University of Central Florida Romare Bearden from the Odyssey Series Discussion

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Assignment #6: Visual Art in the 1960's Discussion

Original Discussion Response

For this discussion, choose one work of art from any of the pages in Section #6.

Paragraph #1: Describe what you see in the work of art. I suggest starting in one corner and working your way around the art work. Try to describe every detail you see. Refer to the vocabulary of art page to help with your description (although you do not need to include any set amount of vocabulary terms).

  • Paragraph #2: Discuss your reaction to the work. How does it make you feel? Why? Refer to the details in paragraph #1 to explain why your feel this way. What do you think the purpose of the work is and why?
  • Paragraph #3: Research your chosen work and find one scholarly source about this work. Do not include biographical information about the artist or cite Wikipedia or any other encyclopedia site. If you are unsure of your website, please ask to confirm it is acceptable. This is the only discussion you are to do research on. You must include the URL to the website. In this paragraph, explain what the research tells you about this work. How does it change or not change your reaction to the work?

Peer Response (25 points)

Read one of your classmates' original posts about a work of art you did not wrote about, then compose a response post (at least 100 words) that does at least TWO of the following (cite your sources if referenced). Please remember to be respectful in your peer response.

  • Extends or adds to his/her point(s) about the songs being discussed
  • Asks a clarifying question
  • Considerately disagrees (with reasoning and evidence) with the author's analysis
  • Adds to the understanding of the analysis of the artworks

Be sure to keep the focus of the peer response on the works being discussed and the points your classmate made about the works.

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Assignment: Visual Art in the 1960's Discussion Original Discussion Response For this discussion, choose one work of art from any of the pages in Section #6. • • • Paragraph #1: Describe what you see in the work of art. I suggest starting in one corner and working your way around the artwork. Try to describe every detail you see. Refer to the vocabulary of art page to help with your description (although you do not need to include any set amount of vocabulary terms). Paragraph #2: Discuss your reaction to the work. How does it make you feel? Why? Refer to the details in paragraph #1 to explain why your feel this way. What do you think the purpose of the work is and why? Paragraph #3: Research your chosen work and find one scholarly source about this work. Do not include biographical information about the artist or cite Wikipedia or any other encyclopedia site. If you are unsure of your website, please ask to confirm it is acceptable. This is the only discussion you are to do research on. You must include the URL to the website. In this paragraph, explain what the research tells you about this work. How does it change or not change your reaction to the work? Peer Response (25 points) Read one of your classmates' original posts about a work of art you did not wrote about, then compose a response post (at least 100 words) that does at least TWO of the following (cite your sources if referenced). Please remember to be respectful in your peer response. • • • • Extends or adds to his/her point(s) about the songs being discussed Asks a clarifying question Considerately disagrees (with reasoning and evidence) with the author's analysis Adds to the understanding of the analysis of the artworks Be sure to keep the focus of the peer response on the works being discussed and the points your classmate made about the works. Art of the Civil Rights Movement Racial Segregation (Jim Crow) After the US Civil War in the 1860’s, a system of racism develops, especially in the southern United States. This system, known as “Jim Crow,” called for the segregation, or separation, of black and white Americans in all aspects of life. In 1896 Supreme court moved that there was nothing wrong with segregation as long as it was separate but equal. However, nothing is ever equal, especially the segregated school system in the south. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second-class citizens. There were separate businesses, separate facilities, separate schools. There were also rules of etiquette that people were expected to follow. Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections. Oklahoma prohibited blacks and whites from boating together. Georgia established separate parks for blacks and whites. Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for blacks and whites to play checkers or dominoes together. The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were enforced by violence, real and threatened. Blacks (and whites) who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the “white” water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives and had little legal recourse against assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-white: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings. Rumors of some criminal activity by blacks against whites perpetuated the actions of the white mobs. In almost every one of the attacks, the police sided with the attackers, either by actually participating in, or by failing to quell the attack. The Civil Rights Movement (1955-1965) The idea of the Civil Rights Movement was to challenge deep rooted racism and discrimination of American society. There was a belief among people involved with the Civil Rights Movement that if there was an end to racial segregation in America, then racism would end. The first court case to overturn laws of segregation was Brown vs Board of Education (Links to an external site.)in 1954. In Brown vs Board of Education, court overturns idea of separate but equal in public schools in all of US and mandates Southern School Systems be desegregated. When the court passes the ruling, it is resisted by white southerners, who are willing to go outside the law to avoid complying court’s decision regarding desegregation to avoid desegregating their school systems. In 1957, the governor of the state of Arkansas called in the National Guard to prevent black students from attending Little Rock Central High School. (Links to an external site.) Media coverage is so great that President Eisenhower is forced to involve federal government in desegregation of public schools. The Federal government will not let states defy supreme court ruling. In 1960, Ruby Bridges (Links to an external site.), a six-year-old girl, was selected by the New Orleans school board to attend an all-white elementary school in New Orleans. Ruby and her mother were escorted by four federal marshals to the school every day that year. She walked past crowds screaming at her. Angry white parents pulled their children from school, some withdrew their children permanently. There was only one teacher willing to accept Ruby. She ate lunch alone and sometimes played with her teacher at recess, but she never missed a day of school that year. Her dad lost her job, her mom couldn’t buy things at stores, and her grandparents were kicked off their sharecropping farm. In 1964, artist Norman Rockwell created a painting of that first day entitled, “The Problem We All Live With.” Rockwell's first assignment for Look magazine was an illustration of Ruby Bridges being escorted by four U.S. marshals to her first day at an all-white school in New Orleans. Norman Rockwell, The Problem We All Live With Another painting by Norman Rockwell, Murders in Mississippi, documents the murder of three civil rights activists in Mississippi. Rockwell's shows the murders of three young civil rights workers in Philadelphia, Mississippi. 1964 was an election year and younger activists sent out to increase voter registration in Mississippi and Alabama. Three activists, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman drove to the Mount Zion Church after hearing of a Klan attack against blacks and of arson there. When they returned to the Meridian office of Congress On Racial Equality (CORE--civil right's organization), they were arrested by Deputy Sheriff Price, for supposedly setting the fire. After releasing them later that night, Klansmen intercepted them and drove them to a remote location and shot the three, dumped their bodies into a dam site and covered their bodies. Norman Rockwell, Murder in Mississippi Other works of art from the Civil Rights Movement As civil rights leaders prepared for the 1963 March on Washington a group of black artists in New York met to discuss their role in the movement. The artists formed the Spiral Group, “for the purpose of discussing the commitment of the Negro artist in the present struggle for civil liberties, and as a discussion group to consider common aesthetic problems.” Within the group of artists, aged 28 to 65 and at varying stages of their careers, there were different perspectives and styles of the members. Between July 1963 and the fall of 1965 the group interactions exposed members to each other’s work, inspirations and viewpoints and addressed issues of art, race and politics. Spiral members are among the most notable American artists of the 20th century and the conversations the group began about the role of the African American artist and definition of black art are still relevant today. Some Spiral artists include: Romare Bearden Bearden was an African American artist Grew up in Harlem in the 1920’s. He worked in many mediums, but main body of work is collage. Inspired by the rhythms of jazz, his works reflect different aspects of the black experience and everyday life and show the dignity of the black community. Romare Bearden, The Woodshed Inspired by the memories of his family in North Carolina, Bearden created domestic scenes that reflect the strength of Southerners under challenging circumstances. Here, a family of four gathers in a run-down shed for a meal and some music. Romare Bearden, Morning This work references his own memory of family but to the collective memory of African American family life. The rocking chair and potbellied stove lend an air of Americana and squarely locate the black family within the realm of traditional domesticity. Romare Bearden, from The Odyssey Series This work is one of several visual representation of the Greek poet, Homer’s epic poem, the Odyssey, told as the black experience. Click on link for more information about this series. (Links to an external site.) Norman Lewis Norman Lewis was a painter who worked in the Abstract Expressionist style. Like many Abstract Expressionist artists, he wanted to paint feelings rather than represent them. During the 1960s and 1970s, Lewis used his work to respond to the issues and events of the Civil Rights movement. Click on link for more about Lewis' work (Links to an external site.) Norman Lewis, Evening Rendezvous Evening Rendezvous is one of several paintings inspired by the Ku Klux Klan and references the organization's activities of violence against black Americans. The abstract dabs of white emerging from a gray twilight are hooded Klansmen, gathered around a bonfire suggested by the hot reds at the center of the image. Angular white shapes in the foreground describe men closest to the headlights of their cars, while those at the top are obscured by blue smoke. The combination of red, white, and blue, as well as the abstract outline of the United States, mocks the patriotism that the Klan claimed as its defense. Norman Lewis, Confrontation Norman Lewis, Journey to an End Art of the Feminist Movement Feminist Movement in America (1950’s to 1980’s) The feminism movement in America (1950-1980's) becomes another political movement (like the Civil Rights Movement). The movement goes through several stages: The liberal stage (1950's-early 1960's) tried to redefine the domestic sphere and eliminate the way differences are recognized by law (everyone should be equal according to the law). Women begin feeling stifled in the post WWII housewife/mother role, especially those who worked in war industries during WWII. After the war, society and things like women’s magazines and television shows enforce ideology of finding fulfillment through the happiness of husband and children. Many women, especially college educated women, feel trapped at home, culturally excluded from professional achievement. Betty Friedan, writer of the book. The Feminine Mystique (1963), and founder of NOW (National Organization for Women), urges middle class women to see inequalities and limitations placed on women as a social problem with political remedies. She tells women it is not a personal problem, but a problem in society. Women feeling dissatisfied don’t need psychotherapy to be happy wives and mothers, they need more opportunities in society. In the mid to late 1950's, magazines like Playboy promote the idea of the bachelor (unmarried) lifestyle and show men they do not need to have a wife and kids to be masculine. Men can be a “man” through consumer goods and men targeted as consumers with large discretionary incomes, as their salaries are traditionally higher than women’s because it is assumed they are the breadwinners. Working class women who need to work to support themselves, and sometimes their children, making less money for the same job as men, have to fight to have equal educational and job opportunities. By the 1970's, divorce rate increased 66% in the 1970’s. Child rearing and housework was a low priority, especially for younger and more educated women. Large families no longer desired and women not interested in sacrificing income, status and self fulfillment to preserve an unhappy marriage. Women want to earn equal paychecks, fair wages and job opportunities The radical stage (mid to late 1960’s) believed inequality cannot be eliminated by changing laws, felt the entire society needs to be transformed because it was built on inequality. The felt the problem not just equal rights and an unequal paycheck, it is how the patriarchal society views women and how society and cultural practices oppress women. They begin to fight against sexual objectification of women in magazines like Playboy, but also television, movies, advertisements, and events like the Miss America Pageant, which they protested in 1968. The radical phase is more about direct confrontation, so many women join together at protest rallies to bring attention to the issues. The cultural stage (1970's-80's) is where the political aspect fades, and the focus is on making a cultural statement to show different ways to look at the issues. Cultural feminism centers around the idea of agency, showing things from the woman's perspective and focusing on the contributions of women in society. It shifts the focus of a woman being a sexual object to think of woman as a subject. The idea is to show what women do and what they have done. Books written by women about women gain in popularity. Universities and scholars revisit what women have done in the past. TV shows like the Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970) (Links to an external site.) illustrate the issues working women faced. It is during this phase that women artists begin to push for equal rights in the art world. Feminism in Art The feminist art movement emerged in the late 1960's when many women artists felt that could affect the world and bring change toward equality. These artists wanted to change how art history was seen (male-dominated) and create new works to include the female perspective. Feminist art created opportunities and spaces that previously did not exist for women and minority artists. Before the 1970's, the majority of women artists were invisible. They were denied exhibitions and gallery representation based on their gender. Art history focused on works created by (mostly white) men. In New York City, which had a firmly established gallery and museum system, women artists wanted equal representation in art institutions. They formed a variety of women's art organizations, like the Art Worker's Coalition, Women Artists in Revolution (WAR) and the AIR Gallery, to specifically address Feminist artists' rights and issues in the art community. These organizations protested museums like The Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney, which exhibited few, if any, women artists. Protests of the Whitney led to a rise in the number of women artists presented, from ten percent in 1969 to twenty-three percent in 1970. In California, women artists focused on creating a new and separate space for women's art, rather than fighting an established system. In 1972, the California Institute of the Arts' Feminist Art Program, organized the project Womanhouse in an abandoned mansion. The Feminist Studio Workshop (FSW) - a two-year program for women in the arts that covered Feminist studio practice as well as theory and criticism-was created in 1973 Art critics brought attention to the fact that women artists had been completely omitted from the canon of Western art. A Feminist revision of art history led to the inclusion of more women artists in art history books. In 1976, the first international female-only exhibition "Women Artists: 1550-1950" showed 400 years worth of work that had gone largely unrecognized. In 1985, a group known as the Guerrilla Girls, fought against sexism and racism in the art world by protesting, speaking, and performing at various venues while wearing gorilla masks and adopting pseudonyms to hide their identity to avoid real-world repercussions for speaking out against powerful institutions. The Guerrilla Girls took Feminist art in a new direction by plastering posters all over New York and eventually buying advertising space for their images. Click on link for video about the Guerrilla Girls. (Links to an external site.) Feminist artists often used alternative materials that were connected to the female gender to create their work, such as textiles, or other media previously little used by men such as performance and video, which did not have the same historically male-dominated precedent that painting and sculpture carried. By expressing themselves through these non-traditional means, women sought to expand the definition of fine art, and to incorporate a wider variety of artistic perspectives. Judy Chicago In 1972, Chicago started Woman House with Miriam Schapiro at California State University, In 1974, Chicago used the subject of women’s history to create her best known work, The Dinner Party (click on mink for more about this work) (Links to an external site.), a work about the symbolic history of women in Western Civilization. From 1980 to 1985, Chicago worked on the Birth Project which was a series of birth and creation images for needlework which were executed under her supervision by 150 skilled needle workers around the country. PowerPlay is a series of drawings, paintings, weavings, cast paper, and bronze reliefs, that shows the negative ways men have used their power. Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party Miriam Schapiro In 1972, Schapiro started Woman House with Judy Chicago at California State University and spent time examining women artists who had been forgotten or dismissed by art historians. In her own work, Schapiro uses elements of craft and "low" art, such as sewing, that had been excluded from the realm of "fine art" and merely described as "woman's work." By combining these materials and processes with visual elements taken from traditional art, she wanted to elevate these female traditions and place them alongside oil painting and classical drawing as equals. Miriam Schapiro, Mary Cassatt and Me Eva Hesse Best known for her abstract sculptures. She was one of the earliest sculptors who used industrial and every-day, or "found" materials, such as rope, string, wire, rubber, and fiberglass. By using these unconventional materials, she wanted to show how the simplest materials suggest a wide range of organic associations, psychological moods. Click on link for more about Hesse's work. (Links to an external site.) Eva Hesse, Vertiginous Detour Cindy Sherman Cindy Sherman’s photographic series, Untitled Film Stills includes over seventy black and white photographs made between 1977 and 1980. Each individual image creates a scene similar to a scene from an outdated television show or movie, with the woman in the picture as leading heroine, wearing a vintage 1950s outfit and looking captivated by something outside the frame. There is a sense of suspense in the works, as we will never know what happens to the woman. It makes the image more about what happened before and after the moment it was shot. The scenes are recognizable as film stills – imitating typical cinematic angles, lighting, and dramatization – but they come from no particular movie. The different personas Sherman depicts are stereotypes; they represent a series of clichés: career girl, bombshell, fashion victim, schoolgirl, society lady, etc. – all characters deeply embedded in our cultural history. Click on link for discussion of Untitled Film Still #21 (Links to an external site.) Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #15 Section 6: 1960's Videos I am including three documentary videos about the 1960's. When most people think of the 1960's, they think about Woodstock, hippies,sex, drugs and rock and roll "fun" times. However, the 1960's was not just about these things. Many things which happened in the 1960's are being re-lived today in 2020. The videos are optional and I will not ask questions specifically from the videos. I hope you take the time to watch these videos to add to your understanding of current events today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTspDh6C3yY&t=2356s (Links to an external site.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93iBar-VrqA (Links to an external site.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jET2qR8Y-Ng (Links to an external site.) Art Vocabulary Review the following website about terms and ways to analyze visual art (required). The 1st and 3rd pages have vocabulary terms (line, shape, color, balance, etc) you will need to know for the quiz and test. The rest of the website is a great resource for the tools you can use to analyze and write about visual art (which you will need to do for discussion #6). https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-sac-artappreciation/chapter/oer-1-9/ (Links to an external site.) I have also included a video about analyzing a work of art. It is not a work relevant to the class, but the video does a decent job going through a visual analysis. Click on picture to access link. Section 6: 1960's Videos I am including three documentary videos about the 1960's. When most people think of the 1960's, they think about Woodstock, hippies,sex, drugs and rock and roll "fun" times. However, the 1960's was not just about these things. Many things which happened in the 1960's are being re-lived today in 2020. The videos are optional and I will not ask questions specifically from the videos. I hope you take the time to watch these videos to add to your understanding of current events today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTspDh6C3yY&t=2356s (Links to an external site.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93iBar-VrqA (Links to an external site.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jET2qR8Y-Ng (Links to an external site.) Art Vocabulary Review the following website about terms and ways to analyze visual art (required). The 1st and 3rd pages have vocabulary terms (line, shape, color, balance, etc) you will need to know for the quiz and test. The rest of the website is a great resource for the tools you can use to analyze and write about visual art (which you will need to do for discussion #6). https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-sac-artappreciation/chapter/oer-1-9/ (Links to an external site.) I have also included a video about analyzing a work of art. It is not a work relevant to the class, but the video does a decent job going through a visual analysis. Click on picture to access link. Abstract Expressionism Abstract Expressionism is an art movement which began in the 1930’s, but became popular with America’s countercultures (the Beats—see Culture of Conformity and BeBop Jazz in the 1950’s music lecture notes) in the post-World War II era (1943-early 1950’s). It is often considered the United State’s first international art movement. Abstract Expressionism was a way for artists to break away from the artistic traditions and social norms of America’s post war culture of conformity and focus on personal expression. Like Bebop jazz, the style uses spontaneity, improvisation, and collaboration. Many painters working the style wanted to break away from traditional artistic conventions and used Abstract Expressionism because of its focus on individualism (versus conformity) and the process of expressing, rather than representing feelings. Jackson Pollock Known for his “action” paintings, Pollock would place large canvases on the ground and either pour paint from a can or use a stick dipped in paint to splatter paint on the canvas according to how he felt at the moment. The paintings are abstract and completely nonobjective and reflect Pollock’s belief in “the necessity of spontaneous impulse.” Click on link for video about Jackson Pollock (Links to an external site.) Click on link to read about how jazz influenced Pollock’s paintings (Links to an external site.) Examples of Pollock’s paintings: Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30) Jackson Pollock, Pasiphaë Clyfford Still Still was part of a second group of Abstract Expressionists who were more interested in large areas of color to evoke a contemplative response to the viewer. He often applied thick layers of paint onto canvases in flame like patterns. According to Still, “I want the spectator to be on his own before the paintings, and if he finds in them an imagery unkind or unpleasant or evil, let him look to the state of his own soul.” Click on link for more information about Clyfford Still (Links to an external site.)(museum site has a good link about Abstract Expressionism) Examples of Still’s paintings: Clyfford Still, 1957-J No. 1 (PH-142), 1957 Clyfford Still, PH-119, 1948 Pop Art Pop Art is inspired by the consumer culture which developed in the United States after World War II. After the war, the US saw unprecedented prosperity and a rising middle class with more time for leisure and entertainment. Mass-production and new technologies led to many new consumer goods that promised a higher standard of living. Pop artists in the United States responded to the consumer marketplace in mass media, advertising, and society in general. They began to use the commonplace images from popular culture to critique and bring attention to the superficial culture around them. In the United States, the Pop style rejected the abstraction of Abstract Expressionism and focused on art that depicted the visual world in a recognizable way. They also rejected the individual, personal qualities of Abstract Expressionism in order to show the impersonal qualities of the consumer culture. The artists made art that mirrored, critiqued, and incorporated everyday items, consumer goods, and mass media messaging and imagery. Many also used techniques of commercial printing, such as lithographs and silkscreens, and sometimes used multiple images of the same object to comment on the mass production of culture. Click on link for video about Pop Art (Links to an external site.) Andy Warhol Andy Warhol is one of the United States' leading pop artists. He began his career as a commercial graphic designer. In the early 1960's, he began creating paintings of common objects, like the iconic Campbell's Soup cans, and notable public figures, like Marilyn Monroe. He applied methods of mass production to his painting techniques. Click on link for more information about Warhol (Links to an external site.) Andy Warhol, Marilyn Monroe Andy Warhol, Campbell's Soup Cans, 1962 Psychedelic Art Psychedelic art was influenced by the hippie counterculture of the 1960’s and the use of psychotropic drugs like LSD. The Hippies were one of two countercultures to emerge in the 1960’s (the first being the politically focused new left movement). Even though they were less politically focused, events such as America’s involvement in the Vietnam War and the anti-technology sentiment that developed in the late 1950’s and the early 1960’s influenced the movement. The majority of hippies were part of the youth generation who felt alienated from mainstream American society. Many hippies wanted to live a simpler lifestyle away from the politics and consumer culture of the 1960’s. Many people grew hair out, wore jeans, t-shirts and sandals (not the way one would be expected to dress), and explored ancient Asian and African religions. The movement was about cultural revolution and ending technocracy, not about direct confrontation like the new left. Hippies would organize events called "Human Be-ins” with antiwar speakers, Beat poets, rock bands and drugs. Woodstock, a large music concert in upstate New York in 1969, was the peak of the counterculture. Click on link for video about Woodstock. (Links to an external site.) The use of drugs, such as LSD, was a large part of psychedelic art. LSD was originally developed in 1938 by researchers as a therapeutic drug with psychoanalytical uses. It was thought to cure alcoholism in the post Prohibition era (see video about LSD research) (Links to an external site.). In the 1960’s, Timothy Leary, a psychiatrist who began experimenting with the drug as a benefit in psychotherapy, starts promoting the drug as a way to free. He coins the phrase: "Turn on, tune in, and drop out" (Turn on to drugs, tune in to your inner mind, drop out of society). Many hippies felt drugs could break the thought patterns imposed by society. If you cannot reform society, you can reform yourself and free the mind from the conformity of society. Psychedelia is about exploring inner space (mind). Psychedelic art often contained swirling patterns, erotic imagery and hidden messages. The works referenced the changing states of consciousness while under the influence of the drug. Examples of psychedelic art: Quick Silver Avalon Ballroom SF March 1967 - Victor Moscoso.jpg Art of the Civil Rights Movement Racial Segregation (Jim Crow) After the US Civil War in the 1860’s, a system of racism develops, especially in the southern United States. This system, known as “Jim Crow,” called for the segregation, or separation, of black and white Americans in all aspects of life. In 1896 Supreme court moved that there was nothing wrong with segregation as long as it was separate but equal. However, nothing is ever equal, especially the segregated school system in the south. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second-class citizens. There were separate businesses, separate facilities, separate schools. There were also rules of etiquette that people were expected to follow. Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections. Oklahoma prohibited blacks and whites from boating together. Georgia established separate parks for blacks and whites. Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for blacks and whites to play checkers or dominoes together. The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were enforced by violence, real and threatened. Blacks (and whites) who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the “white” water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives and had little legal recourse against assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-white: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings. Rumors of some criminal activity by blacks against whites perpetuated the actions of the white mobs. In almost every one of the attacks, the police sided with the attackers, either by actually participating in, or by failing to quell the attack. The Civil Rights Movement (1955-1965) The idea of the Civil Rights Movement was to challenge deep rooted racism and discrimination of American society. There was a belief among people involved with the Civil Rights Movement that if there was an end to racial segregation in America, then racism would end. The first court case to overturn laws of segregation was Brown vs Board of Education (Links to an external site.)in 1954. In Brown vs Board of Education, court overturns idea of separate but equal in public schools in all of US and mandates Southern School Systems be desegregated. When the court passes the ruling, it is resisted by white southerners, who are willing to go outside the law to avoid complying court’s decision regarding desegregation to avoid desegregating their school systems. In 1957, the governor of the state of Arkansas called in the National Guard to prevent black students from attending Little Rock Central High School. (Links to an external site.) Media coverage is so great that President Eisenhower is forced to involve federal government in desegregation of public schools. The Federal government will not let states defy supreme court ruling. In 1960, Ruby Bridges (Links to an external site.), a six-year-old girl, was selected by the New Orleans school board to attend an all-white elementary school in New Orleans. Ruby and her mother were escorted by four federal marshals to the school every day that year. She walked past crowds screaming at her. Angry white parents pulled their children from school, some withdrew their children permanently. There was only one teacher willing to accept Ruby. She ate lunch alone and sometimes played with her teacher at recess, but she never missed a day of school that year. Her dad lost her job, her mom couldn’t buy things at stores, and her grandparents were kicked off their sharecropping farm. In 1964, artist Norman Rockwell created a painting of that first day entitled, “The Problem We All Live With.” Rockwell's first assignment for Look magazine was an illustration of Ruby Bridges being escorted by four U.S. marshals to her first day at an all-white school in New Orleans. Norman Rockwell, The Problem We All Live With Another painting by Norman Rockwell, Murders in Mississippi, documents the murder of three civil rights activists in Mississippi. Rockwell's shows the murders of three young civil rights workers in Philadelphia, Mississippi. 1964 was an election year and younger activists sent out to increase voter registration in Mississippi and Alabama. Three activists, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Goodman drove to the Mount Zion Church after hearing of a Klan attack against blacks and of arson there. When they returned to the Meridian office of Congress On Racial Equality (CORE--civil right's organization), they were arrested by Deputy Sheriff Price, for supposedly setting the fire. After releasing them later that night, Klansmen intercepted them and drove them to a remote location and shot the three, dumped their bodies into a dam site and covered their bodies. Norman Rockwell, Murder in Mississippi Other works of art from the Civil Rights Movement As civil rights leaders prepared for the 1963 March on Washington a group of black artists in New York met to discuss their role in the movement. The artists formed the Spiral Group, “for the purpose of discussing the commitment of the Negro artist in the present struggle for civil liberties, and as a discussion group to consider common aesthetic problems.” Within the group of artists, aged 28 to 65 and at varying stages of their careers, there were different perspectives and styles of the members. Between July 1963 and the fall of 1965 the group interactions exposed members to each other’s work, inspirations and viewpoints and addressed issues of art, race and politics. Spiral members are among the most notable American artists of the 20th century and the conversations the group began about the role of the African American artist and definition of black art are still relevant today. Some Spiral artists include: Romare Bearden Bearden was an African American artist Grew up in Harlem in the 1920’s. He worked in many mediums, but main body of work is collage. Inspired by the rhythms of jazz, his works reflect different aspects of the black experience and everyday life and show the dignity of the black community. Romare Bearden, The Woodshed Inspired by the memories of his family in North Carolina, Bearden created domestic scenes that reflect the strength of Southerners under challenging circumstances. Here, a family of four gathers in a run-down shed for a meal and some music. Romare Bearden, Morning This work references his own memory of family but to the collective memory of African American family life. The rocking chair and potbellied stove lend an air of Americana and squarely locate the black family within the realm of traditional domesticity. Romare Bearden, from The Odyssey Series This work is one of several visual representation of the Greek poet, Homer’s epic poem, the Odyssey, told as the black experience. Click on link for more information about this series. (Links to an external site.) Norman Lewis Norman Lewis was a painter who worked in the Abstract Expressionist style. Like many Abstract Expressionist artists, he wanted to paint feelings rather than represent them. During the 1960s and 1970s, Lewis used his work to respond to the issues and events of the Civil Rights movement. Click on link for more about Lewis' work (Links to an external site.) Norman Lewis, Evening Rendezvous Evening Rendezvous is one of several paintings inspired by the Ku Klux Klan and references the organization's activities of violence against black Americans. The abstract dabs of white emerging from a gray twilight are hooded Klansmen, gathered around a bonfire suggested by the hot reds at the center of the image. Angular white shapes in the foreground describe men closest to the headlights of their cars, while those at the top are obscured by blue smoke. The combination of red, white, and blue, as well as the abstract outline of the United States, mocks the patriotism that the Klan claimed as its defense. Norman Lewis, Confrontation Norman Lewis, Journey to an End Art of the Feminist Movement Feminist Movement in America (1950’s to 1980’s) The feminism movement in America (1950-1980's) becomes another political movement (like the Civil Rights Movement). The movement goes through several stages: The liberal stage (1950's-early 1960's) tried to redefine the domestic sphere and eliminate the way differences are recognized by law (everyone should be equal according to the law). Women begin feeling stifled in the post WWII housewife/mother role, especially those who worked in war industries during WWII. After the war, society and things like women’s magazines and television shows enforce ideology of finding fulfillment through the happiness of husband and children. Many women, especially college educated women, feel trapped at home, culturally excluded from professional achievement. Betty Friedan, writer of the book. The Feminine Mystique (1963), and founder of NOW (National Organization for Women), urges middle class women to see inequalities and limitations placed on women as a social problem with political remedies. She tells women it is not a personal problem, but a problem in society. Women feeling dissatisfied don’t need psychotherapy to be happy wives and mothers, they need more opportunities in society. In the mid to late 1950's, magazines like Playboy promote the idea of the bachelor (unmarried) lifestyle and show men they do not need to have a wife and kids to be masculine. Men can be a “man” through consumer goods and men targeted as consumers with large discretionary incomes, as their salaries are traditionally higher than women’s because it is assumed they are the breadwinners. Working class women who need to work to support themselves, and sometimes their children, making less money for the same job as men, have to fight to have equal educational and job opportunities. By the 1970's, divorce rate increased 66% in the 1970’s. Child rearing and housework was a low priority, especially for younger and more educated women. Large families no longer desired and women not interested in sacrificing income, status and self fulfillment to preserve an unhappy marriage. Women want to earn equal paychecks, fair wages and job opportunities The radical stage (mid to late 1960’s) believed inequality cannot be eliminated by changing laws, felt the entire society needs to be transformed because it was built on inequality. The felt the problem not just equal rights and an unequal paycheck, it is how the patriarchal society views women and how society and cultural practices oppress women. They begin to fight against sexual objectification of women in magazines like Playboy, but also television, movies, advertisements, and events like the Miss America Pageant, which they protested in 1968. The radical phase is more about direct confrontation, so many women join together at protest rallies to bring attention to the issues. The cultural stage (1970's-80's) is where the political aspect fades, and the focus is on making a cultural statement to show different ways to look at the issues. Cultural feminism centers around the idea of agency, showing things from the woman's perspective and focusing on the contributions of women in society. It shifts the focus of a woman being a sexual object to think of woman as a subject. The idea is to show what women do and what they have done. Books written by women about women gain in popularity. Universities and scholars revisit what women have done in the past. TV shows like the Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970) (Links to an external site.) illustrate the issues working women faced. It is during this phase that women artists begin to push for equal rights in the art world. Feminism in Art The feminist art movement emerged in the late 1960's when many women artists felt that could affect the world and bring change toward equality. These artists wanted to change how art history was seen (male-dominated) and create new works to include the female perspective. Feminist art created opportunities and spaces that previously did not exist for women and minority artists. Before the 1970's, the majority of women artists were invisible. They were denied exhibitions and gallery representation based on their gender. Art history focused on works created by (mostly white) men. In New York City, which had a firmly established gallery and museum system, women artists wanted equal representation in art institutions. They formed a variety of women's art organizations, like the Art Worker's Coalition, Women Artists in Revolution (WAR) and the AIR Gallery, to specifically address Feminist artists' rights and issues in the art community. These organizations protested museums like The Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney, which exhibited few, if any, women artists. Protests of the Whitney led to a rise in the number of women artists presented, from ten percent in 1969 to twenty-three percent in 1970. In California, women artists focused on creating a new and separate space for women's art, rather than fighting an established system. In 1972, the California Institute of the Arts' Feminist Art Program, organized the project Womanhouse in an abandoned mansion. The Feminist Studio Workshop (FSW) - a two-year program for women in the arts that covered Feminist studio practice as well as theory and criticism-was created in 1973 Art critics brought attention to the fact that women artists had been completely omitted from the canon of Western art. A Feminist revision of art history led to the inclusion of more women artists in art history books. In 1976, the first international female-only exhibition "Women Artists: 1550-1950" showed 400 years worth of work that had gone largely unrecognized. In 1985, a group known as the Guerrilla Girls, fought against sexism and racism in the art world by protesting, speaking, and performing at various venues while wearing gorilla masks and adopting pseudonyms to hide their identity to avoid real-world repercussions for speaking out against powerful institutions. The Guerrilla Girls took Feminist art in a new direction by plastering posters all over New York and eventually buying advertising space for their images. Click on link for video about the Guerrilla Girls. (Links to an external site.) Feminist artists often used alternative materials that were connected to the female gender to create their work, such as textiles, or other media previously little used by men such as performance and video, which did not have the same historically male-dominated precedent that painting and sculpture carried. By expressing themselves through these non-traditional means, women sought to expand the definition of fine art, and to incorporate a wider variety of artistic perspectives. Judy Chicago In 1972, Chicago started Woman House with Miriam Schapiro at California State University, In 1974, Chicago used the subject of women’s history to create her best known work, The Dinner Party (click on mink for more about this work) (Links to an external site.), a work about the symbolic history of women in Western Civilization. From 1980 to 1985, Chicago worked on the Birth Project which was a series of birth and creation images for needlework which were executed under her supervision by 150 skilled needle workers around the country. PowerPlay is a series of drawings, paintings, weavings, cast paper, and bronze reliefs, that shows the negative ways men have used their power. Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party
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Running head: VISUAL ART DISCUSSION

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Visual Art Discussion
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Romare Bearden, from the Odyssey Series
From the far-left corner of the painting, we can see different shapes. The shapes combine
to form what seems to be a coastline with boat shapes and human figures present. The choice of
color is perfect as it differentiates the land and the sea. Moving further into the center, we see
various shapes and colors that seem to be carrying different meanings. Right after the coastline,
the color changes from brown to red. Red emphasizes danger or caution. And for this case, the red
color signifies a war zone. We can see different images of people fighting, holding objects that
resemble spears and knives. The people here are all painted black. This signifies that the painting
is based on...


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