Capella University Graphing Behavior Paper

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Capella University




Refer to the two sets of data that you recorded in the Unit 3 assignment. Make any revisions based on feedback from your instructor so you have a table that reflects the data for each of the two behaviors.

Using the guidelines in Chapter 6 of your Applied Behavior Analysis text, prepare one graph for each recorded behavior. Include data for all of the observation sessions. You will not have condition labels or condition change lines for this assignment. Be sure to include the other five parts of a graph that are described on pages 127–128 of your Applied Behavior Analysis text.

Your first time graphing can be frustrating. You may review the Microsoft Support tutorials that can help with your specific version of Microsoft.

In one document, prepare the following for each of the two target behaviors:

  1. Behavior definition.
  2. Observation method and schedule.
  3. Data recording procedure.
  4. Data table and graph for this behavior.

Copy and paste the table and graph for each behavior into the one document, and address the other questions within this one document.


Your assignment should meet the following requirements:

  • Written communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA style guidelines.
  • Resources: A sufficient number of scholarly or professional resources. Resources should include the course texts and a combination of scholarly sources.
  • Organize targeted problem behaviors through appropriate graphical display and the use of relevant applied behavior analysis guidelines.
  • Create appropriate data display to communicate quantitative relations, given a set of behavioral data.
  • Length: No minimum number of pages. Pages should be double-spaced pages.
  • Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.

Attached is the info from pages 127-128 in order, I will send the original assignment once accepted because it's too many attachments for you to have all the information you need.


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Bb Unit 3 – PSY77 X Home | Capella X Bb Unit 4 – PSY77 x | My Courses Hc X Capella: Applie X Dashboard Х S SOLUTION: Me X S Ask a new que x + Х + → C!/4/2/2/2@0:0 G. User Info Devices Graphs Used by Applied Behavior Analysts Print on Demand Q The graphic displays most often used by applied behavior analysts are line graphs, bar graphs, cumulative records, ratio charts, and scatterplots. Language G Sign Out Line Graphs 1 Tools Sharing Highlighters Apps Menu The simple line graph D, or frequency polygon, is far and away the most common graphic format in applied behavior analysis. Based on the Cartesian coordinate system created by René Descartes in the 17th century, the line graph is a two-dimensional area formed by the intersection of two perpendicular reference lines, called axes. Any point within the area enclosed by the two axes represents a specific relationship between values of the two dimensions (or variables) described by the intersecting lines. In applied behavior analysis, each point on a line graph shows the level of some quantifiable dimension of the target behavior (i.e., the dependent variable D) in relation to a specified point in time and/or environmental condition (i.e., the independent variable D) in effect when the measure was taken. Comparing points on a graph reveals the presence and extent of changes in level, trend, and/or variability within and across conditions. Store Help Support Privacy Parts of a Basic Line Graph CA Notice of Collection Although graphs vary considerably in their final appearance, all properly constructed line graphs share certain elements. The basic parts of a simple line graph are shown in Figure 6.2 and described in the following sections. Give Feedback Figure 6.2 5 BL Token Reinforcement BL Token Reinforcement 40 35 6 Read offline with the Bookshelf Deskt... 30 2 人 a 25 o Type here to search jj х @ Co (1) 7:02 PM 1/15/2021 Bb Unit 3 – PSY77 X Home | Capella X Bb Unit 4 – PSY77 x | My Courses Hc X Capella: Applie X Dashboard Х S SOLUTION: Me X S Ask a new que x + Х с G.!/4/2/6/6/2/2@0:14.7 Parts of a Basic Line Graph Devices Print on Demand Although graphs vary considerably in their final appearance, all properly constructed line graphs share certain elements. The basic parts of a simple line graph are shown in Figure 6.2 and described in the following sections. Language Q Sign Out Figure 6.2 5 5 Tools G BL Token Reinforcement BL Token Reinforcement Sharing 40 1 35 6 Highlighters 30 Apps Menu 2 25 7 Store 20 ► Laps 15 Help 4 10 Support 5 John Privacy 0 2 4. 6 8 10 CA Notice of Collection 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 Sessions 8 3 Give Feedback Figure 1. Laps walked per session for each participant. Triangles indicate days in which the participants arrived late to the walking session. Major parts of a simple line graph: (1) horizontal axis, (2) vertical axis, (3) axis labels, (4) condition change lines, (5) condition labels, (6) data points, (7) data path, and (8) figure caption. (Original figure includes graphs for four additional participants.) Based on “Using Token Reinforcement to Increase Walking for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities” by H. Krentz, R. Miltenberger, and D. Valbuena, 2016, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, p. 749. Copyright 2016 by the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Read offline with the Bookshelf Deskt... 127 พ 6 Aa » o Type here to search jä х 7:03 PM 1/15/2021 Bb Unit 3 – PSY77 X Home | Capella X Bb Unit 4 – PSY77 x | My Courses Hc X Capella: Applie X S Dashboard Х S SOLUTION: Me X S Ask a new que x + Х + → C G.!/4/2/6/6/8/2/2@0:13.2 1. Horizontal Axis Devices Print on Demand Language The horizontal axis, also called the x-axis, or abscissa, is a straight horizontal line that most often represents the passage of time and the presence, absence, and/or value of the independent variable. A defining characteristic of applied behavior analysis is the repeated measurement of behavior across time. Time is also the unavoidable dimension in which all manipulations of the independent variable occur. On most line graphs the passage of time is marked in equal intervals on the horizontal axis. The horizontal axis in Figure 6.2 represents consecutive observational sessions from 9:00 to 10:00 AM on weekdays. Q Sign Out Tools G Sharing 1 Highlighters The horizontal axis on some graphs represents different values of the independent variable instead of time. For example, Lalli, Mace, Livezey, and Kates (1998) scaled the horizontal axis of one graph in their study from less than 0.5 meter to 9.0 meters to show how the occurrence of self-injurious behavior by a girl with severe intellectual disabilities decreased as the distance between the therapist and the girl increased. Apps Menu Store 2. Vertical Axis Help Support Privacy The vertical axis, also called the y-axis, or ordinate, is a vertical line drawn upward from the left-hand end of the horizontal axis. The vertical axis most often represents a range of values of the dependent variable, which in applied behavior analysis is always some quantifiable dimension of behavior. The intersection of the horizontal and vertical axes is called the origin and most often, though not necessarily, represents the zero value of the dependent variable. Each successive point upward on the vertical axis represents a greater value of the dependent variable. The most common practice is to mark the vertical axis with an equal-interval scale , in which equal distances on the axis represent equal absolute amounts of behavior change. The vertical axis in Figure 6.20 represents the number of 50-meter laps walked in 1 hour. CA Notice of Collection Give Feedback 3. Axis Labels Axis labels are brief descriptions of the dimension represented by and scaled along each axis; most often a response measure on the vertical axis and experimental conditions across time on the horizontal axis. Read offline with the Bookshelf Deskt... 4. Condition Change Lines Condition abonna linneara vartinal linne drown inward from the horizontal evie tachownainte in timant which 127 พ Aa o Type here to search jú х 7:03 PM 1/15/2021 Bb Unit 3 – PSY77 X Home | Capella X Bb Unit 4 – PSY77 x | My Courses Hc X Capella: Applie x S Dashboard Х S SOLUTION: Me X S Ask a new que x + Х + → C!/4/2/6/6/14/2/2@0:0 G. Devices 4. Condition Change Lines Print on Demand Language Condition change lines are vertical lines drawn upward from the horizontal axis to show points in time at which changes in the independent variable occurred. The condition change lines in Figure 6.2 coincide with the introduction or withdrawal of an intervention the researchers called Token Reinforcement. Q Sign Out Tools 5. Condition Labels G Sharing 1 Condition labels are single words or brief descriptive phrases printed along the top of the graph and parallel to the horizontal axis. These labels identify the experimental conditions (i.e., the presence, absence, or some value of the independent variable) in effect during each phase of the study. Highlighters Apps Menu 5The terms condition and phase are related but not synonymous. Properly used, condition indicates the environmental arrangements in effect; phase refers to a period within a study or behavior change program. Store Help 6. Data Points Support Privacy Each data point on a graph represents two facts: (a) a quantifiable measure of the target behavior recorded during a given observation period and (b) the time and/or experimental conditions under which that particular measurement was conducted. Using two data points from Figure 6.2 as examples, we can see that John walked 14 laps during Session 6, the last session of the first baseline phase, and 21 laps in Session 7, the first session of the first phase of the token reinforcement condition. CA Notice of Collection Give Feedback 7. Data Path Connecting successive data points within a given condition with a straight line creates a data path D. The data path represents the level and trend of behavior between successive data points and is a primary focus of attention in the interpretation and analysis of graphed data. Because behavior is rarely observed and recorded continuously in applied behavior analysis, the data path represents an estimate of the actual course taken by the behavior during the time between the two consecutive measures. The more measures and resultant data points per unit of time (given an accurate observation and recording system), the more confidence one can place in the story told by the data path. Read offline with the Bookshelf Deskt... 128 พ 6 Aa » o Type here to search ji х 7:03 PM 1/15/2021 Bb Unit 3 – PSY77 X Home | Capella X Bb Unit 4 – PSY77 x | My Courses Hc X Capella: Applie x S Dashboard Х S SOLUTION: Me X S Ask a new que x + Х + → C!/4/2/6/6/22/2/2@0:0 G. Devices 8. Figure Caption Print on Demand Language The figure caption is a concise statement that, in combination with the axis and condition labels, provides the reader with sufficient information to identify the independent and dependent variables. The figure caption should explain any symbols (see Figure 6.2 D) or observed but unplanned events that may have affected the dependent variable and point out and clarify any potentially confusing features of the graph (see Figure 6.60 and Figure 6.7 9). Q Sign Out Tools G Variations of the Simple Line Graph: Multiple Data Paths Sharing 1 Highlighters Apps Menu The line graph is a remarkably versatile vehicle for displaying behavior change. Whereas Figure 6.2 D is an example of the line graph in its simplest form (one data path showing a series of successive measures of behavior across time and experimental conditions), by the addition of multiple data paths, the line graph can display more complex behavior-environment relations. Graphs with multiple data paths are used frequently in applied behavior analysis to show (a) two or more dimensions of the same behavior, (b) two or more different behaviors, (c) the same behavior under different and alternating experimental conditions, (d) changes in target behavior relative to the changing values of an independent variable, and (e) the behavior of two or more participants. Store Help Support Two or More Dimensions of the Same Behavior Privacy CA Notice of Collection Give Feedback Showing multiple dimensions of the dependent variable on the same graph enables visual analysis of the absolute and relative effects of the independent variable on those dimensions. Figure 6.30 shows the results of a study of the effects of training three members of a women's college basketball team proper foul shooting form (Kladopoulos & McComas, 2001). The data path created by connecting the open triangle data points shows changes in the percentage of foul shots executed with the proper form, whereas the data path connecting the solid data points reveals the percentage of foul shots made. Had the experimenters recorded and graphed only the players' foul shooting form, they would not have known whether any improvements in the target behavior on which training was focused (correct foul shooting form) coincided with improvements in the behavior by which the social significance of the study would ultimately be judged—foul shooting accuracy. By measuring and plotting both form and outcome on the same graph, the experimenters were able to analyze the effects of their treatment procedures on two critical dimensions of the dependent variable. Read offline with the Bookshelf Deskt... 128 พ Aa - 7:04 PM o Type here to search х 1/15/2021
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Graphing Behavior
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Name and Number
23 January 2021


Graphing Behavior
One way of making data easy to interpret and evaluate is organizing it. A line graph is
most commonly used to evaluate behavioral data. Graphs provide easy visual summaries that
can be used to determine patterns of behavior. A line graph displays data points connected by
a straight line. A line graph consists of an independent variable on the x-axis and the
dependent variable on the y-axis. In most cases, line graphs are used to visualize and
represent the value of something over time. The behaviors of two subjects are plotted.
First Target Behavior (Scratching the Head)
Behavior Definition
Scratching the head is often associated with thinking. It is described as using
fingernails to scrap the head. One of the reasons people scratch their heads is thinking hard.
Other explanations are provided as to why people scratch their heads, including mental
mystification. Constant and repetitive scratching of the head may be associated with OCD or
self-injurious behavior (Bartels, Van Laarhoven, Van de Kerkhof, & Evers, 2018).
Observation Method and Schedule
The method of observation employed for the data collection was the comp...

I was struggling with this subject, and this helped me a ton!


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