The Value of Philosophy, mock midterm exam help

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DUE DATE: PHIL 150 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY FALL SEMESTER, 2016 TAKE HOME MOCK MIDTERM TEST TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS: 85 Part I. Please, circle only one answer. In one maximum two sentences explain the meaning of the chosen answer in the context of the philosopher’s argument. Questions on B. Russell’s text The Value of Philosophy, 17. 1. Bertrand Russell taught that philosophy should be studied for the sake of the a. Questions a. 2. Bertrand Russell also said that the value of philosophy is in its Uncertainty Questions on Plato’s text Apology: Defence of Socrates, p. 21. 3. Socrates believed that the charges of his accusers were b. true 2. The essence of the first charge against Socrates was that b. he inquires into what is beneath the earth and in the sky and, turns the weaker argument into stronger and teaches others to do the same. a. 3. The essence of the second charge against Socrates was that he taught the conceptions of Buddhist philosophy in Athenian schools Part II. Finish the sentence and explain its meaning in the context of the author’s argument. Questions on Thomas Aquinas’ text The Existence of God, p. 40 6. Aquinas’ first argument for the existence of God is called the argument from Motion He argues that each thing in motion is moved by something else which he believes to be God 7. In his first argument for the existence of God Aquinas says that ’everything that changes is made to change by something else.’ He further reasons that ’It is therefore impossible for a thing that undergoes a change to 2 change by itself . Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God. 8. Aquinas’ third argument for the existence of God is called the argument from Possibility and Necessity, which he argues that we find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, that come into being and go out of being. 9. In his third argument for the existence of God Aquinas claims that ‘the series of necessary beings whose necessity is caused by another cannot possibly go back to infinity.’ And he concludes, ‘we must therefore accept the fact that there must exist a being which is necessary to cause contingent beings. This necessary being is God. Questions on Blaise Pascal’s text The Wager, p. 50. 10. The name of Blaise Pascal’s piece ’The Wager’ means an argument due to Blaise Pascal for believing, or for at least taking steps to believe, in God. 11. Pascal says ‘Let us then examine this point, and say, ‘God is, or He is not.’ He then in the next sentence continues ‘But to which if God did not exist it would make no difference. For this reason, it would be better to believe in God. 12. In part 233 of ‘The Wager’, subsection ‘The end of this discourse’ Pascal concludes that if you choose God you will be rewarded (with happiness forever); if the person did not believe, he would be punished (with what is called eternal damnation) Questions on Gottfried Liebniz’s piece God, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds, p. 89. 13. Having stated but I deny the major, that is, the first of the two premises of the prosyllogism, and I might contend myself with simply demanding its proof, but to make the matter clearer, I have wished to justify this denial Liebniz continues, by showing that the best plan is not always that which seeks to avoid evil since it happens that the evil is accompanied by a greater good. This is to mean that God has permitted evil in order to bring about good. 14. Complete this sentence taken from the same text. We have proved this more fully in the large work by making it clear, by instances taken from mathematics and elsewhere, that an imperfection in the part may be required for a greater perfection in the whole. That is the reason Jesus Christ the son of God came and died on the cross of the sinners. 3 15. To what conclusion does Liebniz arrive at the end of Part I. of his essay? What has he proved? He points out that the existence of evil is compatible with God’s existence because this world is the best of all possible worlds. Since he God made a world that is full of evil, which he thinks evil could have been omitted. 16. In Part II Liebniz considers the objection of his opponent to his premise that God created the best of all possible worlds. His opponent objects and concludes that there is more evil than good in the whole work of God. The opponents objection is based on the major premise (If there is more evil than good in intelligent creatures, then there is more evil than good in the whole work of God") and the minor premise ("There is more evil than good in intelligent creatures") of the syllogism. Does Liebniz accept the major or the minor of his opponents objection? He denies the minor by proving to his opponents through prosyllogism by claiming that whoever makes things in which there is evil, which could have been made without any evil, or the making of which could have been omitted does not choose the best. 17. As to the minor premise of his opponents objection Liebniz says There is no need even of granting that there is more evil than good in the human race, because it is possible, and in fact very probable, that the glory God has made, and that it was possible to make a world without evil, or even not create a world at all, for its creation has depended on free will of God. ...
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Professor_Markins
School: UIUC

Attached.

DUE DATE:
PHIL 150 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

FALL SEMESTER, 2016

TAKE HOME

MOCK MIDTERM TEST

TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS: 85

Part I. Please, circle only one answer. In one maximum two sentences explain the meaning of the chosen
answer in the context of the philosopher’s argument.
Questions on B. Russell’s text The Value of Philosophy, 17.

1. Bertrand Russell taught that philosophy should be studied for the sake of the
a.

Questions

2. Bertrand Russell also said that the value of philosophy is in its
a.

Uncertainty

Questions on Plato’s text Apology: Defence of Socrates, p. 21.

3. Socrates believed that the charges of his accusers were
b. true

2. The essence of the first charge against Socrates was that
b. he inquires into what is beneath the earth and in the sky and, turns the weaker argument
into stronger and teaches others to do the same.

2

3. The essence of the second charge against Socrates was that
a.

he taught the conceptions of Buddhist philosophy in Athenian schools

Part II. Finish the sentence and explain its meaning in the context of the author’s argument.
Questions on Thomas A...

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