AU Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Design and Manufacturing Methods Essay

n_21

Engineering

American University

Question Description

Please write out a paper by researching the design and manufacturing methods adopted in the semiconductor integrated circuit industry for the design and manufacturing of P-N junction Diodes and MOSFETs.

There are 3 questions you must answer in this paper, which are listed in the document below along with all the requirements needed.

Please make sure to cite your sources consistently.

note: this paper is intended for a Microelectronics Devices course.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Based on the theoretical lessons we learned in class about the functioning of p-n junction diode and MOSFET, Research and study abut the design and manufacturing methods adopted in the semiconductor integrated circuit industry for the design and manufacturing of P-N junction Diodes and MOSFETs. Answer all of the 3 Questions 1. Generate a two page document about the design and manufacturing methods adopted in the semiconductor integrated circuit industry for the design and manufacturing of P-N junction Diodes and MOSFETs. 2. Generate a one-page document about the document the role of economics, safety, and manufacturability of microelectronics devices and circuits that will help to improve the life of society and economy. 3. FinFET (Fin Field Effect Transistor) is a non-classical MOSFET used in 22nm technology. Research about the need for modifying the classical MOSFET to FinFET and advantages and disadvantages of FinFET compared to MOSFET. Write a two-page article with citation, reference and illustrations. All sources must be referenced in your bibliography at the end of the 2-page document. You must also cite the reference in your write-up wherever it is referenced or applicable. Regarding figures and illustrations, you are not allowed to copy and paste. Study the figures and make your own figures and illustrations. Only on need basis you are allowed to use the published figures with citation. If possible, you may make your own figures. This assignment will be passed through Turnitin and grade will be decided by the Turnitin plagiarism count and technical content. Your assignment will be rejected if the Turnitin plagiarism is >20% and you will be awarded a 0 grade. Criteria Correctly identified the problem and solution method. Answers to the electronics circuit analysis show excellent understanding of how the semiconductor integrated circuit work. Provided correct answers and step by step explanation provided in a clear and precise manner ...
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Final Answer

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Running head: SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

Semiconductor Integrated Circuit
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

2

Question One
Design and Manufacturing Methods
There are various basic fabrication steps used in the production of modern P-N junction
Diodes and MOSFETs. However, the most commonly used substrate is bulk silicon. To avoid
the presence of parasitic transistors, variations are brought in the techniques that are used to
isolate the devices in the wafer. The paper seeks to discuss the Silicon-gate process instituted in
the design and manufacturing of P-N junction Diodes and MOSFETs.
The starting material for modern integrated circuits is very-high-purity, single-crystal
silicon (PNUB, 2017). The material is initially grown as a single crystal ingot (John, 2020). This
crystal is then sawed to produce circular wafers that are 400μm to 600μm thick (John, 2020).
The surface of the wafer is then polished to a mirror finish using chemical and mechanical
polishing (CMP) techniques (PNUB, 2017). Semiconductor manufacturers usually purchase
ready-made silicon wafers from a supplier and rarely start their fabrication process in an ingot
form. The basic electrical and mechanical properties of the wafer depending on the orientation of
the crystalline structure, the impurity concentrations, and the type of impurities present. These
variables are strictly controlled during crystal growth. A specific amount of impurities can be
added to the pure silicon in a process known as doping. This allows the alteration of the electrical
properties of the silicon, in particular its resistivity.
As soon as the crystal ingot is obtained using the above processes, the extreme top and
bottom portions of the ingot are cut off and the ingot surface is grounded to produce a constant
and exact diameter (PNUB, 2017). The normal diameter is usually 100,125, or 150 mm (PNUB,
2017). A crystallographic orientation flat is also ground along the length of the ingot. The ingot
is then sliced using a large-diameter stainless steel saw blade with industrial diamonds embedded

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

3

into the inner-diameter cutting edge. This will help in producing circular slices or wafers that are
about 600 to 1000 micrometers thick (John, 2020). The orientation flat serves as a useful
reference plane for various device processes.
In oxidation, silicon reacts with oxygen to form silicon dioxide (SiO2). To speed up this
chemical reaction, it is necessary to carry out the oxidation at high temperatures inside ultraclean
furnaces. To avoid the introduction of even small quantities of contaminants that could
significantly alter the electrical properties of the silicon, it is necessary to operate in a cleanroom.
Particle filters are used to ensure that the airflow in the processing area is free from dust. All
personnel must protect the clean-room environment by wearing special lint-free clothing that
covers a person from head to toe. The oxygen used in the reaction can be introduced either as a
high-purity gas or as steam. In general, wet oxidation has a faster growth rate, but dry oxidation
gives better electrical characteristics. The thermally grown oxide layer has excellent electrical
insulation properties. Silicon dioxide can also serve as an effective mask against many
impurities, allowing the introduction of dopants into the silicon only in regions that are not
covered with oxide. Silicon dioxide is a transparent film, and the silicon surface is highly
reflective (PNUB, 2017). If white light is shone on an oxidized wafer, constructive and
destructive interference will cause certain colors to be reflected. The wavelengths of the reflected
light depending on the thickness of the oxide layer. In fact, by categorizing the color of the wafer
surface, one can deduce the thickness of the oxide layer. The same principle is used by more
sophisticated optical interferometers to measure film thickness. On a processed wafer, there will
be regions with different oxide thicknesses. The colors can be quite vivid and are immediately
obvious when a finished wafer is viewed with the naked eye.
Question Two

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

4

The creative application of scientific principles that are put into practice to invent, design,
build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials, and processes has
significantly influenced the social and economic nature of the contemporary world. Therefore,
Manufacturing plays a critical role in enhancing the growth and development of a country's
economy and improving people’s life. This is because it helps in the development of basic
services such as energy, transport, communication, infrastructure, education, and healthcare.
Additionally, it has a positive impact on other factors such as life expectancy that is expected to
enhance economic development through an increase in productivity. Mass production with the
economy of scale is the primary reason for the tremendous impact VLSI has had on our society
(Pinto & Teixeira, 2020). For example, semiconductors have transformed our society by
connecting humans, machines, and information. This is majorly evident in the increased adoption
of artificial intelligence machine learning, advanced sensors, and new computing systems and
technologies (Cebr, 2016). Economics no longer inexorably points down Moore's curve; the
price per gate has leveled or is rising. The leading-edge nodes have become the territory of the
very few companies that dare to embrace them. As a result, these organizations have been able to
increase their productivity through the adoption of advanced technologies.
Semiconductor technology brings innovations even in the entertainment sector. For
example, the recent Rio Olympics was broadcasted in high definition. Some events were
broadcast in the latest 8k Ultra-high definition. Therefore, with innovations in technology, the
viewing experience of watching a sports broadcast is becoming increasingly an experience. The
Olympics were a notable testing ground for these new technologies. The events themselves
utilized a host of technological improvements, such as underwater lap counters, video referees
for certain sports, real-time GPS tracking for canoe sprints, and rowing. There were also drones

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

5

streaming images live from stadiums. These measures technologies were instituted to ensure that
all interested persons can watch to avoid overcrowding as it poses a major security risk
(Gambaratoi & Alzamoraii, 2019). Additionally, the need to adopt high definite technology led
to the creation of adoption of the advanced technologies.
Question Three
Introduction
Scholars have described FinFET as a promising alternative to conventional MOSFET as
it has reached its limits and has too much leakage for too little performance gain. FinFET is
being recommended as the basis for future IC processes because of its performance benefits,
scalability, and superior controls over short channel effects. However, it brings with itself new
challenges and undesirable characteristics such as Corner effects, Quantum effects, Width
quantization, and layout dependencies, among others.
Need for Modifying the Classical MOSFET to FinFET
The need for modifying the classical MOSFET to FinFET is mainly attributed to the
various failure modes. The avalanche breakdown occurs when the maximum operating voltage
of a MOSFET is surpassed. Whenever the energy in the transient is above the avalanche energy
level, there is a failure in the MOSFET. The device fails a short circuit and shows no external
visible signs. Once there is an avalanche breakdown it may also disintegrate the MOSFET,
obliterating the evidence or blow other devices to boot (Tripathi, Mishra, & Mishra, 2012). This
creates the need to report the precise events that happened during the failure. In normal use, the
controllers are incapable of generating spikes of energy to blow them. Therefore, the high energy
spikes are caused by external factors such as fuses blowing, and inductive car horns among

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

6

others. The other cause of avalanche breakdown is excessive regen braking. If a controller is
being used near the top of its voltage range, with a fully charged battery, with the deceleration
ramp set to minimum, and with a heavy load, the regen voltage can exceed the point at which
avalanche breakdown occurs (Tripathi, Mishra, & Mishra, 2012).
Another need for modification is the excess power dissipation. This happens when the
MOSFET gets extremely hot to an extent it unsolders itself (Tripathi, Mishra, & Mishra, 2012).
Most MOSFET heating happens in the leads. Therefore, it can easily unsolder without the failure
of the MOSFET. However, it can get hot if the heat is generated in the chip since its maximum
temperature is restricted by the fabrication. The silicon chip is connected to the substrate using a
soft solder which can easily melt. Therefore, the MOSFET can function easily but its thermal
performance is shot because of the damaged soft solder bond.
Advantages and Disadvantages of FinFET Compared to MOSFET
MOSFET amplifiers are extensively used in radio frequency applications as a passive
element like a resistor, capacitor, and inductor (Sinha & Chaudhury, 2014). They are also used in
DC motors to regulate power. Some of the advantages attributed to MOSFET include their
efficiency, especially when operating at lower voltages. Additionally, the absence of gate current
leads to high input impedance producing high switching speed (Sinha & Chaudhury, 2014).
Furthermore, they operate at lower power and draws not current. Despite their advantages, there
are various shortcomings attributed to the MOSFET. One, the thin oxide layer makes the
MOSFETs vulnerable to permanent damage when evoked by electrostatic charges (Sinha &
Chaudhury, 2014). Additionally, overload voltages make it unstable for use, especially in the
contemporary world. Furthermore, it requires frequent calibration to ensure accurate dose
measurement (Sinha & Chaudhury, 2014).

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

7

On the other hand, FinFET technology is increasingly being adopted in a variety of forms
by IC manufacturers who need to increase the density of their ICs without using such small
feature sizes that the device performance falls. As a result, FinFET transistor technology has
enabled the development of IC technology to continue to follow Moore's law. This is majorly
influenced by the various advantages attributed to FinFET. One of the advantages is that FinFET
devices can operate from a lower supply voltage than planar transistors since they have a lower
threshold voltage (Poiroux, Vinet, & Faynot, 2005). Additionally, FinFET devices have lower
gate resistance which helps keep flicker noise under control, improved matching, higher current
drive, and higher gain. Furthermore, FinFETs have significantly better performance as they have
a higher speed and minimal leakages due to a major geometrical change in the channel design.
Moreover, they can achieve higher frequency numbers compared to bulk for a given power
budget or lower power (Poiroux, Vinet, & Faynot, 2005). Despite the advantages, there are
various shortcomings attributed to FinFET. The major shortcoming is the high cost of building
FinFET as it uses numerous steps in a manufacturing flow. Additionally, on a bulk-silicon
process, the control over fin depth is very difficult.

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

8

References
Cebr. (2016). Engineering and economic growth. A global view. Royal academy of engineering,
1-80.
Gambaratoi, R. R., & Alzamoraii, G. C. (2019). The Transmedia News Coverage of the 2016
Rio Olympics. n Transmedia Earth Conference Medios, narrativas y audiencias en
contextos de convergencia , 59.
John, S. (2020, May 5). Silicon Substrate Preparation Process. Retrieved November 28, 2020,
from Circuit Today: https://www.circuitstoday.com/silicon-substrate-preparation
Pinto, T., & Teixeira, A. A. (2020). The impact of research output on economic growth by fields
of science: a dynamic panel data analysis. Scientometrics, 1-34.
PNUB. (2017, August 13). SILICON WAFER PREPARATION. Retrieved November 29, 2020,
from PNUB.REEOKF.SITE: https://pnub.reeokf.site/47839619.php
Poiroux, T., Vinet, M., & Faynot, O. (2005). Multiple gate devices: advantages and challenges.
Microelectronic Engineering, 378-385.
Sinha, S. K., & Chaudhury, S. (2014). Advantage of CNTFET characteristics over MOSFET to
reduce leakage power. In 2014 2nd International Conference on Devices, Circuits and
Systems , 1-5.
Tripathi, S. L., Mishra, R., & Mishra, R. A. (2012). Characteristic comparison of connected DG
FINFET, TG FINFET and Independent Gate FINFET on 32 nm technology. In 2012 2nd
International Conference on Power, Control and Embedded Systems, 1-7.

Hello buddy! Kindly let me know if there is any other issue and I will handle it ASAP. Thanks

Running head: SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

Semiconductor Integrated Circuit
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

2

Question One
Design and Manufacturing Methods
There are various basic fabrication steps used in the production of modern P-N junction
Diodes and MOSFETs. However, the most commonly used substrate is bulk silicon. To avoid
the presence of parasitic transistors, variations are brought in the techniques that are used to
isolate the devices in the wafer. The paper seeks to discuss the Silicon-gate process instituted in
the design and manufacturing of P-N junction Diodes and MOSFETs.
The starting material for modern integrated circuits is very-high-purity, single-crystal
silicon (PNUB, 2017). The material is initially grown as a single crystal ingot (John, 2020). This
crystal is then sawed to produce circular wafers that are 400μm to 600μm thick (John, 2020).
The surface of the wafer is then polished to a mirror finish using chemical and mechanical
polishing (CMP) techniques (PNUB, 2017). Semiconductor manufacturers usually purchase
ready-made silicon wafers from a supplier and rarely start their fabrication process in an ingot
form. The basic electrical and mechanical properties of the wafer depending on the orientation of
the crystalline structure, the impurity concentrations, and the type of impurities present. These
variables are strictly controlled during crystal growth. A specific amount of impurities can be
added to the pure silicon in a process known as doping. This allows the alteration of the electrical
properties of the silicon, in particular its resistivity.
As soon as the crystal ingot is obtained using the above processes, the extreme top and
bottom portions of the ingot are cut off and the ingot surface is grounded to produce a constant
and exact diameter (PNUB, 2017). The normal diameter is usually 100,125, or 150 mm (PNUB,
2017). A crystallographic orientation flat is also ground along the length of the ingot. The ingot
is then sliced using a large-diameter stainless steel saw blade with industrial diamonds embedded

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

3

into the inner-diameter cutting edge. This will help in producing circular slices or wafers that are
about 600 to 1000 micrometers thick (John, 2020). The orientation flat serves as a useful
reference plane for various device processes.
In oxidation, silicon reacts with oxygen to form silicon dioxide (SiO2). To speed up this
chemical reaction, it is necessary to carry out the oxidation at high temperatures inside ultraclean
furnaces. To avoid the introduction of even small quantities of contaminants that could
significantly alter the electrical properties of the silicon, it is necessary to operate in a cleanroom.
Particle filters are used to ensure that the airflow in the processing area is free from dust. All
personnel must protect the clean-room environment by wearing special lint-free clothing that
covers a person from head to toe. The oxygen used in the reaction can be introduced either as a
high-purity gas or as steam. In general, wet oxidation has a faster growth rate, but dry oxidation
gives better electrical characteristics. The thermally grown oxide layer has excellent electrical
insulation properties. Silicon dioxide can also serve as an effective mask against many
impurities, allowing the introduction of dopants into the silicon only in regions that are not
covered with oxide. Silicon dioxide is a transparent film, and the silicon surface is highly
reflective (PNUB, 2017). If white light is shone on an oxidized wafer, constructive and
destructive interference will cause certain colors to be reflected. The wavelengths of the reflected
light depending on the thickness of the oxide layer. In fact, by categorizing the color of the wafer
surface, one can deduce the thickness of the oxide layer. The same principle is used by more
sophisticated optical interferometers to measure film thickness. On a processed wafer, there will
be regions with different oxide thicknesses. The colors can be quite vivid and are immediately
obvious when a finished wafer is viewed with the naked eye.
Question Two

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

4

The creative application of scientific principles that are put into practice to invent, design,
build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials, and processes has
significantly influenced the social and economic nature of the contemporary world. Therefore,
Manufacturing plays a critical role in enhancing the growth and development of a country's
economy and improving people’s life. This is because it helps in the development of basic
services such as energy, transport, communication, infrastructure, education, and healthcare.
Additionally, it has a positive impact on other factors such as life expectancy that is expected to
enhance economic development through an increase in productivity. Mass production with the
economy of scale is the primary reason for the tremendous impact VLSI has had on our society
(Pinto & Teixeira, 2020). For example, semiconductors have transformed our society by
connecting humans, machines, and information. This is majorly evident in the increased adoption
of artificial intelligence machine learning, advanced sensors, and new computing systems and
technologies (Cebr, 2016). Economics no longer inexorably points down Moore's curve; the
price per gate has leveled or is rising. The leading-edge nodes have become the territory of the
very few companies that dare to embrace them. As a result, these organizations have been able to
increase their productivity through the adoption of advanced technologies.
Semiconductor technology brings innovations even in the entertainment sector. For
example, the recent Rio Olympics was broadcasted in high definition. Some events were
broadcast in the latest 8k Ultra-high definition. Therefore, with innovations in technology, the
viewing experience of watching a sports broadcast is becoming increasingly an experience. The
Olympics were a notable testing ground for these new technologies. The events themselves
utilized a host of technological improvements, such as underwater lap counters, video referees
for certain sports, real-time GPS tracking for canoe sprints, and rowing. There were also drones

SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

5

streaming images live from stadiums. These measures technologies were instituted to ensure that
all interested persons can watch to avoid overcrowding as it poses a major security risk
(Gambaratoi & Alzamoraii, 2019). Additionally, the need to adopt high definite technology led
to the creation of adoption of the advanced technologies.
Question Three
Introduction
Scholars have described FinFET as a promising alternative to conventional MOSFET as
it has reached its limits and has too much leakage for too little performance gain....

bypuhxyaq (1708)
UT Austin

Anonymous
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