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professional paraphrasing required (Do not use Program), stick to the meaning.

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Abstracts: 1- Recurrent and nonrecurrent congestion on freeways may be alleviated if today's "spontaneous" infrastructure utilisation is replaced by an orderly, controllable operation via comprehensive application of ramp metering and freeway-tofreeway control combined with powerful optimal control techniques. This paper first explains why ramp metering can lead to a dramatic amelioration of traffic conditions on freeways. An overview of ramp metering algorithms is provided next, ranging from early fixed-time approaches to traffic-responsive regulators and to modern sophisticated nonlinear optimal control schemes. Finally, a largescale example demonstrates the high potential of advanced ramp metering approaches. 2- The impact of variable speed limits (VSL) on aggregate traffic flow behaviour on motorways is shown to bear similarities to the impact of ramp metering, in particular, when addressing potentially active bottlenecks. A quantitative model of the VSL impact is proposed that allows for VSL to be incorporated in a microsimulation model as an additional control component. The integrated motorway network traffic control problem involving ramp metering and VSL control measures is formulated as a constrained discrete-time optimal control problem and is solved efficiently even for large-scale networks by a suitable feasible direction algorithm. An illustrative example of a motorway stretch is investigated under different control scenarios, and it is shown that traffic flow efficiency can be substantially improved when VSL control measures are used, particularly in integration with coordinated ramp metering. ...
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Teacher Eug
School: Cornell University




Abstract 1
Among the most common problems in today’s infrastructure is recurrent and non-current congestion.
Albeit, these two types of congestion can be tackled and as a matter of fact be solved if the modern or
rather spur-of-the-moment infrastructure is phased out and in place, new and easily ope...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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