Intro 2 Human Geo,four study guides about 120 q with helpful slides

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Intro 2 Human Geo,four study guides about 30 q for each study guide with helpful slides

i need somone to answer it only from the slides. in fact, i will add the other slides wich 4 slides


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Human Geography Study Guide Unit IV Chapter 4 1. This type of barrier allows part of the innovation wave to diffusion through but acts to weaken or retard the continued spread of an innovation or idea. 2. In the process of relocation diffusion, cultural modification or change may result when one cultural group or individual adopts traits of the dominant culture but keeps elements of their own culture. This process in known as: 3. Diffusion that requires the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted an innovation and who carry it to a new locale is known as: 4. This type of cultural barrier halts the spread of diffusion, allowing no further progress. It is known as a(n): 5. An indirect promotion or experimentation because of a diffused innovation is? 6. A cultural landscape is: 7. Culture is: 8. What are some of the things we would considered to be components of culture? 9. In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is typical of what kind of group? 10. Jeans provide a good example of material culture that is adopted by a number of different societies. This refers to what type of material culture? 11. Folk cultures are spread primarily by what kind of diffusion? 12. What are some modern examples of folk cultures? 13. Who are the Amish and what is their story? 14. Folk songs are distinguished from popular songs because they 15. Popular customs most frequently originate in what kind of countries? 16. The current distribution of soccer demonstrates that 17. What kinds of things aid in the diffusion of popular culture? 18. The distribution of the subjects of art in the Himalayas shows how folk cultures 19. What are the criteria used to distinguish folk housing in the USA? 20. Pioneer farmers settling the grasslands of the American West often built houses of sod, while early settlers of the eastern forest built wooden structures like log cabins. This suggests that building materials 21. What are the important source areas for U.S. folk house types? 22. What is one factor that accounts for American’s choice for beverages and snacks? 23. The choice of clothing in Western countries is strongly influenced by 24. What are the significant impacts of popular culture? 25. What is placelessness 26. The Garifuna are often referred to as a "Colonial Tribe." Why is this the case? 27. In terms of popular culture, cities like Paris, New York, and Milan are referred to as: 28. Wearing a Kabala bracelet could possibly be an example of: 29. Cultural appropriation for purposes of profit (e.g., naming a beer for a Lakota chief) is referred to as an example of: 30. Urban local cultures as in Brooklyn, New York and North End Boston, Massachusetts are seen as positive examples of _____________, places of cultural persistence. 31. The fact that trends in popular culture (e.g. fashion) proceed from large global centers (Milan, Paris, New York) through a series of progressively smaller cities is an example of what kind of diffusion Chapter 5 Study Guide Elephants and dolphins have forms of sound communication, but only humans have developed ? that change over time and space. In technically advanced societies there is likely to be what kind of language? Regional variations of a standard language are called: Early in the twentieth century, a major effort was launched to create a world language called: The lingua franca of East Africa is: Countries in which more than one language is in use are called: The systematic study of the origin and meaning of place names is called: According to the video Before Babel (and in the notes), linguists theorize that the present languages of the Indo-European family evolved from a lost language known as? Linguist Joseph Greenberg proposed that there are only ? indigenous American language families The oldest, largest, and most widely distributed of the indigenous American language families proposed by Joseph Greenberg is: What are the geographic and linguistic characteristics of the English Language? What is the Langua Franca today for nearly all global activities? English is the most important language in North America primarily because of How do British and American English differ? Be able to identify the family, branch, group, and subgroup of English. An isogloss is When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their group what usually happens? The main difference between languages in the same family, branch, or group is how (think time) A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is a What are the most common Romance languages? What are the most common Germanic languages? The most widely spoken language in Brazil is A creolized language is The four most frequently spoken branches of Indo-European include The two most important languages in South America are Russian is part of what language branch? Marija Gimbutas' theory points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient According to Colin Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe how? The two largest language families in the world are When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent Every European country is dominated by Indo-European speakers except The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is The language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world is Chinese is written in the form of The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily from The most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa is Hebrew is an example of The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different A pidgin language Basque is a good example of a(n) Human Geography Study Guide Unit IV Chapter 6 1. Religion is a particularly good example of the tension between globalization and local diversity because 2. An ethnic religion is 3. A relatively small group that has broken away from an established church is a 4. A universalizing religion 5. The world's largest universalizing religion is 6. The world's largest ethnic religion is 7. what are the branches of Christianity 8. Which characteristic distinguishes religion in Latin America from North America? 9. Baptists are clustered in the ________ United States. 10. What are denominations and what are some examples in Christianity? 11. What are the branches of Islam? Which is dominant? 12. What are the differences between Theravada and Mahayan Buddhists? 13. Animists believe that 14. What is especially important in Confucianism? 15. The belief in the existence of only one god is 16. Christianity first diffused from its hearth through what kind of diffusion? 17. How is Buddhism different than other universalizing religions in terms of diffusion? 18. The agricultural calendar is important to which type of religions? 19. Beliefs concerning the origin of the universe are 20. What are the characteristics of hierarchical religions? 21. Worship in Hinduism is most likely to take place where? 22. Cremation is more important than burial in which religion? 23. Protestants in Ireland are found in dispersed settlements or clustered settlements? 24. Jerusalem's geography represents a particularly difficult religious conflict to resolve...why? 25. Which city in Southwest Asia contains the Dome of the Rock, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and the Western Wall? 26. The pagoda is the style of building most often associated with: 27. The Hajj, one of the “pillars of Islam,” is 28. What is the difference between interfaith boundary and intrafaith boundary…what are some examples? 29. The teachings of Lao-Tsu form the tenants of 30. Know the U.S. regional religious affiliations from the map in chapter 6? 31. Modern-day Shiah Islam dominates a region centered on what country? 32. The Yellow River is to Chinese Philosophies as the Indus River is to . 33. The founder of Buddhism, Siddhartha Gautama, who came to be known as the Buddha (enlightened one) was perhaps the first prominent Indian religious leader to speak out against what Hindu social structure? 34. Sikhism is a small syncretic religion that arose from the confrontation between Hinduism and: 35. The rise of fundamentalism is a phenomenon that seems to afflict: Chapter 7 Study Guide What was apartheid? An examination of the distribution of ethnicities in the U.S. reveals what in terms of where they live a (local scale and regional scale) What are the common elements of cultural diversity? The largest Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States are from which two countries? The largest proportion of Asian Americans are from Native Americans and Alaska Natives together make up what percentage of the total United States population? Ethnic identity for descendants of European immigrants is primarily preserved through How are ethnicity and race different? What group does the US Census bureau not consider a race? Neighborhood changes in ethnicity are sometimes caused by the illegal practice of (Think spatial effects of racism) Which pair of concepts or entities from South Africa and the United States would be similar? Denmark is a good example of a nation-state because What are examples of centripetal forces countries use to maintain a sense of "nationality?" The former Soviet Union used which as the primary centripetal device? Conflict in Africa is widespread because of Traditionally the most important unit of African society was the Sri Lanka has continuing ethnic conflict between The Kurds are considered to be what kind of group today? As Sudan's religion-based civil war was winding down, an ethnic war erupted in the region of Balkanization refers to The breakup of Yugoslavia during the 1990s was caused by The process when a group forcibly removes another group is called Chapter 4: Folk and Popular Culture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Roots and Meaning of Culture • Culture • the learned patterns of thought and behavior characteristic of a population or society These learned traits form a way of life held in common by a group of people • • Culture involves a communication system of acquired beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes that serves to supplement and channel instinctive behavior • Culture guides the ways in which people create “place.” © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • 1-Cultural landscape • The sequential imprint of cultures on the physical environment • These landscapes are distinct © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 • 2-Culture Hearths • The sources of civilization, outward from which radiated the ideas, innovations, and ideologies that would change the world beyond • These should be viewed in the context of time as well as space 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. • 3-Cultural Diffusion • Diffusion—the spatial spreading of some phenomenon from one area to another • Cultural Diffusion—the process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its source area to other cultures © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography Source • Expansion diffusion • An innovation or idea develops in a source area and remains strong while at the same time expanding outward © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • • • 1-Expansion diffusion 3 types a-Contagious diffusion—a form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals are affected © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • • 1-Expansion diffusion b-Hierarchical diffusion— diffusion in which the main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to (or adopting) what is being diffused © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • • • • • 1-Expansion diffusion c-Stimulus diffusion—an indirect promotion or experimentation because of a diffused innovation Not all societies can handle innovations These innovations may be to vague or impractical But the innovations although not accepted in its original form may impact the society © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • 2-Relocation diffusion • This kind of diffusion requires the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and who carry it to a new locale Chinatown San Francisco, CA © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • In the process of relocation diffusion one culture inevitably dominates the other • This process is called acculturation • Cultural modification or change that results when one cultural group or individual adopts traits of a dominant or host culture • But keep elements of their own culture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • But often when individuals relocate to a new locale they assume all the local customs • Assimilation—a two-part behavioral and structural process by which a minority population reduces or loses completely its identifying cultural characteristics and blends into the host culture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • Barriers • Time-distance decay • The further away from the source the new locale is located the less likely the innovation will be adopted • The longer it takes to reach the new locale the less likely it will be that the innovation will be adopted • Other barriers may factor into this equation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • Absorbing barriers • Halt the spread of diffusion, allowing no further progress • Outside television programs not permitted in Cuba by government • Permeable barriers • Allow part of the innovation wave to diffusion through but act to weaken or slow the continued spread © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Traditions of Cultural Geography • 4-Cultural Perceptions • Perceived images of a culture • These intangible elements help define a culture • 5- Cultural Environments © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Culture • Cultural Geographers break the elements of culture into : © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Material Culture • Two basic categories: folk and popular culture (that are linked to scale) – Folk culture – Popular culture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Material Culture – Geographers are interested in two aspects of culture: • Where folk and popular cultures are located in space • How folk and popular cultures interact with the environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 • Local or Folk Culture • Transmitted interpersonally • Stable, conservative, traditionalist • Based on idea of community (shared experience and mutual obligations) • Clear-cut social roles, Male/female division of labor • Adapted to a particular environment • Popular Culture • Transmitted by media such as books & TV • Constantly changing and innovating • Based on idea of society (specialized roles and interdependence, impersonal coordination) • Flexible and vague social roles • Not adapted to any particular environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Origin of folk and popular cultures – Folk culture = hearth area; originators are usually unknown © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Origin of folk and popular cultures – Popular culture = hearth area comes from more developed countries (MDCs) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Origin of folk and popular music as an example of folk and popular culture – Folk music characteristics © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Origin of folk and popular music as an example of folk and popular culture – Popular music characteristics Figure 4-2—Popular Music Map © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Diffusion of folk and popular culture – Folk culture diffuses slowly, primarily through migration, and at a small scale • Example: Diffusion of Amish culture – Relocation Diffusion – Originated in Bern, Switzerland; Alsace Region, France; Palatinate Region, Germany – Migrated to US in 1700s © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Key Issue 1: Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse? • Diffusion of folk and popular culture – Popular culture diffuses rapidly, via hierarchical diffusion, and over a large scale • Example: Sports – Soccer—Began as folk sport in England and was globalized into a popular cultural sport beginning in 1800s – Today Each country has its own popular cultural sports » Cricket in Britain and in former British colonies » Lacrosse among the Iroquois Nations » American Football and Baseball © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Folk culture = close connection to the environment (but not environmental determinism) • Folk cultures are responsive to the environment – Because most folk cultures are rural and agricultural – Clothing is often tied to environmental conditions in which the culture thrives © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment • But folk cultures can ignore environmental conditions –So not all people who live in arctic climates wear fur lined shoes or all people who live in wet temperate climate s wear wooden shoes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Food preferences and the environment • Food preferences are adapted to the environment Example: In Asia, rice is grown in milder, wetter environments whereas wheat is grown in colder, drier environments © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Food preferences and the environment • Food taboos may be especially strong – People avoid certain foods because of negative associations with that food • Terroir = the sum effects of the local environment on a particular food item Swine Stock © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Folk housing and the environment • Housing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function, and the physical environment • Two most common building materials = wood and brick © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Folk housing and the environment • Minor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Influence of the physical environment – Folk housing and the environment • Minor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles Figure 4-9 House Types in Four Western Chinese Communities Each house type represents a different environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Issue 2: Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? • Isolation promotes cultural diversity – Examples: – U.S. folk housing » The Lower Chesapeake 4-12: Hearths of US House Types » The Middle Atlantic » New England © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 • Urban Folk Cultures • Folk cultures can exist in cities in the form of • Ethnic neighborhoods • Set themselves apart and practice their customs • Restaurants, worsh ...
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School: UIUC

All done! the 4 study guides are attached.  i converted them all to word documents so i could write the answers right on the documents, the answers are in red.if you need any more help with anything let me know or you can invite me to answer your questions you post!

Human Geography Study
Guide
Unit IV Chapter 4

1. This type of barrier allows part of the innovation wave to diffusion through but acts to weaken or
retard the continued spread of an innovation or idea. Permeable Barrier
2. In the process of relocation diffusion, cultural modification or change may result when one
cultural group or individual adopts traits of the dominant culture but keeps elements of their own
culture. This process in known as: Acculturation
3. Diffusion that requires the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted an
innovation and who carry it to a new locale is known as: Relocation Diffusion
4. This type of cultural barrier halts the spread of diffusion, allowing no further progress. It is
known as a(n): Absorbing barrier
5. An indirect promotion or experimentation because of a diffused innovation is? Stimulus
Diffusion
6. A cultural landscape is: Sequential inference of culture on the physical environment
7. Culture is: learned
8. What are some of the things we would considered to be components of culture? Food, clothing,
language
9. In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is typical of what kind of group? Large, heterogeneous
group
10. Jeans provide a good example of material culture that is adopted by a number of different
societies. This refers to what type of material culture? Western Culture
11. Folk cultures are spread primarily by what kind of diffusion? Relocation Diffusion
12. What are some modern examples of folk cultures? The Amish, Powwows
13. Who are the Amish and what is their story? They come from the group known as Mennonites,
they are known for their simple living and plain dress
14. Folk songs are distinguished from popular songs because they tell a story about daily activities
15. Popular customs most frequently originate in what kind of countries? More developed countries
16. The current distribution of soccer demonstrates that a folk custom can become part of a popular
culture
17. What kinds of things aid in the diffusion of popular culture? Modern communication systems
18. The distribution of the subjects of art in the Himalayas shows how folk cultures are influenced by
distinctive vegetation, climate and religion
19. What are the criteria used to distinguish folk housing in the USA? Climate in which the structure
is built
20. Pioneer farmers settling the grasslands of the American West often built houses of sod, while
early settlers of the eastern forest built wooden structures like log cabins. This suggests that
building materials are stron...

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