PHIL 3015 Nonviolence and Racial Justice History of Philosophy Essay

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PHIL 3015



Choose three of the questions, which are located below in the attached document(in the files), and write essay responses to each question.

You must use the appropriate primary texts (those by the authors) to support your arguments.

Do not write about the same piece/philosophy text more than once on this exam.

Grading: You will be evaluated and graded using the Rubric( in the files)

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PHIL3015 Exam 3 Choose three philosophy topics below and write three essay responses. Be sure to use appropriate texts to provide evidence for your arguments. 1. Martin Luther King Jr.: Nonviolence and Racial Justice What are the five points King makes about nonviolent resistance? 2. Susan Moller Okin: Justice, Gender, and the Family Detail at least three of the men–women inequalities that Okin describes. In your view, how serious are these? 3. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women What kind of “revolution in female manners” does Wollstonecraft envision? 4. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd What is the point Camus is making by dwelling on the myth of Sisyphus? 5. Julian Baggini: Living Life Forward Does Baggini think that we need not find meaning in this life if there is life after death? Do you agree? Explain. 6. Louis P. Pojman: Religion Gives Meaning to Life Do those who do not believe in God have resources or advantages comparable with those that theism is supposed to provide? Explain. 7. Bertrand Russell: Reflections on Suffering What does Russell mean by “only on the firm foundation of unyielding despair can the soul’s habitation be safely built”? PHIL3015 Essay Rubric Criteria (Weight) Content and Ideas 40% Organization 20% Vocabulary/ word choice 10% Does Not Meet Expectations Not Fully Developed Approaching Expectations 0% 50% 70% Writing is extremely limited in communicating knowledge, with no central theme. Writing is limited in communicatin g knowledge. Writing does not clearly communicate knowledge. The reader is left with questions. Writing is disorganized and underdeveloped with no transitions or closure. Writing is brief and underdevelope d with very weak transitions and closure. Writing is confused and loosely organized. Transitions are weak and closure is ineffective. Uses correct writing format. Incorporates a coherent closure. Writing includes a strong beginning, middle, and end, with some transitions and good closure. Writing includes a strong, beginning, middle, and end with clear transitions and a focused closure. Careless or inaccurate word choice, which obscures meaning. Language is trite, vague or flat. Shows some use of varied word choice. Uses a variety of word choice to make writing interesting. Purposeful use of word choice. Effective and engaging use of word choice. Length is not adequate for development. Adequate Thorough Excellent 80% 90% 100% Writes related, quality paragraphs, with little or no details. Writing is purposeful and focused. Piece contains some details. Writing is confident and clearly focused. It holds the reader’s attention. Relevant details enrich writing. Criteria (Weight) Voice 10% Sentence fluency 10% Conventions 10% Does Not Meet Expectations Not Fully Developed Approaching Expectations Adequate Thorough Excellent 80% 90% 100% 0% 50% 70% Writer’s voice/ point of view shows no sense of audience. Writer’s voice/ point of view shows little sense of audience. Writer’s voice/ point of view shows that sense of audience is vague. Writer uses voice/point of view. Writes with the understanding of a specific audience. Writer has strong voice/ point of view. Writing engages the audience. Writes with a distinct, unique voice/point of view. Writing is skillfully adapted to the audience. Frequent run-ons or fragments, with no variety in sentence structure. Many run-ons or fragments. Little variety in sentence structure. Some run-ons or fragments. Limited variety in sentence structure. Uses simple compound, and complex, sentences. Frequent and varied sentence structure. Consistent variety of sentence structure throughout. Parts of speech show lack of agreement. Frequent errors in mechanics. Little or no evidence of spelling strategies. Inconsistent agreement between parts of speech. Many errors in mechanics. Limited evidence of spelling strategies. Occasional errors between parts of speech. Some errors in mechanics. Some evidence of spelling strategies. Maintains agreement between parts of speech. Few errors in mechanics. Applies basic grade level spelling. Consistent agreement between parts of speech. Uses correct punctuation, capitalization, etc. Consistent use of spelling strategies. Uses consistent agreement between parts of speech. No errors in mechanics. Creative and effective use of spelling strategies.
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Explanation & Answer

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History of Philosophy Essays – Outline
I. Martin Luther King Jr.: Nonviolence and Racial Justice
A. First, according to King, nonviolence is not a method of cowards.
B. The second element of King's Nonviolence philosophy is that nonviolence
is not concerned about defeating the opponent but building mutual
understanding and friendship
C. As outlined by Martin Luther King, the third element of nonviolent protest
is that nonviolent protest should aim at attacking the evil practices in
society and not the person who is doing the evil
D. The fourth element of nonviolent protest identified by Martin Luther is the
willingness to accept injury without the desire to revenge
E. The fifth element of nonviolence protest is the faith that the universe is
always on the justice side.
II. Louis P. Pojman: Religion Gives Meaning to Life

Louis Pojman believes that theist who has knowledge about God
and believes in his existence has more advantages than those who
do not believe in God


Pojman argues that those who believe in God have a proper
explanation of their origin as humans


those who do not believe in God's existence do not have any
proper explanation about their origin


As a result, they cannot find the meaning of their life and see their
lives as less valuable


The understanding that theists have that the world is a place where
good triumphs over evil give them the courage and motivation to
continue fighting against society's injustices


In contrast, non-believers are often stuck on the belief that
everything is meaningless.

III. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd

Sisyphus's myth is a Greek myth about Sisyphus, who is punished by being
placed at the rock's bottom


The main issue of the myth of Sisyphus is what Camus refers to as the


According to Camus, there is a great conflict between what humans want
from the universe and what the universe offers them


Camus claims that the absurdity of life is a reality that cannot be changed,
and any attempt to make life me...

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