 – IS304 1864 – Sponaugle Page 2  Laws - rules set what we can and can’t do  Established by the institution and can be punished by  Morality and religion  Legislatures try to force ethical behavior  Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 ■ Enacted in response to accounting scandals ■ Section 404 requires that CEO and CFO sign any SEC filing to attest to its accuracy -> can lock up officials if company breaks laws, since officers would need to lie ■ 406 requires companies disclose whether they have a code of ethics  Golden rule - do onto others as you would have them to unto you      Does everyone wanted to be treated the same?  People want to be treated differently Ethical theories  Consequentialism - what action produces best results for all concerned ■ Ends justify the means ■ Willing to sacrifice minority for the majority  Duty based morality - balancing conflicting rights  Rights based morality - which action best protects individual human and legal rights ■ Favor minority over majority typically Normative principles  Autonomy - self determination  Nonmaleficence - do no harm  Beneficence - benefit others if possible  Justice - fair treatment and impartiality Why should businesses care about ethics  Create goodwill of the community ■ Get more business  Create a business that operates consistently ■ Helps customers know what to expect ■ Retain employees  Fosters good business practices  Protect the organization from legal action ■ Employees are agents of the organization  Why companies have statement of ethics  Avoid unfavorable publicity Article posted on blackboard - read for class Monday Topic: Philosopher's Ethic-Raymond Reddington Description SCHOLARLY research. Philosopher's Ethic: Raymond Reddington in Blacklist TV show Scholarly research on subject's thoughts on ethics. AN OUTLINE should be presented separated. Find an ethical theory to match this research paper then apply in it. ____________________ 1ethics in decision making. include his quote related to ethics. 2-ethic in trading top classified information. 3-ethic in keeping secret from his past. WILL UPLOAD notes from lecture. 10 pages 2 sources MLA ...
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Tutor Answer

School: New York University


Raymond Reddington

Also Red
Main character in The Blacklist NNBC series
A criminal mastermind and fugitive
Currently leaks classified information but only speaks to
FBI Elizabeth “Liz” Keen
A good candidate for ethical decision-making
Accesses all information fully
Knows more than the national Security and FBI
Willingly helps FBI catch criminals other than himself

• Principles and rules of right and wrong
• Doing the right things is acting ethically
• Ethical traits include: honesty, fairness,
respect, moral courage, compassion, and
• Morals define beliefs of wrong and right

Ethics Continued
• Vices and virtues define moral values
• Integrity is the ability to stay consistent in
moral code and actions
• Ethical theories hold distinct approaches
regarding handling life’s decisions

Raymond Reddington’s Ethics in DecisionMakin...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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