Preliminary Writing


english 102

Joliet Junior College

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Reading is a Requirement Books are important source material. Books improve your knowledge and even contribute to your writing success. We have four textbooks for this course. This is a research course. We will explore various ways of demystifying the element of research at the college level. We have a number of steps in our research process, each preparing for the ultimate deliverable—the 2500-word research paper. All in time. Meanwhile, your initial effort was to study our significant coursework and to examine our textbooks. Following this reading exercise, consider the projected assignments, goals, textbooks, etc. Now, determine which textbook contains the most relevant introductions and explanations related to research? Which textbook approaches the study of research in ways that relate most favorably to your needs? Information is power. Why is this book the best? Speculate how you may come to rely on the information from your textbook choice. Format Directions: • Size is a maximum of 500 words and a minimum of 300 words. • Use 12-point font. • Writing should contain basic introduction, body, and conclusion sections. • Bullet items are unacceptable • Ensure that spelling, word choice, phrases, sentence management, etc. are as fit and professional as possible. Instructor’s Notes Everything’s an Argument with Readings Instructor’s Notes Everything’s an Argument with Readings Fourth Edition Andrea A. Lunsford John J. Ruszkiewicz Keith Walters Prepared by John Kinkade, Jodi Egerton, and Taryne Hallett Copyright © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin’s All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. 1 0 9 8 7 fedcba For information write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN-10: 0-312-45169-5 ISBN-13: 978-0-312-45169-1 Contents Introduction xiii Everything Is an Argument 1 Arguments from the Heart — Pathos 7 Arguments Based on Character — Ethos 10 Arguments Based on Facts and Reason — Logos 15 Thinking Rhetorically 18 Structuring Arguments 21 Arguments of Fact 25 Arguments of Definition 28 Evaluations 32 Causal Arguments 35 Proposals 38 Style in Arguments 41 Humor in Arguments 44 Visual Arguments 47 Presenting Arguments 49 What Counts as Evidence 51 Fallacies of Argument 53 Intellectual Property, Academic Integrity, and Avoiding Plagiarism 56 19. Evaluating and Using Sources 58 20. Documenting Sources 60 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Chapter 21: Who’s the Fairest of Them All? 62 P. Byrnes, It Begins 62 Ellen Goodman, The Culture of Thin Bites Fiji 63 v Anne E. Becker, Abstract, Discussion, and Conclusion of Television, Disordered Eating, and Young Women in Fiji: Negotiating Body Image and Identity During Rapid Social Change 65 Jane Stern, Big, Review of Fat Girl: A True Story by Judith Moore 67 W. Charisse Goodman, One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Diets 68 New York Times, Reshaping America: Popular Cosmetic Procedures, by Sex 70 Rob Walker, Social Lubricant: How A Marketing Campaign Became the Catalyst for a Societal Debate 71 Meghan Daum, Those Unnerving Ads Using “Real” Women 72 Guy Trebay, When Did Skivvies Get Rated NC-17? 74 Making a Visual Argument: Three Views on Body Image Toby Old, From Waterlog: The Beach Series 76 Mikhaela Blake Reid, Your Yucky Body: A Repair Manual 76 Jason Stirman, Crossroads Baptist Church, Reflections: Body Image Seminar 76 Chapter 22: How Does the Media Stereotype You? 79 Making a Visual Argument: Artists and Comics Take On Stereotyping Geo Vittoratos, Come as Your Favorite Stereotype 79 Latino Comedy Project, Will Stereotype for Food 79 New York Arab-American Comedy Festival, The Arabs Are Coming! 79 Tania Ralli, Who’s a Looter? In the Storm’s Aftermath, Pictures Kick Up a Different Kind of Tempest 81 Chong-suk Han, Gay Asian-American Male Seeks Home 84 David Carr, On Covers of Many Magazines, a Full Racial Palette Is Still Rare 86 Commercial Closet Association, Mainstream/Business-toBusiness Advertising Best Practices 87 vi Anne-Marie O’Connor, Not Only Natalee Is Missing: Is the Media’s Inattention to Missing Women Who Aren’t White Due to Deliberate Racism or Unconscious Bias? 88 David Bositis, Skin-Deep: What Polls of Minorities Miss 90 William Sea, Advertising Sets Double Standard for the Male Gender 92 The Onion, Graphic Artist Carefully Assigns Ethnicities to Anthropomorphic Recyclables 94 Chapter 23: Is Sports Just a Proxy for Politics? 97 Juliet Macur, Rowing Scholarships Available. No Experience Necessary 98 Jessica Gavora, Time’s Up for Title IX Sports 99 Ruth Conniff, Title IX: Political Football 101 Leslie Heywood, Despite the Positive Rhetoric about Women’s Sports, Female Athletes Face a Culture of Sexual Harassment 103 Barbara Munson, Common Themes and Questions about the Use of “Indian” Logos 105 Jim Shore, Play with Our Name 107 Making a Visual Argument: Editorial Cartoonists Take On the Use of Native American Mascots and Imagery Lucy A. Ganje, Reality TV 108 Lalo Alcaraz, But I’m Honoring You, Dude! 108 Thom Little Moon, Which One Is the Mascot? 108 Thad Williamson, Bad As They Wanna Be 110 Tom Sorensen, Dress Code Suitable Only to NBA Suits 112 Larry Stewart, Barkley Fully Supports NBA’s New Dress Code 113 Bryan Curtis, Cheerleaders: What to Do about Them? 115 Chapter 24: What’s It Like to Be Bilingual in the United States? 118 Tom Meyer, Just 180 Days to Learn Miwok 118 Janny Scott, Foreign Born in U.S. at Record High 120 Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002 National Survey of Latinos 122 vii Rolando Briseño, Bicultural Tablesetting 123 Myriam Marquez, Why and When We Speak Spanish in Public 125 Sandra Cisneros, From Bien Pretty 126 Marjorie Agosín, Always Living in Spanish and English 128 Lan Cao, The Gift of Language 129 Andrea Lo, Finding Myself through Language 130 Mary Pipher, “Language” and “High School” from The Middle of Everywhere: Helping Refugees Enter the American Community 131 National Institute of Mental Health, “En la comunidad Latina tenemos una cultura de silencio” 132 Samuel G. Freedman, It’s Latino Parents Speaking Out on Bilingual Education Failures 134 Firoozeh Dumas, From Funny in Farsi: A Memoir of Growing Up Iranian in America 135 Chapter 25: What Does Your Language Say about Your Identity? 139 Chicago Women’s Club, Pledge for Children 140 Ariel Dorfman, If Only We All Spoke Two Languages 142 Chang-rae Lee, Mute in an English-Only World 144 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 144 John Rickford, Suite for Ebony and Phonics 146 David D. Troutt, Defining Who We Are in Society 147 Making a Visual Argument: Public Service Campaigns Use Language to Send a Message National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, He Might Dump Me . . . 149 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, You Smoked Weed . . . 149 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, Labeled . . . 149 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, You Scan Me . . . 149 viii National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, Filed under: Pothead . . . 149 Steve Rushin, Hip Unchecked: In Sports and on TV, Sarcasm and Cynicism Are Drowning Out Sincerity and Compassion 150 Deborah Tannen, From You’re Wearing That ? 151 Making a Visual Argument: Gendering Language: Women and Men Speaking in New Yorker Cartoons Mick Stevens, Talk to Me, Alice. I Speak Woman 153 Leo Cullum, The Emergence of Language 153 William Hamilton, Look, All I’m Saying Is . . . 153 Roz Chast, An Excerpt from, Men Are from Belgium, Woman Are from New Brunswick 153 Pete Steiner, And Do You, Deborah Tannen, Think They Know What They’re Talking About? 153 Chapter 26: What Role Should Religion Play in Public Life? 156 Laurie Goodstein, More Religion, but Not the Old-Time Kind 157 Pew Global Attitudes Project, Among Wealthy Nations . . . , U.S. Stands Alone in Its Embrace of Religion 159 Michelle Bryant, Selling Safe Sex in Public Schools 161 Naomi Schaefer Riley, Introduction to God on the Quad: How Religious Colleges and the Missionary Generation Are Changing America 163 Elisabeth Bumiller, Preaching to the Choir? Not This Time 165 Concerned Faculty, Staff, and Emeriti of Calvin College, An Open Letter to the President of the United States of America, George W. Bush 167 Gaylen J. Byker, Reflections on the 2005 Commencement 168 John Zwier, An Opportunity for Intelligent Debate 169 Antonin Scalia, God’s Justice and Ours 170 Randy Cohen, Between the Sexes 172 ix Mariam Rahmani, Wearing a Head Scarf Is My Choice as a Muslim; Please Respect It 173 Ad Council, A Priest, a Rabbi, and an Imam Are Walking Down the Street 174 Making a Visual Argument: Public Service Campaigns for Religious Tolerance U.S. Department of Justice, Common Muslim American Head Coverings 176 The SikhNetwork, Sikhs: Proud to Be Americans 176 Anti-Defamation League, Anti-Semitism Is Anti-Me 176 Azar Nafisi, Mysterious Connections That Link Us Together 178 Chapter 27: What Should “Diversity on Campus” Mean? 182 Making a Visual Argument: Student-Made Diversity Posters James Sanders, A Universe Within 183 Stephanie Heyman, Everyone A Part, No One Apart 183 Heidi Small, Lives Woven Together 183 Alyson Jones, What’s Your View? 183 Megan Stampfli, Embrace Diversity 183 Carolyn Woito, Breaking Boxes, Building Bridges 183 Sarah Karnasiewicz, The Campus Crusade for Guys 184 Katherine S. Mangan, Bar Association Moves to Strengthen Diversity Requirements for Accreditation of Law Schools 187 Making a Visual Argument: Cartoonists Take On Affirmative Action Mike Lester, It’s GOT to Be the Shoes 189 Dennis Draughon, Supreme Irony 189 Mike Thompson, Daniel Lives on Detroit’s Eastside . . . 189 Signe Wilkinson, Admissions 189 Dean Camp, Pricey 189 Frederick M. Hess, Schools of Reeducation? 191 x David Horowitz, In Defense of Intellectual Diversity 192 David Horowitz, Academic Bill of Rights 194 Stanley Fish, “Intellectual Diversity”: The Trojan Horse of a Dark Design 195 Michael J. Ellis, Once More unto the Breach 198 Ann Marie B. Bahr, The Right to Tell the Truth 200 John Tierney, Where Cronies Dwell 201 New York Times Letters, Through the Prism of Left and Right: Responses to John Tierney’s “Where Cronies Dwell” 203 Walter Benn Michaels, Diversity’s False Solace 204 Chapter 28: Why Do They Love Us? Why Do They Hate Us? 207 Hannah Fairfield, America: Not Their First Choice Richard Bernstein, The Days After: The View from Abroad 209 Waleed Ziad, Jihad’s Fresh Face 210 David Rieff, Their Hearts and Minds? 212 207 Making a Visual Argument: How Others See Us Anipas P. Delotavo Jr., Europe Gave Us Shakespeare . . . 214 Zaid Omar, Misconception 214 Jibby Yunibandhu, At Home with the Braves 214 Dinesh D’Souza, America the Beautiful: What We’re Fighting For 216 Mark Hertsgaard, The Oblivious Empire 219 Thomas L. Friedman, Revolution Is U.S. 220 Josef Joffe, The Perils of Soft Power 222 Richard Pells, Is American Culture “American”? 224 Michael Medved, That’s Entertainment? Hollywood’s Contribution to Anti-Americanism Abroad 226 Making a Visual Argument: Exporting America Les Stone, Advertisement for Metropolitan Life Insurance in Taipei 228 xi China Features/Corbis Sygma, Poster for the Film Titanic in Peking 228 Tatiana Markow, McDonald’s in Shanghai 228 Koren Ziv, Nike in Jerusalem 228 Haruyoshi Yamaguchi, Mother and Children at DisneySea, the Disney Theme Park in Japan 228 John Van Hasselt, Adverstising Budweiser as Capitalism Comes to China 228 John Van Hasselt, Selling Coke and Pepsi in India 228 Mohsen Shandiz, Coca-Cola and Marlboro in Iran 228 Diana Abu-Jaber, My Suspicious Last Name 230 Yiyun Li, Passing Through 231 xii Introduction The title of this text — Everything’s an Argument — is more than just a snappy phrase. It represents our conviction that all language, whether written or spoken, visual or textual, is motivated. Because language is a human activity and because humans exist in a complex world of goals, purposes, and activities, language cannot be anything but motivated. In the words of Kenneth Burke, whose work has been central to the conception of this text, language is a form of “symbolic action”: it gets things done in the world, acting on people and situations. The weak version of this argument claims simply that language has effects in the world or that people use language to accomplish ends; most of us would have no difficulty accepting that proposition. But we hold to the strong version of the argument, maintaining, with Burke, that all language is inherently a form of argument. In this formulation of the claim, people use language to create identification between themselves and their audience. We cannot escape this naturally human function of language. The flip side of the argument that all language is motivated is powerful, too: all language is open to interpretation and negotiation. Production and analysis of language in this model require not just reason but also all the sensory faculties and an awareness of the rhetor’s and the audience’s history and experiences. Burke’s definition of language’s scope and power makes apparently simple activities — chatting with friends, reading the newspaper, writing a note to yourself — into scenes of argument and identification. We are all “wordlings,” made of language as much as users of it. In A Grammar of Motives, Burke introduced the dramatistic pentad, a way of describing the human uses of language and the relationships among people, their language, and their world. The five elements — act, scene, agent, agency, purpose — do not appear explicitly in this text, but the concepts remain important to us. The text’s focus on the ethical problems of language use reflects our sense that xiii responsible argument always considers the rhetorical situation in all its fullness; without attention to the ethical positions writers and readers inhabit, rhetoric — productive and analytic — is irresponsible. We hope that this text will help students learn to use language well, as readers and as writers, and that students will come to understand the complex role language plays in their life and world. The Structure of the Instructor’s Notes The text of these notes is arranged to follow the text chapter by chapter. Each chapter’s notes outline some of the problems you might face while teaching the chapter, suggest some solutions, and address the chapter exercises, with ideas for extending those exercises beyond the text. The exercises are open-ended, so our notes are, too: there are no easy answers to any of the problems we suggest in each chapter. (Please note that a few exercises, those which might elicit especially varied responses, are not addressed in these notes.) At the close of each chapter are cross references to i•claim: Visualizing Argument or for i•cite: Visualizing Sources multimedia CD-ROMs, with suggestions for specific assignments that support each chapter. Both i•cite and i•claim are available for free when packaged with the book (see the back cover of these Notes for packaging information). Notes for Using the Readings You’ve already noticed that the collection of readings in Everything’s an Argument with Readings is quite different from the collections of readings in other rhetoric texts. Consistent with the title of the book, the EAR readings include traditional essays as well as arguments in other genres — newspaper articles, poems, cartoons, Web sites, and more. Some genres may be unfamiliar at first, but we hope you will discover, as we have, that the variety gives you a great deal of flexibility and allows you to approach argumentation from fresh perspectives that can help your students readily grasp the value of rhetoric in real-life applications. Each chapter’s readings contains at least one traditional essay that can serve as a model of the kind of writing that students are learning to produce. News pieces can be especially valuable for helping students learn to identify authors’ points of view, even in contexts where xiv the writer’s stance isn’t overtly stated. In the Response questions following each reading students may be asked to find and state the positions taken in the journalistic pieces, or they may be asked to redraft an argument into academic essay format. Such exercises have a threefold purpose — to test comprehension, to assist students in understanding the importance of style and tone in various genres, and to give students practice in crafting academic prose. An additional value of these exercises is that they incorporate ideas and conclusions already provided by the reading, thereby enabling students to focus strictly on the craft of writing. The chapter topics were chosen for their currency in public discourse and for their complexity. None of them can be considered a simple pro/con question or a clear-cut issue of conventional conservative/liberal opposition. We expect one of the benefits of this variety to be that the alliances among students in your classroom discussions throughout the term will shift with the various topics, allowing students to both acquaint themselves with a broader range of ideas and find commonality with a broader range of people than they might otherwise. The readings within each chapter contribute to that complexity both by their content and by the variety of genres and media represented. The questions following the readings are quite varied, although there is at least one writing assignment for nearly every reading. Many questions require students to synthesize information from other readings in the same chapter. Most of the questions, except where stated otherwise, are intended for individual responses. In addition, many of them can provide focus for classroom discussion or small group work. Using the Instructor’s Notes Each of the eight chapters of readings has a corresponding chapter in the Notes that provides suggested answers to the questions following each reading. Each chapter of the Notes begins with an introduction to the issues addressed in the chapter, along with some general questions that the issues raise. At the end of each chapter are wrap-up exercises that incorporate material from two or more readings; some of these questions would be suitable for in-class essay writing. We also provide a suggested classroom exercise for each reading. xv Key to Questions, Answers, and Exercises For every chapter, we provide possible answers to the questions at the end of each reading and also suggest a classroom exercise for each reading. Most questions are quite open-ended, and the answers will vary; in many cases we’ve suggested one or more possibilities. No attempt has been made to provide answers for writing assignments. The concept behind the classroom exercises is to give each reading a session’s worth (about an hour) of class time, although you may be budgeting class time very differently. Except where otherwise noted, the exercises are discussion questions based on the reading. Some of the classroom exercises focus on the content of the reading, some require students to think about the worlds they know in terms of the arguments presented in the reading, and some ask students to analyze the reading in terms of specific rhetorical techniques or lines of argument. In most cases, students should have done the reading already and perhaps answered one or more of the questions that follow it. With some modification, however, many of the questions could work well as prereading exercises to get students thinking about a topic or to explore their preconceptions. If your ...
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