English Question

Humanities

GEN 499

ashford university

Question Description

Reflect: Based on the topic that you have chosen, you will need to use critical thinking skills to thoroughly understand how this topic can be a global societal problem and determine some logical solutions to the problem.

Write: This Final Paper, an argumentative essay, will present research relating the critical thinker to the modern, globalized world. In this assignment, you need to address the items below in separate sections with new headings for each. Rise of artificial intelligence is the topic

In your paper,

  • Identify the global societal problem within the introductory paragraph.
    • Conclude with a thesis statement that states your proposed solutions to the problem.
    • Describe background information on how that problem developed or came into existence.
      • Show why this is a societal problem.
      • Provide perspectives from multiple disciplines or populations so that you fully represent what different parts of society have to say about this issue.
    • Construct an argument supporting your proposed solutions, considering multiple disciplines or populations so that your solution shows that multiple parts of society will benefit from this solution.
      • Provide evidence from multiple scholarly sources as evidence that your proposed solution is viable.
    • Interpret statistical data from at least three peer-reviewed scholarly sources within your argument.
      • Discuss the validity, reliability, and any biases.
      • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of these sources, pointing out limitations of current research and attempting to indicate areas for future research. (You may even use visual representations such as graphs or charts to explain statistics from sources.)
    • Evaluate the ethical outcomes that result from your solution.
      • Provide at least one positive ethical outcome as well as at least one negative ethical outcome that could result from your solution.
      • Explain at least two ethical issues related to each of those outcomes. (It is important to consider all of society.)
      • Develop a conclusion for the last paragraphs of the essay, starting with rephrasing your thesis statement and then presenting the major points of the topic and how they support your argument. The Global Societal Problem, Argument, and Solution Paper
        • Must be 1,750 to 2,250 words in length (approximately between seven and nine pages; not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s resource.
        • Must include a separate title page with the following:
          • Title of paper
          • Student’s name
          • Course name and number
          • Instructor’s name
          • Date submitted
        • For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
          Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.
          Must use at least eight scholarly sources.Source Document Requirements:Multimedia sources (such as videos) may be used, but no more than two such sources may be used. If multimedia sources are used, they must be authored and distributed by credible sources, such as universities, law schools, medical schools, or professors, or found in the Ashford University Library.
          Government sources may be used, but no more than two such sources may be used. Examples include whitehouse.gov, state.gov, usa.gov, cdc.gov, and so forth. These websites can be used to make a stronger point about your proposed solution within the argument.
          Where documents are used for source materials, those must be peer-reviewed, scholarly journal articles, and academically published books. Popular media sources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television and radio shows, etc.) must not be used. Materials from advocacy groups (e.g., Greenpeace, Human Rights Campaign, National Organization for Women, etc.) must not be used.
          Sites such as ProCon.org and Wikipedia must not be used.
          Religious texts must not be used.
          The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for an assignment. The Integrating Research (Links to an external site.) tutorial will offer further assistance with including supporting information and reasoning.
          Must document in APA style any information used from sources, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.).
          Must have no more than 15% quoted material in the body of your essay based on the Turnitin report. References list will be excluded from the Turnitin originality score.
          Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.
    • Good Critical Thinking Tips:
      • Your paper should include academic sources that explain multiple sides of the issue.
      • Your interpretations of the evidence should be objective and state the conclusions and theses presented in the evidence clearly and fairly.
      • Your paper should place the various forms of evidence in relation to one another and demonstrate why one form or perspective is stronger than the other positions that one could take on the issue.
      • Your paper should point out the limitations of current evidence and attempt to indicate areas for future research.

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1. The societal issue that I would consider researching further for the final paper in Week 5 is the Rise of artificial intelligence 2. In narrowing down to just one topic for the paper, I used a brainstorming, divergent, and convergent thinking process. Brainstorming involved thinking of the possible impacts of each of the issues on society and the rationale for which each is a societal issue. After discovering several grounds and research data on the key topics, divergent thinking came in as a procedure for iterating between the possible topics that can support a compelling argument on both sides of the societal issue. To finalize the process and produce the final choice, convergent thinking came into play because the relevant information to make than informed decision was already available from the preceding procedures. 3. There are several ways to determine if a source is scholarly critically. Three of these approaches include the analysis of the authors, sources, and content. In scholarly sources, the author's names, affiliations, and author's relevant to the topic descriptions are mostly provided. Sources such as University databases and those published by professional organizations and the U.S. Government Printing Office can also indicate a scholarly source. Contents that define the purpose for research, use of cited evidence and conclusions based on provided evidence indicate academic sources.(University of Illinois Board of Trustees, 2020) 4. An article from Scientific American, which is part of Springer Nature, a publishing company with several scientific publications, provided a comprehensive report on the resurgence of AI-technology. Special Report on the Rise of AI(2016) noted that AI is one of the emerging technologies that provide a better approach for the organization and management of all the standard techniques within the manufacturing industry and overall human life. In A study on Emerging Cyber Technologies, Threats and Prevention in Information Security, Ali, Husain & Sharma (2017) noted that as the technology increases, there is also a need for the establishment of measures to drive the process that depends on secure, safer, and reliable innovation that will lead to the achievement of the maximum benefits of that technology. The rise of AI can be associated with such assertions, given their significance in the customization of process, accuracy in the outcome, and effectiveness in task completion. 5. Scholarly sources should be used in supporting research on the rise of AI technology because their authority and credibility will improve the quality of the research project. References Ali, M., Husain, D., & Sharma, M. (2017). A study on Emerging Cyber Technologies, Threats and Prevention in Information S. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering, 19(2), 49-54. doi: 10.9790/0661-1902044954 The Rise of AI. (2016). Scientific American, 314(6), 44-45. doi: 10.1038/scientificamerican0616-44 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. (2020). Determine If a Source Is Scholarly. Retrieved 10 December 2020, from https://www.library.illinois.edu/ugl/howdoi/scholarly/ RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE The Introduction, Thesis Statement, and Annotated Bibliography Lanisha Johnson Arizona Global Professor Azimi GEN 499 General Education Capstone 1-11-2021 1 RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 2 Introduction The rise of technology has led to a transformed human race and processes across people's lives. Artificial Intelligence, commonly known as AI, is among the rising technological advancements of our time. AI is a commonly misunderstood concept that has received worldwide popularity regardless of the limited understanding of the technology. Notably, there is also a lack of uniformity in its definition, thus creating a wide array of possible definitions. In this paper, the definition that will be used is the currently generally held understanding of AI as "machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment, and intention" (West, 2019). AI is considered the ultimate transformation of human lives for the better. However, there are still concerns over issues such as the inequality on wealth distributions from the machines and the unemployment cases of introducing AI technology in the labor force. Therefore, despite the several benefits associated with the emergence of AI, there is still a need for addressing the ethical concerns associated with this technological advancement for the maximum realization of an efficient and more affluent world. Annotated Bibliography Deng, L. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in the Rising Wave of Deep Learning: The Historical Path and Future Outlook [Perspectives]. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 35(1), 180-177. DOI: 10.1109/MSP.2017.2762725 In this article, Li Deng (2018) takes a comprehensive look at the historical path of AI and thefuture of what its implementation holds for society. The author argues that AI has transformed the technological world from "an old world-where people give computers rules to solve problems-to a new world-where people give computers problems directly and the machines learn how to solve them on their own using a set of algorithms” (p. 180). This RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 3 article will be of significance in understanding AI's foundations and what is expected in the future. Like the previous one, the author argues based on anticipated implications, which can be used to inform better decisions in addressing potential flaws that can lead to discrepancies such as dealing with the "emotional" features of the AI. Looking at the historical perspective of AI can help solve ethical and legal issues that affect society while using AI technology in optimizing logistics, detecting fraud, composing art, conducting research, and providing translations. Dignum, V. (2017). Responsible Artificial Intelligence: Designing Ai for Human Values. ITU Journal: ICT Discoveries, 1(25), 1-9. In this article, Dignum argues for the need for AI to uphold human values to find a positive response from society. One of the major areas that AI will affect significantly is employment. Hence, the authors have focused on understanding the impacts of AI in the Europeanlabor market. The author has noted that contrary to most technological advancements, which have, in the past, led to the creation of more job opportunities; the expected impact of AI on the European and the global market is different. AI is based on a technology that improves outcomes by reducing instances of errors, possibilities of deflecting from meeting consumer preferences, and other quality metrics in production. Based on this argument, the author has acknowledged the need for creating AI systems that consider human values. In other words, this technology needs to consider the long-term impacts of reduced job opportunities on people's overall wellbeing. Therefore, this article will help understand the potential ways in which AI can be aligned with societal expectations and uphold human values for improved acceptance. RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 4 He, J., Baxter, S., Xu, J., Xu, J., Zhou, X., & Zhang, K. (2019). The practical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in medicine. Nature Medicine, 25(1), 30-36. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-018-0307-0 The previous three articles have focused on artificial intelligence in general. In this one, Jianxing He, Sally L. Baxter, Jie Xu, Jiming Xu, Xingtao Zhou & Kang Zhang (2019) have focused on the effects of artificial intelligence in the healthcare industry. The authors acknowledge the existence of potential issues that are hindering the widespread implementation of AI in healthcare. Specifically, they “review some of the key practical issues surrounding the implementation of AI into existing clinical workflows, including data sharing and privacy, transparency of algorithms, data standardization, and interoperability across multiple platforms, and concern for patient safety" (p. 30). Like the other articles, the authors present several issues surrounding the implementation of AI, despite the unprecedented growth of the technology. Jordan, M. (2019). Artificial Intelligence—The Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet. Issue 1. doi: 10.1162/99608f92.f06c6e61 It is not always that when the topic of AI comes along, it is associated with negative implications. There are several instances where AI has proved to be of greater significance than a greater inconvenience. This article explores the several benefits that artificial intelligence can be associated with are immense. For instance, thanks to AI and associated technologies, humans can now overcome the inability to articulate their own knowledge meant that we couldn’t automate many tasks. In healthcare, AI machines can articulate risks and aid in error-free disease diagnosis. However, the full potential of Ai has not yet been harvested, even with the wide acceptance and transformations across manufacturing, retailing, transportation, finance, RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 5 health care, law, advertising, insurance, entertainment, education, and virtually every other industry to take advantage of the growing significance of AI. Voice recognition, which is part of the milestones associated with AI, continues to undergo improvements, with a subsequent reduction in the error rate, for instance, from 8.5% to 4.9%just since the summer of 2016. Thus, even with the continuous attempts to make AI better fit within the society, the current milestones cannot go unnoticed and play a significant role in shaping the future of AI. Shabbir, J., &Anwer, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Near Future. Journal of Latex Class Files, 14(8), 1-11. Jahanzaib Shabbir andTariqueAnwer (2018) looks at four main issues related to AI and how they will shape the future of this hastily growing technology. First, they explore the different ways in which human intelligence compares with artificial intelligence and the differences between the two. Second, the authors perform an in-depth and critical analysis of AI's current capabilities, the reasons why it cannot still match human intelligence, and the existing obstacles keeping AI from reaching human-level intelligence. Last, the duo explores the future predictions on AI and the potential solutions to correct any potential challenges it may cause humankind. This article explores a broader array of factors related to AI, compared to the preceding two articles. Given its broad coverage of AI, especially an outlook on the comparison between human intelligence and AI, it provides a basis for understanding potential areas where AI can be improved to address any looming challenges in its implementation, both in the short-term and long-term. RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 6 References Deng, L. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in the Rising Wave of Deep Learning: The Historical Path and Future Outlook [Perspectives]. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 35(1), 180-177. DOI: 10.1109/MSP.2017.2762725 Dignum, V. (2017). Responsible Artificial Intelligence: Designing Ai for Human Values. ITU Journal: ICT Discoveries, 1(25), 1-9. He, J., Baxter, S., Xu, J., Xu, J., Zhou, X., & Zhang, K. (2019). The practical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in medicine. Nature Medicine, 25(1), 30-36. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-018-0307-0 Jordan, M. (2019). Artificial Intelligence—The Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet. Issue 1. doi: 10.1162/99608f92.f06c6e61 Shabbir, J., &Anwer, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Near Future. Journal of Latex Class Files, 14(8), 1-11. West, D. (2019). What is artificial intelligence? Retrieved 10 January 2021, from https://www.brookings.edu/research/what-is-artificial-intelligence/ Running Head: RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Journal Part one Lanisha Johnson Arizona Global Campus 1-13-2021 1 RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 2 Introduction The technological rise has improved the quality of human life all over the world. It has led to improved healthcare, traveling, rendering of services, and easier ways of communication. In every aspect of technology, significant advancements have been achieved. The advancements are commonly known as Artificial Intelligence or AI. It is ironic because AI is commonly known today, but it is misunderstood and misinterpreted. In this essay, AI will be defined by its commonly accepted scientific meaning as 'machines responding to stimulations in a way that only human can respond. (West, 2019). AI has transformed the quality of humans in the best possible way. However, there are lingering questions on the wealth distribution for AI and the use of AI in the workforce, forcing millions of people to lose jobs. To fully realize the benefits of AI and other technological progress made, ethical concerns must be addressed and solved. Global societal issues The ethics of AI generally revolve around the concerns of technology over human life. It is the typical response by people after new technology has emerged. After some time, much of these concerns turn out to be mere speculations. For example, it was widely believed that the telephone wills destroy how people communicate. Other concerns tend to have some truth in them. For example, digital technologies will force photographic and video companies to become redundant. Although this is not the case entirely, it has happened to some companies. Finally, some concerns have been justified. For example, cars were highly believed to have the potential to kill people. It has turned out to be true. Technologies such as plastics, nuclear power, vehicles, and fossil fuel have caused major ethical concerns and political debates and the creation of policies to control their usage. AI is also associated with job losses in big industries. For example, the shoemaking company RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 3 Nike is cutting down jobs in its factories and using more AI. It is primarily done to cut down the wage bill. The company also states that doing this will increase the quality of the shoes it makes. Artificial technology has also led to humans being addicted to various activities such as social media, shopping, and gambling. For example, cookies on the internet have been used to gather personal information and search for an individual's history during his time on the internet. The personal data collected is used to sell products and services to the individual via pop up advertisements. Also, the cookies are used to tailor-make suggestions to social media users. The suggestions have links to blogs or social media personalities. These temptations make it harder for the individual to log off social media. The media have widely covered artificial intelligence ethical concerns in the past decade. The media mostly analyses the probability of AI misused by groups, individuals, and nations with an agenda similar to an apocalypse. Some of the other ethical risks and security concerns associated with emerging AI are cybercrimes, privacy invasion, digital data theft, and murders by AI weapons like smart missile drones. However, creators of these technologies argue that the use of AI to kill, cause job loss and data theft is not necessarily a bad thing as long as it is done justifiably and within the law. New technologies, in particular, AI, have challenged the norms and customs of society and have pushed the boundaries of people's beliefs. However, policies and laws have been made to protect human life's dignity and the effects of emerging technologies - and technologies that need to be done away with. Solution As mentioned above, many issues are affecting artificial intelligence. Even though it was established to ease the labour work, it seems that it has initiated ethical issues that bring RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 4 out conflict between human beings and artificial intelligence. To solve societal issues, it is essential to have a responsible artificial intelligence that will uphold the human being's values. The importance of values in human beings is to provide an enthusiastic response in society. For instance, people are losing their jobs because artificial intelligence is taking over (Dignum, 2017). However, in most global markets such as Europe, there is the creation of job opportunities that increase the disposable income of the people. Apart from technological advancement, people enjoy becoming innovative by using artificial intelligence to create unique products and sell them in the global market. Also, as far as artificial intelligence is of great concern, technology has advanced. As a result, minimal errors, the minimal possibility of diverting from the customer's taste and preferences, and quality metrics are met in the production sector (Dignum, 2017). With the mentioned, the organization will employ people to help the designed AI create what is needed. Therefore, creating artificial intelligence with a strong positive influence on human value is the solution to unethical AI. Furthermore, advanced technology demands to be considered for the long term impact on creating job opportunities. Another solution is to equalizing human values and artificial intelligence. As mentioned, there are various issues related to how artificial intelligence will be in the future, given the increasing technology (Shabbir, & Anwer, 2015). The first issue is based on measures that can be taken to equate human values and AI and their differences. Recognizing the levels at which it is impossible to reach the level of human intelligence and artificial intelligence can help make future anticipation based on possible solutions aimed at causing humankind challenges. Conclusion RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 5 The technological rise has improved the quality of human life all over the world. It has led to improved healthcare, travelling, rendering of services, and easier ways of communication. In every aspect of technology, significant advancements have been achieved. The advancements are commonly known as Artificial Intelligence or AI. It is ironic because AI is commonly known today, but it is misunderstood and misinterpreted. Solving the societal issues, it is essential to have a responsible artificial intelligence that will uphold the human being's values. The importance of values in human beings is to provide an enthusiastic response in the society. For instance, people are losing their jobs because artificial intelligence is taking over. Also, equalizing human values and artificial intelligence. As mentioned, there are various issues related to how artificial intelligence will be given increasing technology. The first issue is based on measures that can be taken to equate human values and AI and their differences. RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 6 References Dignum, V. (2017). Responsible Artificial Intelligence: Designing Ai for Human Values. ITU Journal: ICT Discoveries, 1(25), 1-9. Shabbir, J., &Anwer, T. (2015). Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Near Future. Journal of Latex Class Files, 14(8), 1-11. West, D. (2019). What is artificial intelligence? Retrieved 10 January 2021, from https://www.brookings.edu/research/what-is-artificial-intelligence/ Running Head: RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Journal Part one Lanisha Johnson Arizona Global Campus 1-13-2021 1 RISE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 2 Introduction The technological rise has improved the quality of human life all over the world. It has led to improved healthcare, traveling, rendering of services, and easier ways of communication. In every aspect of technology, significant advancements have been achieved. The advancements are commonly known as Artificial Intelligence or AI. It is ironic because AI is commonly known today, but it is misunderstood and misinterpreted. In this essay, AI will be defined by its ...
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