Liberty University ABC in Grief Counseling Teaching Demonstration Proposal

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ybir123456

Humanities

Liberty University

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Reading and Studying

Svinicki & McKeachie: chapter 2
Video – Developing effective writing assignments
Video – Formative and summative evaluations
Video – Examples of formative evaluations

Assignment: Teaching Demonstration Proposal – worth 200 points

This week, you will synthesize all the learning components from the course, to develop a comprehensive teaching demonstration proposal.
Your teaching topic was developed during the first week of class and you have practiced writing LOs and developing active learning strategies and understanding adult learning theory.
Now you are putting everything together!

Assignment Resources:


Reach out if you have any question,


This worth 200 point if you completed earlier i can send to the professor to make sure i am on the right track, make sure to site work...

There is a sample how to do this proposal and use the templet which i uploaded

remember my work is on grief and lass make sure to use the ABC MODEL FOR A TECHNIQUE.


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EDCO 725 CLASS PROJECT: TEACHING DEMONSTRATION PROPOSAL RUBRIC Criteria Criteria Content: 70%= 140 points Content: Foundation: literature review --25 points Content: Quality of LOs -15 points Content: Description of core elements— active learning Levels of Achievement Advanced 92-100% (A- to A): Satisfies criteria w/ excellence 129-140 Points Possible Proficient 84-91% (B- to B+) : Satisfies criteria at the doctoral level 118-128 Points Possible Developing 76-83% (C- to C+): Satisfies most criteria Below Expectations 175% (F to D+): Does not satisfy criteria 106-117 Points Possible 1- 105 Points Possible 23-25 Points 21-22 Points 19-20 Points 1-18 Points Content exceptionally includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation 14-15 Points Content exceptionally includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation 46-50 Points Content exceptionally includes assignment parameters at the Content adequately includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation 13 Points Content adequately includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation 42-45 Points Content adequately includes assignment parameters at the Content exhibits some limitations given doctoral level expectations 12 Points Content exhibits some limitations given doctoral level expectations 38-41 Points Content exhibits some limitations given Not Present Points Earned 0 points Content exhibits significant limitations or omissions based on assignment expectations and doctoral level standards 1-11 Points 0 points Content exhibits significant limitations or omissions based on assignment expectations and doctoral level standards 1-37 Points 0 Points Content exhibits significant limitations or Page 1 of 2 EDCO 725 strategies, HOTS, adult learning theory --50 points Content: Teaching Demonstrati on Proposal Template – 50 points Writing/APA 30% --60 points possible Writing: 30 points possible APA: 30 points possible doctoral level of expectation 46-50 Points doctoral level of expectation 42-45 Points doctoral level expectations 38-41 Points omissions based on assignment expectations and doctoral level standards 1-37 Points Content exceptionally includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation Content adequately includes assignment parameters at the doctoral level of expectation Content exhibits some limitations given doctoral level expectations 55-60 Points 51-54 Points 46-50 Points 28-30 Points Student’s writing is exceptional given doctoral level standards 26-27 Points Writing structure, organization, and mechanics are acceptable given doctoral level standards 26-27 Points 23-25 Points Writing exhibits some limitations given doctoral level expectations 1-22 Points Writing is significantly below expectations 23-25 Points 1-22 Points 28-30 Points Faculty comments: APA 7th is fully followed APA 7th is adequately followed Paper contains several APA errors Content exhibits significant limitations or omissions based on assignment expectations and doctoral level standards 1-45 Points APA errors are pervasive and distracting Total Page 2 of 2 RUNNING HEAD 1 (Topic) Teaching Demonstration Proposal Name Affiliation ATTENTION: Be sure to delete the instructional language throughout this template and replace it with your original work. • Please use the headings & format for your headings. • Follow the order, and focus of each section to write clearly, concise and focused. RUNNING HEAD 2 (Topic) Teaching Demonstration Proposal Brief Description Provide a concise overview, in a well-developed paragraph, of the topic and what you will be teaching. Literature Review In this first section, you will lay out the foundation for what you propose to do, by drawing from the research literature on the topic. In essence, you will present a brief literature review and justification for narrowing your focus to your specific teaching topic. Make sure to cite your research correctly per APA. Length: the length of your literature review will vary according to the topic and the depth of the research. Make the literature review of sufficient length to explain the foundation for your active learning activities and HOTS emphasis. Most likely several pages will be necessary. Learning Objectives (LOs) A strong teaching demonstration begins with strong learning objectives. Based on the class content on LOs, write 2-3 learning objectives that primarily include higher order thinking. Follow the suggestions provided in class for writing clear, strong, and valid LOs. Be mindful that the learning outcome is not what happens throughout the lesson, but rather the culminating cognitive climax that your lesson builds up to as an ending result of the learning process. LO #1 LO #2 RUNNING HEAD 3 Active Learning Strategies Thoroughly review the class content on active learning strategies, and in this section, indicate 2-3 different active learning strategies that you will include in your proposed teaching demonstration. Draw from the class sources (cited correctly) and explain why your chosen teaching strategies best fit your LOs. That is, in implementing your learning objectives, explain why the chosen teaching strategies best complete your LOs. Recall that one of the class documents suggested learning activities that fit with each level of thought (Bloom’s Taxonomy and Anderson and Krathwohl’s revision of Bloom) Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to be Implemented A focus on this class entitled “Teaching and Learning” has been on stimulating thought and integrating higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in active learning strategies. In this section, briefly review the highest levels of thought that you want to implement in your teaching demonstration. Review what each means as applied in your teaching demonstration, drawing broadly from the class discussion on HOTS. Why does your topic lend itself to the highest levels of thought that you want to demonstrate—that is, what about your teaching topic suggests a need to evaluate, or critique, or create a new way, or apply in a different way, etc.? Again, cite your class sources per APA. Elements of Andragogy Clearly title and define the adult learning theory or focused principle directly related to an adult learning theory. Describe it as informed from source of information. Then provide a clear example of how it will be fosters in your own demonstration. Provide solid justification for your conclusion. RUNNING HEAD 4 Lesson Table Time Allotted Teaching Strategy Title of strategy: Explanation of how it is being used: Title of strategy: Explanation of how it is being used: Repeat this format as many times as needed Rationale and LO Linkage In this column, you indicate how the teaching strategy relates to your overall purpose in the teaching demonstration and which LO it addresses. You also will need to draw from class content and cite per APA, as you provide the rationale for choosing the LO. You could also show how what you propose for each segment incorporates andragogy. In this column, you indicate how the teaching strategy relates to your overall purpose in the teaching demonstration and which LO it addresses. You also will need to draw from class content and cite per APA, as you provide the rationale for choosing the LO. You could also show how what you propose for each segment incorporates andragogy RUNNING HEAD 5 References Use correct APA format. You should have access to the 7th edition APA writing manual. Writing tips Provide a concise overview in a well-developed paragraph, of the topic and the specific content you will be teaching. Mention the theoretical model or overarching principle that is foundational for your topic. Clearly illustrate the concepts that are the focus of the lesson. ▪ Introductory paragraph the main ideas presented in your literature review. This section of your paper will be several paragraphs in length. ▪ Present a brief literature review and justification for narrowing your focus to your specific teaching topic. ▪ Lay out the foundation for what you propose to do, by drawing from the research literature on the topic. Make sure to cite your research correctly per APA. Length: the length of your literature review will vary according to the topic and the depth of the research. Make the literature review of sufficient length to explain the foundation for your active learning activities and HOTS emphasis. Most likely several pages will be necessary. In this section of your paper, illustrate 2-3 Learning outcomes. Be mindful that the outcome is the cumulating cognitive climax, what happens towards the end of your lesson, that creates a pinnacle thinking experience for your students. 1. LO 1 2. LO 2 Draw from the class sources (cited correctly) and explain why your chosen teaching strategies best fit your LOs. That is, in implementing your learning objectives, explain why the chosen teaching strategies best complete your LOs. Recall that one of the class documents suggested learning activities that fit with each level of thought (Bloom’s Taxonomy and Anderson and Krathwohl’s revision of Bloom) ▪ Briefly review the highest levels of thought that you want to implement in your teaching demonstration. This should be directly related to the verb and thought reflected in your LOs. ▪ Why does your topic lend itself to the highest levels of thought that you want to demonstrate—that is, what about your teaching topic suggests a need to evaluate, or critique, or create a new way, or apply in a different way, etc.? ▪ **** Do not create a list of verbs and imply that your lesson will achieve ALL of them. If you select a verb that reflects the thought in your lesson, then explain that through a well-developed rationale that is logical. Cite your class sources per APA. Clearly title and define the adult learning theory or focused principle directly related to an adult learning theory. Describe it as informed from source of information. Then provide a clear example of how it will be fosters in your own demonstration. Provide solid justification for your conclusion. Draw from the class content on adult learning theory and cite correctly. Time Title of strategy: Allotted Indicate how the teaching strategy relates to your overall purpose in the teaching demonstration and which LO it addresses. Explanation of how it is being used: You could also show how what you propose for each segment incorporates andragogy. You also will need to draw from class content and cite per APA, as you provide the rationale for choosing the LO EDCO 725 CLASS PROJECT: TEACHING DEMONSTRATION ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW Your class project is to design a 40-60 minute teaching lesson incorporating the main elements of this class: • • • Emphasis on critical thinking Use of active learning strategies Incorporating andragogy (adult learning theory) You will not actually present this lesson but will simply design your teaching demonstration. By now you should have mastered the content for each of these elements. It might help to review class content before you complete this project. Critical Thinking: as we have emphasized all term, the essence of graduate school should be critical thinking, rather than just adding more knowledge to your understanding. You have read invaluable content on stimulating thought and implementing the highest levels of thought from Bloom’s Taxonomy and the Anderson and Krathwohl revision of Bloom. In your class project, you will primarily challenge your students with the highest level of thought –application, analysis, evaluation, creation, etc. Your teaching demonstration is not primarily a lecture, in which you simply impart knowledge, but exercises designed to challenge and stimulate thinking. If you just present a lecture, you will not pass this final project. Active Learning: the class content had excellent discussion on the concept of active learning. While lecture has a place in higher education, your students are best served in an environment in which they learning actively. You were introduced to numerous active learning strategies through the class content and you will demonstrate several active learning techniques in this final project. For sure, you may need to present some basic information (lecture, video, etc.) but most of your time should be taken up with your active learning strategies. Doing so should make your proposed teaching demonstration exciting, challenging, and even fun. Adult Learning Theory: you also read a lot about andragogy and you are tasked with incorporating adult learning principles into your proposed teaching demonstration. INSTRUCTIONS Elements of the Final Project Literature Review The teaching topic you chose in week one was a narrowed focus in a larger body of research. You may have an interest in a particular therapy technique applied to a specific diagnosis. In your first section, provide a brief overview of the body of research, and then how you narrowed down your focus in order to emphasize higher-order thinking. You will have your students attempt to solve a particular problem in the research on a topic, apply concepts to a new application, come up with a unique treatment plan, etc. In this first section, you will lay out the EDCO 725 foundation for what you propose to do, by drawing from the research literature on the topic. In essence, you will present a brief literature review and justification for narrowing your focus to your specific teaching topic. Make sure to cite your research correctly per APA. Length: the length of your literature review will vary according to the topic and the depth of the research. Make the literature review of sufficient length to explain the foundation for your active learning activities and HOTS emphasis. Most likely several pages will be necessary. Learning Objectives (LOs) A strong teaching demonstration begins with strong learning objectives. Based on the class content on LOs, write at least three learning objectives that primarily include higher order thinking. Follow the suggestions provided in class for writing clear, strong, and valid LOs. Description of Active Learning Strategies Thoroughly review the class content on active learning strategies, and in this section, indicate 2-3 different active learning strategies that you will include in your proposed teaching demonstration. Draw from the class sources (cited correctly) and explain why your chosen teaching strategies best fit your LOs. That is, in implementing your learning objectives, explain why the chosen teaching strategies best complete your LOs. Recall that one of the class documents suggested learning activities that fit with each level of thought (Bloom’s Taxonomy and Anderson and Krathwohl’s revision of Bloom) HOTS to be Implemented A focus on this class entitled “Teaching and Learning” has been on stimulating thought and integrating higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in active learning strategies. In this section, briefly review the highest levels of thought that you want to implement in your teaching demonstration. Review what each means as applied in your teaching demonstration, drawing broadly from the class discussion on HOTS. Why does your topic lend itself to the highest levels of thought that you want to demonstrate—that is, what about your teaching topic suggests a need to evaluate, or critique, or create a new way, or apply in a different way, etc.? Again, cite your class sources per APA. Elements of Andragogy that you will Incorporate Review the class content on adult learning theory. In this section, determine which elements of andragogy need to be incorporated into your proposed teaching demonstration. Provide solid justification for your conclusion. Draw from the class content on adult learning theory, and cite correctly. EDCO 725 Putting it All Together –Template In your final section, propose a 45-60 minute teaching demonstration using the following table. Time Allotted In this column, indicate the amount of time designated for each learning activity; you could also indicate the cumulative time as well For instance: 1-2 minutes For instance: 5-12 minutes For instance: 5-10 minutes Teaching Strategy In this column, you indicate the teaching strategy you will use for that segment Brief introduction of the topic and review of the LOs Introduction of yourself and class participants if appropriate Review of the research content via minilecture with PPT, brief video that highlights essential content, etc. --if you use a video, such as from YouTube, make sure that it presents scholarly content commensurate with graduate level study General class discussion (could use the think/pair/share technique, or others) that focused on problems in the research you want to explore, problems that need to be solved, exploration of better ways to apply the research findings to a particular diagnosis, etc. Explain how you will structure this discussion, the purpose of the discussion, exactly what you want to accomplish. You Rationale and LO Linkage In this column, you indicate how the teaching strategy relates to your overall purpose in the teaching demonstration and which LO it addresses. You also will need to draw from class content and cite per APA, as you provide the rationale for choosing the LO. You could also show how what you propose for each segment incorporates andragogy. For this learning segment, you could draw from the class content on how to draw in your students, concepts on motivation, stimulating intellectual curiosity that you learned from the class sources. Indicate the LO to which this is linked. Draw from the class content that discussed laying the necessary research foundation for critique or problem-solving, for example. As for each of these segments, provide a rationale by drawing from class content and citing correctly Indicate linkage to LOs, as explained above, rationale, etc. EDCO 725 For instance: 10-15 minutes Etc. 2-4 minutes might suggest the types of questions you will use to drive thinking more deeply. Case study Jigsaw Question formulation technique Scenario analysis Think/pair/share Etc. Etc. Conclusion: 321 summary, for instance Etc. Etc. Etc. Your table should be complete and detailed so that the reader knows exactly what you propose to do in each active learning segment to completely fulfill the LOs. Formatting Your final project should be presented as a formal APA paper, with headings to correspond with topics mentioned above. For sure, you will need a correctly formatted title page and reference page. As noted, you need to draw broadly from the class sources and cite correctly. Have fun with this project! This will give you an opportunity to propose a teaching demonstrating incorporating core concepts you learned this term. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN Designing Instruction Assignment Ms. Liberty Liberty University 1 FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 2 Designing Instruction Assignment Brief Description This lesson will focus on Worthington’s (1998, 2003) Forgiveness model for group counseling. References will be offered of empirical studies that affirm the efficacy of forgiveness techniques in both Christian and secular settings. Students will be assigned pre-class reading in order to free up class time for peer-learning exercises. The instructor will provide a brief overview of the five-step model of REACH forgiveness, and a focus on experiential learning of the second step, Empathize with the Offender (Worthington, 1998, 2003). Further, students will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of this model, including limitations of use for victims of abuse. A final project offers students an opportunity to synthesize all the learning material into a newly created forgiveness care plan for a case study that is representative of a client the student will likely counsel in the future. Literature Review In that last two decades, forgiveness models for group interventions have been reviewed and reported in scholarly literature (Wade, Worthington & Meyer, 2005). Two of the best-known interventions are Enright’s forgiveness model and Worthington’s REACH forgiveness model (Worthington, Johnson, Hook, & Aten, 2013). Enright’s secular model was found to be effective as was Worthington’s faith-based model. There are many reasons researchers encourage matching faith-based treatment interventions with religious clients who seek faith-based interventions (West, 2001). Worthington’s (1998, 2003) model has been selected for use in this teaching demonstration, because the class is designed for pastoral care and Christian counselors who provide services to religious people who value interventions that include relevant religious FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 3 references and strategies (Worthington et al., 2003, p. 262). In studies designed to compare secular psychoeducational group interventions with those tailored to Christians, findings reveal no statistical difference between the two approaches (see the meta-analysis by Worthington, Hook, Davis & McDaniel, 2011; Worthington et al., 2003, p. 259). One reason both approaches are equally successful with Christians is attributed largely to how religious people apply their belief system to those interventions, making both evidence-based treatments effective for Christians (Worthington et al., 2003). When considering faith-based group interventions, Worthington’s (1998, 2003) model has been tested exclusively with Christians for application in group treatment over a wide range of participants (Worthington et al., 2003). Research reliably reports that forgiveness interventions for religious groups that include prayer, Scripture, and other religious elements, effectively bring about reduction of unforgiveness while increasing forgiveness in clients (Lampton, Oliver, Worthington, & Berry, 2005; Rye & Pargament, 2002; Rye at al., 2005; Stratton et al., 2008). When faith-based strategies are observed that align with a Christian worldview, Christian clients also benefit by staying in treatment longer rather than early termination of treatment (Worthington et al., 2003).These studies also reveal that participants who are religious did not offer greater forgiveness than non-religious participants, but they did value spiritual content in the interventions (Worthington et al., 2003). With a topic as broad as forgiveness therapy, the focus for this teaching demonstration was narrowed to concentrate on one of the five steps to the REACH model. Forming the acronym REACH, there are five main components of this forgiveness model, including: (R) Recall the hurt; (E) Empathize; (A) Altruistic gift of forgiveness; (C) Commit publicly to forgive; and (H) Hold on to forgiveness (Worthington, 1998, 2003). The second step, empathy FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 4 for the offender, is a key step in the REACH forgiveness model and was selected for developing active learning strategies that involve critical thinking skills. Many researchers cite empathy as the first – and most important – step in forgiving an offender (McCullough, Worthington & Rachel, 1997). Strengths and weaknesses of the forgiveness model when used with women who have been abused by an offending partner must be considered. It is important to note that forgiveness models provide guidelines, not rigid rules, for promoting forgiveness but should not be considered the only pathway to achieve forgiveness (Worthington et al., 2003). One of the foundations for forgiveness is a clear understanding of the its definition and what it does and does not involve. Common myths must be debunked such as that forgiveness pardons the offense or excuses the offensive behavior. Additionally, the distinction between forgiveness and reconciliation must be made, as reconciliation is contraindicated in some situations that could lead to further harm to the client (Bass & Davis, 1994; Lamb, 2002). Counselors must recognize that the forgiveness experience is unique to every individual and clients should therefore be empowered as the expert in his or her forgiveness strategy (Worthington et al., 2003). In summary, the literature used for this teaching demonstration was selected to support the empirical research on efficacy of a faith-based forgiveness intervention model, to highlight a crucial step in the forgiveness process, and to safeguard against misuse of this model. The REACH forgiveness model (Worthington, 1998, 2003) was found to be the best model for both secular and Christian settings, and as an effective forgiveness intervention specific to Christians (Lampton, 2005; Stratton et al., 2008; Worthington et al., 2010). Finally, for pastoral care and Christian counselors who operate on a shoestring budget, Worthington’s faith-based model (1998, 2003) offers a treasure trove of free resource materials for leaders and participants that FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 5 can be downloaded from their website (see www.people.vcu.edu/~eworth). Learning Objectives (LOs) After successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to: 1. Analyze the description of forgiveness, what it is and what it is not, and compare it to the biblical model set by Christ. 2. Evaluate the strategy of creating empathy towards an offender by validating its effectiveness through discussion with other students. 3. Construct a plan for developing empathy that incorporates vulnerabilities of clients who have experienced severe maltreatment by an offender. Active Learning Strategies Common experience group discussion (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014). In order to effectively engage adult learners in this lesson, three active learning strategies will be utilized beginning with participation in a common experience as a discussion starter (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014). The common experience will be a short video (3.33 minutes), Les Misérables – I Give You Back to God (bhershey78, 2010). Following the video, students will be asked to observe 2 minutes of silence while they consider three questions: (1) What are the implications of what you have just witnessed? (2) Do you agree with what the victim did for the offender? (3) What assumptions do you make of how this story ends? Additionally, participants will be asked to consider the offense from God’s point of view. According to Worthington et al., (2003), “clients find it helpful to consider Christ as an example of empathy” (p. 267) in that He showed love and compassion toward all people, even those who scorned and mocked Him, as He died on the cross (Romans 5:8). The time of silence will help to stimulate thinking and allow students opportunity to write down at least one answer before being asked to share any thoughts with the FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 6 class (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014). When time is up the instructor will ask the questions of the group, one by one, allowing one or two students to respond to each question. Additional questions will also be posed to involve analytical thinking regarding how this video example, which models the kind of agape forgiveness God offers to humans, fits into what humans consider to be components of forgiveness. This will lead into a mini lecture with slides that review the literature and essential content highlights that bridge the gap between what students have just experienced with agape forgiveness and how the development of empathy can lead into a similar form of forgiveness from human to human. Dialogue analysis (Liberty Blackboard, n.d.). The next adult learning strategy involves dialogue analysis following the brief video (4.23 minutes), Empathy – Standing in Someone Else’s Shoes (Alexandria Language School, 2013). In this exercise, students will be separated into small groups of 4-5 people at a table. Each group member will be given a copy of the same case study per group. Students must collaboratively review various viewpoints of each person mentioned in the case study (client, family members, and others.) including biases, exclusion or misstatement of important facts, alternative interpretations of the problem, and faulty or distorted thinking (Liberty Blackboard, n.d.). What assumptions can be made that offer a pathway toward developing empathy toward the other parties. Support how this may help the client move toward forgiveness. The teacher will roam the class during this time, listening to group discussion and posing questions to help any groups that may be having difficulty with the drill. In the final two minutes of this exercise, one person from each group will share at least one of the findings and inferences of their group. Think-pair-share (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2013). Have students to return to the original dyads they created with their introductions to another student. After the teacher reads the story of FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 7 the woman caught in adultery (John 8:1-11), each person is to take one minute to think, one minute to write, and one minute to create. The teacher will ask students to imagine the woman accused of adultery has come to them as a client. Think of how forgiveness therapy might be used, and what role empathy would play in her process of forgiving the men who were posed to stone her to death, as well as the man who was the other party to the act of adultery. They should consider what forgiveness is and what forgiveness is not when synthesizing the information and note the limitations to be evaluated with regard to reconciliation. Then each student will write an answer to the problem before creating a new question to ask the other person in each dyad. The teacher will circulate the room during the discussion time in order to stimulate deeper processing among the dyads. In the final two minutes of this exercise, each dyad will be asked to share their most helpful solutions. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to be Implemented In observing Anderson and Krathwohl’s (2001) revised Bloom’s taxonomy, this class incorporates the higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of analyze, evaluate, and create (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014). Beginning with the group discussion activity, students will be challenged to evaluate the role of forgiveness in a short video that reveals an example of extreme forgiveness. Evaluation is involved when the student is enabled to judge the value of what was exhibited in the video with the stated criteria for empathy that leads to forgiveness (Action Verbs, 2020). Questions have been designed to “promote evaluation and synthesis of facts and concepts” (Walker, 2003), prompting students to consider views from with vantage points and how each person’s actions might affect the outcome. In this activity, there are no right or wrong answers to the questions, as they are dependent upon each student’s life experience (Walker, 2003). This activity helps to accomplish the second learning objective: Evaluate the strategy of creating FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 8 empathy towards an offender by validating its effectiveness through discussion with other students. Next, a dialogue analysis activity challenges student to work in small groups to collectively examine the persons involved in a case scenario with the goal of finding a pathway between empathy and forgiveness in the client’s counseling intervention (Action Verbs, 2020). This exercise exposes students to multiple perspectives of the same case study and stimulates growth through the opportunity to analyze and synthesize information in the comfort of a group setting (Walker, 2003). This activity addresses the first learning outcome: Analyze the description of forgiveness, what it is and what it is not, and compare it to the biblical model set by Christ. The final project is a think-pair-share activity that allows students to evaluate the biblical case of a woman accused of adultery (John 8:1-11) and synthesis the material learned in the lesson into an original counseling plan that includes appropriate considerations for whether or not the abuse survivor should reconcile with the offender as a condition of forgiveness (Action Verbs, 2020; Worthington et al., 2003). During this project, learners become engaged in evaluating separate components and forming them into a new understanding of the material that becomes applicable to a specific case (Action Verbs, 2020). This activity addresses the third learning outcome: Construct a plan for developing empathy that incorporates vulnerabilities of clients who have experienced severe maltreatment by an offender. Elements of Andragogy Acknowledging that “the lecturer does not possess all the knowledge” (McGrath, n.d.), and that students are the experts on their own lives (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014, p. 272), students will be encouraged to share from their own knowledge base. Through the use of adult learning activities (common experience discussion opener, they will be allowed to analyze the FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 9 material learned in the classroom and connect it to their own experiences in life (McGrath, n.d.) or to hypothetical experiences they will likely encounter in the counseling setting. Life experience is what a person’s self-identity is based upon, as it is through the accumulation of personal experiences, good, bad, uplifting or crushing, that a person defines who she is (Knowles, 1980; as cited, Merriam et al., 2007). Adult past experiences can serve as motivation to learn something new, to achieve something more, or to correct something that was wrong, and one person’s experiences can be used as resources for another’s learning (Merriam et al., 2007). Merriam & Clark (2006) noted that transitional life events tend to produce the most significant and meaningful learning opportunities (as cited, Merriam et al., 2007). Personal experience has revealed that many people who have experienced tragedy, suffering, and pain in their lives, often turn toward education to become a counselor for the purpose of helping themselves heal and becoming equipped to help others who need the same type of healing. Adults offer the benefit of having many life experiences that can be used to help them process new information, filter ideas for critical thinking, and utilize knowledge in a way that affects others within their circles of influence. It is important to treat adult students with high regard, and to recognize the value of their life development to that point. This includes being considerate of the effects of age and deterioration on the human system (cognitive, sensory, ability to learn new concepts, etc.), and being cognizant of the many other activities that pull on an adult’s time, energy, and resources (family, work, ministry, etc.). The instructor values each person as a unique individual, who develops differently, ages differently, and has neurological benefits and deficits to be considered when planning a curriculum or teaching a class for adult learners (Merriam et al., 2007). FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 10 Scripture challenges leaders to “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves” (Philippians 2:3, NIV). Using a constructivist teaching style that places the responsibility for personal growth on the learner (Roberts, 2008), students will be expected to complete several reading projects prior to class, including: (1) “Christian-Accommodative Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness for Transgressions” (Worthington et al., 2013, pp. 255-276); (2) Handout on a biblical model for forgiveness (Cheong & DiBlasio, 2007); and Class Discussion Ground Rules (Addendum One). Likewise, the instructor understands that teaching is learning, and this requires deeper study of the material in preparation to teach others (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2014). The teacher takes into consideration “The heart of the discerning acquires knowledge, for the ears of the wise seek it out” (Proverbs 18:15, NIV). One final element of andragogy to be included in the adult learning experience is motivation. It is important to recognize the need for students to be motivated in order to participate in, learn from, and stay involved in the course (McGrath, n.d.). For many students, if not all, affirmation plays an important role in motivation. Therefore, the teacher will be sensitive to the need for student affirmation by offering authentic words of appreciation and encouragement throughout the course: “Gracious words are a honeycomb, sweet to the soul and healing to the bones” (Proverbs 16:24, NIV). Being mindful of the aforementioned elements involved in teaching adults, the following lesson plan is proposed. Teaching Template Time Allotted Teaching Strategy Rationale and LO Linkage FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 5 minutes Cumulative: 5 mins 11 Introduction. Teacher welcomes students and sets the expectation for how they all learn from each other, including the teacher, during the class. With many years of experience in public speaking, it is my observance that a meeting of minds goes a lot better if it is begun with Icebreaker. Some forgiveness humor will a little humor and friendly kickstart this session, using a few cartoon-type exchanges. Then we can get visuals on slides. Students will enjoy a laugh down to business by covering or two and then split into dyads using a 1-2 the expectations for the class. numbering system. Introductions will be made within each dyad, including sharing the cartoon with which they most identified. Lesson intro & LOs. The topic will be introduced briefly with a review of the learning objectives for the class. Then a description of forgiveness will be offered. 7 minutes Cumulative: 12 mins Common experience (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2013). Short video, Les Miserables_I give you back to God (bhershey78, 2010), followed by 2 minutes of silence in which to consider three questions which will stimulate class discussion. Elements of forgiveness will be analyzed. LO 2: Evaluate… The goal is to have students evaluate the role of forgiveness in this short video by considering how effective the victim’s action were, and what would have happened had forgiveness not been extended to the dramatic extent that it was. This equips the student to be able to provide similar evaluation to a client’s case, who might be facing a similar situation. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 10 minutes Cumulative: 22 mins 10 minutes Cumulative: 32 mins 5 minutes Cumulative: 37 mins 12 Mini lecture. Brief review of research and the efficacy of faith-based forgiveness therapy followed by the highlights of essential content from pre-class reading material, including the five facets of REACH forgiveness model (Worthington et al., 2003). PowerPoint slides will be used. This mini lecture provides further master’s level instruction with regard to the trustworthiness of Worthington’s (1998, 2003) faith-based forgiveness intervention. A review of the reading materials is important to be sure all students have had an opportunity to become familiar with the material in this lesson, as some adults may not have had time to adequately review the preclass reading resources. Dialogue analysis (Liberty Blackboard, n.d.). Brief video, Empathy – Walking in Someone Else’s Shoes (Alexandria Language School, 2013), followed by dialogue analysis in which students will be separated into small groups (4-5 per table) to analyze and evaluate the use of empathy toward the offender in one of three client scenarios. LO 1: Analyze… Mini lecture: Teacher will use slides to provide an overview of what forgiveness is and is not, including contraindications for forgiveness accompanied by reconciliation. Clients who live with the pain of an event that has created unforgiveness in their lives may require special consideration when it comes to attaching reconciliation to forgiveness models. Therefore, this brief session that discusses limitations of forgiveness interventions is important. This exercise challenges students to work together in analyzing a client scenario to determine how forgiveness therapy, in particular utilization of the empathy step, could be incorporate into the client’s treatment plan. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 10 minutes Cumulative: 47 mins 3 minutes Cumulative: 50 mins 13 Think-pair-share (Svinicki & McKeachie, 2013). Students will pair up in their introductory dyads to answer a question and create a question concerning the story of the woman caught in adultery (John 8:1-11). The purpose of this strategy is to stimulate deeper processing of the use and limitations of empathy in situations involving abuse and synthesize a new plan for using forgiveness/empathy in cases of abuse. LO 3: Construct… Conclusion: The teacher will summarize the efficacy of religious-based group treatments for promoting forgiveness, the important step of developing empathy toward an offender, and the limitations of forgiveness therapy in cases of maltreatment. This final word from the teacher provides a close to the session that reminds students what they have just learned, and to encourage students to ask God to use them as instruments of His forgiveness. Using a biblical case scenario, students will once again pair up and create a proposal for using forgiveness therapy on the woman caught in adultery. This exercise involves using all the components from the lesson to develop a new product. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 14 References Action Verbs. (2020). The ABCDs of Writing Instructional Objectives. Liberty University Blackboard. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-42131372-dtcontent-rid-500014399_1/xid-500014399_1 Liberty Blackboard. (n.d.). Active learning handout. Retrieved from http://www.liberty.edu/media/3425/teaching_resources/Faculty_Center_Active_Learning. pdf Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, NY: Longman. Alexandria Language School. (2013, March 15). Empathy – Stand in someone else’s shoes [video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/zh55e6U_XPM Al-Mabuk, R.H., Enright, R.D., & Cardis, P.A. (1995). Forgiveness education with love-deprived late adolescents. Journal of Moral Education, 24, 427-44). Bass, E., & Davis, L. (1994). The courage to heal. New York, NY: Harper Perennial. bhershey78. (2010, July 21). Les miserables_I give you back to God [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wF3FX43F-7Y&feature=emb_logo Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass. Cheong, R. K., & DiBlasio, F. A. (2007). Christ-like love and forgiveness: A biblical foundation for counseling practice. The Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 26(1), 14. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 15 Enright, R.D., & Fitzgibbons, R.P. (2000). Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Enright, R.D., & The Human Development Study Group. (1991). The moral development of forgiveness. In W. Kurtines & J. Gerwirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 123-52). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Hebl, J.H., & Enright, R.D. (1993). Forgiveness as a psychotherapeutic goal with elderly females. Psychotherapy, 30, 658-67. Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge Books. Lamb, S. (2002). Women, abuse and forgiveness: A special case. In S. Lamb & J.G. Murphy (Eds.), Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy (pp. 155-71). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Lampton, C., Oliver, G.J., Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Berry, J.W. (2005). Helping Christian college students become more forgiving: An intervention study to promote forgiveness as part of a program to shape Christian character. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 33, 278-90. McCullough, M.E., Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Rachal, K.C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 321-36. McGrath, V. (n.d.). Reviewing the evidence on how adult students learn: An examination of Knowles’ model of andragogy. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/pid42131376-dt-content-rid-500014841_1/xid-500014841_1 Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R.S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 16 Merriam, S.B., & Clark, M.C. (2006). Learning and development: The connection in adulthood. In C. Hoare (Ed.)., Handbook of adult development and learning (pp. 27-51). London: Oxford university Press. Ripley, J.S., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2002). Hope-focused forgiveness-based group interventions to promote marital enrichment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, 452-63. Rye, M.S., & Pargament, K.I. (2002). Forgiveness and romantic relationships in college: Can it heal the wounded heart? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 419-41. Rye, M.S., Pargament, K.I., Pan, W., Yingling, D.W., Shogren, K.A., Masako, I. (2005). Can group interventions facilitate forgiveness of an ex-spouse? A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5, 880-92. Stratton, S.P., Dean, J.B., Nonneman, A.J., Bode, R.A., & Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2008). Forgiveness interventions as spiritual development strategies: Comparing forgiveness workshop training, expressive writing about forgiveness, and retested controls. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27, 347-57. Wade, N.G., & Meyer, J.E. (2009). Comparison of brief group interventions to promote forgiveness: A pilot outcome study. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 59, 119-220. Walker, S.E. (2003). Active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Journal of Athleticc Training, 38(3), 263-267. West, W. (2001). Issues relating to the use of forgiveness in counseling and psychotherapy. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 29, 415-22. FORGIVENESS MODEL TEACHING PLAN 17 Worthington, E.L., Jr. (1998). The pyramid model of forgiveness: Some interdisciplinary speculations about unforgiveness and the promotion of forgiveness. In E.L. Worthington Jr. (Ed.), Dimensions of Forgiveness: Psychological research and theoretical perspectives (pp. 107-37). Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press. Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2003). Forgiving and reconciling: Bridges to wholeness and hope (revised edition of Five Steps to Forgiveness). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Worthington, E.L., Jr., Johnson, E.L., Hook, J.N., & Aten, J.D (Eds.). (2013). Evidence-Based practices for Christian counseling and psychotherapy. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
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ABC in grief counseling
Counseling children and women through grief and loss
Description
Literature Review
Learning Objectives (LOs)
Active Learning Strategies
Dialogue analysis
Think-pair-share
Student summary
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to be Implemented
Elements of Andragogy
Lesson Table


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ABC in Grief Counseling
Name

Affiliation

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Counseling children and women through grief and loss
Description
The lesson focuses on counseling people who are bereaved. These are people who have
lost their loved ones, and even though some cope independently, others have to seek professional
help. For this lesson, the literature review provides the background for the lesson plan. The
literature review contains a review of studies on grieving and the usage of CBT and ABC in grief
counseling. After the literature review, the learning objectives follow. These are the lesson's
learning outcomes, and they are structured to follow Bloom's taxonomy revision on higher-order
thinking skills. For this lesson, the students will read some case studies and be expected to apply
ABC counseling therapy to help affected people cope with the loss of their family members.
Literature Review
Roberts, Thomas & Morgan (2016) says that loss changes the lives of people forever.
When loved ones die, the lives of the remaining people are changed depending on their
relationship with the deceased. If the death was the breadwinner in the family, then the remaining
members must adapt to the loss of a breadwinner's death. According to Roberts, Thomas &
Morgan (2016), grief forces people to reconsider ideas they believed in or their perspective of the
world. People who reconstruct their world from a negative perspective are at risk of having a less
fulfilling life during the healing process, and this underscores the need for positive views as a
way of coping. Positive coping with the loss of a loved person is essential, and this is possible
through increased engagement with others and engaging in altruistic activities (Roberts, Thomas
& Morgan, 2016).
Iglewicz et al. (2019) say that about 2.7 million people lost their lives in 2016, and each
of them left behind one to five people that were significantly affected by the deaths. Iglewicz et

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al. (2019) further say that 2.7 million deaths imply more than 10m million relative's grief
annually. Even though most of these people grieve without professional help, some struggle to
cope with the loss and might have health problems. Grief is a normal response to a loved one's
death, but an acute grieving characterized by the preoccupation of thoughts and memories of the
lost relative and intense emotions can be dangerous for healthy coping.
Schut & Strobe (2010) asserts that irrespective of how the deceased died, the death of a
relative cause untold suffering and can even lead to physical and mental problems for family
members. Even though grieving is not avoidable, protecting the bereaved members from the
adverse effects of grieving is crucial. If the issue is not addressed, it can have long-lasting
consequences on the family. Schut & Strobe (2010) says that social support is one approach for
helping bereaved families. The family members and friends provide social support, which acts as
a buffer from significant stresses that the family can face. Studies indicate that people who
receive social support after losing people close to them reported fewer depression cases than
those who do not receive social support.
Another mechanism for coping with grief is through counseling and grief therapy.
According to Schut & Strobe (2010), people have different perspectives on the effectiveness and
satisfaction of counseling on helping people cope with loss. However, studies indicate that
clients report that counseling made coping easier. Schut & Strobe (2010) says that counseling's
long-term effects can be best determined if tailored to the grievers' individual needs.
Malkinson (2010) posits that grieving entails an individual seeking meaning and
constructing meaning on how they can live without the departed person. Malkinson (2010) says
that complicated grief is described as the intensification of grief, leading to repetitive
stereotypical behaviors instead of assimilating the loss. Complicated grief can lead to depression,

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posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorder. CBT is one approach being used to manage to
grieve. CBT has been used for a long time, and studies have found the approach effective in
managing grief. The focus of CBT is helping a patient recognize that negative behaviors affect
their behavior and health. Hence, its goal is to improve a person's mental functioning by assisting
them to cope with the loss but positively. ABC is a CBT technique used in managing loss and
grief. ABC technique derives its name from the A implying adversity, B for beliefs, and C for
consequences. According to Malkinson (2010), the approach focuses on the "centrality of
cognitive processes" to understand the emotional disturbance caused by the adverse event.
Generally, the literature review for this teaching demonstration has focused on what grief
is and the strategies used in managing grief. Among the strategies is social support that friends
and family members offer. Social support is crucial as it protects a person from the negative
consequences of complicated grief, such as mental instabilities. The formal approaches to grief
management are CBT and ABC. CBT has been in use for years while ABC is still relatively new.
However, both approaches are based on the belief that bad thoughts affect a person's ability to
cope with losing a loved one.
Learning Objectives (LOs)
At the end of the lesson, the students will:
1. Evaluate the case studies of a grieving client and determine what can help the client cope
well.
2. Apply ABC therapy to a grieving client.
3. Synthesize class readings and apply them to real-life situations to help a grieving client.
Active Learning Strategies
Dialogue analysis

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One learning strategy that fits the lesson is dialogue analysis. The dialogue analysis
strategy entails placing the students in groups where they discuss course content. For the grief
counseling class, the students will be assigned in groups of three, discussing case studies that
will be provided. Discussion groups are effective when the membership is small since all
members will have to contribute, reducing instances of passive learning. All group members
have to review the case studies and make their contributions, which is achieved [by assigning
every member a role to play in the group. After the discussions, the students will develop
strategies for applying ABC therapy when counseling the case studies victims.
Think-pair-share
The think-pair-share strategy is another learning strategy for the lesson. According to
Svinicki & McKeachie (2017), the think-pair-share strategy is when students cooperate by taking
turns in asking and answering questions. This strategy is such that students are given reading
assignments in advance. After reading and understanding the readings, they write questions that
focus on the major points highlighted in the reading. During the lesson, the students are
randomly paired, and one pair asks the other pair questions. After the questions are answered
satisfactorily, the other pair asks questions, which goes on until all the reading assignments are
adequately covered. The teacher's role when using the think-pair-share technique is giving the
students feedback and answering other questions the students may be having.
The think-pair-strategy will be implemented in the classroom by assigning the student's
case studies about grieving. Two case studies will be given to the students to read and internalize
before the lesson. One case study is about a 16-year-old girl who lost both parents in a road
accident. The girl was in the vehicle with the parents when the accident happened, and even
though she was also injured, she is now healed and has returned to school, but she has challenges

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concentrating on her studies. The other case is of a 40-years older woman who recently lost her
two childr...


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