Walden University ?Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Paper

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Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

...heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328...

To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Case:

Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

  • Atenolol 12.5 mg daily
  • Doxazosin 8 mg daily
  • Hydralazine 10 mg qid
  • Sertraline 25 mg daily
  • Simvastatin 80 mg daily

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

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Explanation & Answer

Attached. Please let me know if you have any questions or need revisions.

1

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Student's Name
Institution Affiliation
Course Name
Professor's Name
Date

PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS

2

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Influence of Selected Factor
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in the entire world. However,
the prevalence of disorders associated with heart disease in the United States is alarming due to
the healthcare system's threats. Nevertheless, cardiovascular ill patients do not get optimal care,
even with the recent progress in treatment. The provided case study involves a patient known as
AO. The patient has been suffering from obesity and has added weight by 9 pounds. Recently,
AO was diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The patient’s prescribed medicines
include Doxazosin 8 mg, sertraline 25mg, atenolol 12.5 mg, simvastatin 80mg, and hydralazine
10mg qid. The drugs are taken daily. The primary factor that may influence pharmacokinetic and
pharmacodynamics processes the patient is behavioral factors. Thus, the patient’s obesity history
o can be linked to high dietary intake in calories with less physical exercise.
The patient’s recent diagnosis with hypertension is attributable to the pathophysiology of
obesity. Hyperlipidemia in an obese patient makes it difficult to manage cardiovascular diseases.
The patient's unbalanced diet, combined with poor circulation, impacts the pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynamics processes, such as the absorption, metabolism, elimination, and distribution.
Obesity increases the chances of developing diseases such as cancer, respiratory disorders, heart
problems, gastrointestinal issues, and diabetes. Therefore, the patient must be monitored as the
prescribed medication might fail to give the desired results. Also, the recent weight gain is an
indication that AO is consuming imbalanced diet, which can help to decrease weight. Usually,
consuming healthy foods reduce the risk of blood pressure and fat deposits in the intravascular
space and intra-abdominal muscles.

PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS

3

From the case study, the patient is on three drugs, which address different conditions,
including atenolol, hypertension, and hydralazine. With hydralazine, it is widely known as a
vasodilator condition that leads to smooth muscle relaxation in arteries. Usually, it causes a
reduction in blood pressure. Atenolol is known to affect cardio beta and binds itself to kidney
and heart receptors. Its presence in the body reduces cardiac output and other vital functions,
including blocking beta receptors. This blockage often causes low blood pressure in the body.
According to Rosenthal and Burchum (2021), the Joint National Committee (JNC) provides
excellent guidelines that care providers might utilize to treat various conditions, including
hypertension. The JNC guidelines usually use an algorithm based on different aspects, including
the patient's age, lifestyle, and race, to manage hypertension and prescribe drugs. The utilization
of multiple drugs also has significant effects on treatment success.
In the case study, it is apparent that the patient's prescribed medications are not the firstline of treatment, which are recommended by the JNC guidelines. Also, the administered dosage
is similarly abnormal. The initial atenolol dosage should be 50 mg daily, up to a maximum of
100 mg. The daily dose for doxazosin should be 1 mg, up to a maximum of 8 gm. As for the
initial hydralazine, the daily suggested dosage should be 10 mg, which must be taken four times
a day. As for Murphy et al. (2018), behavior modification is essential in managing this patient's
hypertension levels. The change will include designing a plan for proper diet intake, daily
exercise, and getting the patient a lifestyle trainer. Generally, altering the patient's lifestyle will
help in controlling the body's blood pressure. A personal trainer will help to monitor the patient's
weight loss and gain to strike the right balance. Another vital lifestyle modification is limiting
the patient's amount of alcohol if the patient is taking.

PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS

4

Impact on Patient’s Recommended Drug Therapy
There is no proof that AO is following instructions as prescribed. The patient has several
drugs to adhere to daily. The weight gain and the diagnosis with hypertension and hyperlimea is
worrying. According to Murphy et al. (2018), patients with these ailments must have combined
therapies to decrease side...


Anonymous
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