complete the tasks below


University of California - Davis

Question Description

task 1:

Assume that each color/pattern in the map below represents patches of different patch types in a landscape. A researcher wants to describe the heterogeneity in this landscape using metrics. Fill in the blanks at the end of each statement.

The system doesn't actually give you a "blank" instead that is the text box. I am looking for you to fill in the blank that would appear at the end of each statement. You will need the following image to help fill in those blanks:

Assignment 4 picture.png

1) The number of times each patch type occurs in the map is a metric called patch

2) Describing the location of patches relative to each other in the landscape is referred to as the patch

3)Identifying and listing the patch types that are present in the map is a metric called patch

4) In this example, the criteria used to identify the spatial heterogeneity of the landscape depicted in the map is:

task 2 :

Your answer to the following question will be graded using the grading categories as noted in the syllabus. Make sure your response is well written.

Problem: You are an urban forester and you want to increase the tree cover in your watershed. You have maps of the whole city based on 3 different classifications: 1) HERCULES, 2) Anderson-derived land use/land cover and 3) Biotope mapping. But you know that the space available to plant trees is in residential properties. You decide that you need to make a map that shows the amount of tree canopy in neighborhoods so that you can prioritize where to plant new trees.

Which of the 3 classifications, or combination of classifications, should you use to create your map and why? (In your answer make sure to explain why you selected the classification(s) you did and also explain why the classifications you did not chose would not be helpful for your map)

check the grading in the syllabus file

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Module 3 Spatial heterogeneity in cities and land cover classifications Ecology of the city • Multidisciplinary • Systems oriented: integrates social and ecological structures and processes • Complimentary approach to ecology in cities Module 3 • Opening up the city “box” • Spatial heterogeneity and application to urban systems • Approaches to characterizing urban heterogeneity • Sources and measures of heterogeneity • HERCULES land cover model Budget for Hong Kong: The city is a “black box” Adapted from: Boyden et al. 1981 Opening the box: System fluxes and landscape heterogeneity Inputs Inputs SYSTEM Storage Outputs Outputs False color infra-red image, Baltimore, MD Spatial Heterogeneity = Variation across space in at least one variable of interest Is this landscape spatially heterogeneous? Yes! But how? Heterogeneity or structure of the system can be described many ways depending on research question Patch Array 1 Two patch arrays, or descriptions of heterogeneity for the same landscape Patch Array 2 Spatial Heterogeneity = Variation across space in at least one variable of interest Heterogeneity exists across scales There is no a priori scale, need to identify the spatial scale(s) that best determine relationships between spatial heterogeneity and process of interest What causes the spatial heterogeneity? Abiotic or physical Biotic Disturbance Abiotic Biotic Socially‐derived Policy Economics Culture … Characteristics of Spatial Heterogeneity • Pattern or Structure • Criteria used to determine pattern can be a pool or flux • Expressed by mapping patches and boundaries • Scale neutral, meaning that it works across scales • Scale dependent, meaning that scale matters for determining heterogeneity and its interaction with ecological process • Research question determines relevant heterogeneity. How is this landscape spatially heterogeneous? Criteria depends on research question Land cover surrounding Madison, WI Legend: Agricultural fields: brown and yellow Urban development: pinks and reds Water: blues Source of image: Wikipedia Measures of spatial heterogeneity (Each color represents a patch of a different type) No spatial information: Richness: Frequency: Spatially explicit: Configuration: Cadenasso et al. 2006 Land cover surrounding Madison, WI Legend: Agricultural fields: brown and yellow Urban development: pinks and reds Water: blues Patch richness? Patch frequency? Patch configuration? Source of image: Wikipedia Do these two patch arrays have the same patch richness? Why do we care about system structure? • Spatial structure or pattern is reciprocally linked to ecological processes Spatial Heterogeneity Ecological Processes Abstraction of an ecosystem and the budgetary approach to studying an ecosystem Inputs SYSTEM Storage Outputs What is urban ecology? • Ecology = Scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter • Population Ecology • Community Ecology • Ecosystem Ecology Biological Ecosystem Concept INPUTS SYSTEM Physical complex Organism complex OUTPUTS Opening the box: System fluxes and landscape heterogeneity Inputs Inputs SYSTEM Storage Outputs Outputs False color infra-red image, Baltimore, MD Organism complex, physical complex, and their interaction influenced by heterogeneity INPUTS SYSTEM Physical complex Organism complex OUTPUTS Represents heterogeneity Applying biological ecosystem concept to urban systems: SYSTEM Cadenasso and Pickett 2008 How is this landscape spatially heterogeneous? Approaches to characterizing urban heterogeneity • Biotope mapping • Ecotope mapping • PRIZM/Tapestry (ESRI) • Land use/Land cover classifications (e.g. Anderson et al.) • Land cover (HERCULES) Biotope mapping: heterogeneity of habitats based on the needs of specific species of conservation concern Translation of legend: • Cityscape • Nature permeated by the city • Loosened gardens • Undeveloped countryside Ecotope mapping: Panel a and b are from 1944 and panel c and d are from 2001. Land use categories are represented by color and land cover class by pattern. Ellis et al. 2006 Potential Rating Index for Zip Markets •PRIZM Lifestyle Market Classifications, Claritas •Classifies Census block groups based on –density gradient (5 groups) –economic gradient (15 groups) –social characteristics (62 groups) •62 “lifestyle clusters,” which can be aggregated into 15 and 5 social groups PRIZM: Heterogeneity of social groups based on density, economic status, and social characteristics Tapestry: esri product • Purpose is to identify consumer markets in the US • Segmentation system to classify US neighborhoods • Clustered into • Urbanization (6 groups) • LifeMode (14 groups) • Segments (67 groups) • Use Census data and information on activities, purchases etc. Land use/land cover (derived from Anderson et al. 1976): Heterogeneity of land surface based on how humans are using the land or physical structures on the land Anderson et al. Classification • Level I: Urban or built‐up land • Level II: • • • • • • • • Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Communication, Utilities Commer. and Indus. Complexes Mixed Other (Anderson et al. 1976) Advantages of Anderson et al. approach • Standardized and widely available • Intended to be applied at broad scales – across the U.S. Land use vs. Land cover • Land use • Anthropogenic activity – what humans are doing • Visible as characteristics of vegetation and/or built up structures on the surface • Assumptions of structures linked to activity • Land cover • Structure or physical pattern – vegetation, built structures and surfaces • No assumptions about link between structures and human activities Do all patches of one land use have the same land cover? Varying amounts of different elements make up the urban landscape How might this affect ecological processes? (e.g. nutrient cycling, biodiversity) Limitations to Anderson classification • Low categorical and spatial resolution • Inadequate to capture urban heterogeneity • Built and natural components kept separate. Approaches to characterizing urban heterogeneity • Biotope mapping • Ecotope mapping • PRIZM/Tapestry (ESRI) • Land use/Land cover classifications (e.g. Anderson et al.) • Land cover (HERCULES) HERCULES: Describes urban spatial heterogeneity using the criteria of land cover High Ecological Resolution Classification for Urban Landscapes and Ecological Systems Modified from Cadenasso et al. 2007 HERCULES: Describes urban spatial heterogeneity using the criteria of land cover High Ecological Resolution Classification for Urban Landscapes and Ecological Systems Elements Modified from Cadenasso et al. 2007 Buildings Surfaces Vegetation HERCULES: Describes urban spatial heterogeneity using the criteria of land cover High Ecological Resolution Classification for Urban Landscapes and Ecological Systems Elements Features Modified from Cadenasso et al. 2007 Buildings • Cover Surfaces • Paved • Bare soil Vegetation • Woody • Herbaceous Urban Heterogeneity HERCULES patches delineated through visual photo interpretation Visual interpretation Zhou et al. 2010 How can we automate classification? From pixels … Pixel Pixels: square picture elements Basic unit of analysis in remote sensing Pixel based approach Development intensity Tree canopy Imperviousness How can we automate classification? From Pixels to Patches Mapping Pixel Patch Pixels: square picture elements Patch: a relatively homogeneous area that differs from its surroundings Basic unit of analysis in remote sensing Basic structural and functional unit of landscape Patch based approach HERCULES • Object‐oriented classification approach Building Pavement Herbs. Woody Zhou and Cadenasso, unpl. Two‐step process: Step 1: delineate patches – visual interpretation Step 2: quantify % cover of features in each patch – digital classification using object‐oriented approaches Urban structure: Land cover models Urban heterogeneity Pixel‐based Zhou and Cadenasso 2012 Patch‐based Two perspectives on system structure (spatial heterogeneity) Forest patches embedded in a matrix of urbanization that varied in intensity. (e.g URGE project) Ecology in the city Continuous patch array. Patches may consist of more than one element. (e.g. HERCULES) Ecology of the city Compare characterizations of urban heterogeneity Anderson‐based LU/LC HERCULES LC How is landscape structure linked to ecosystem function? Land Cover Ecosystem Function • Water quality and quantity • Nutrient retention • Heat dissipation • Etc…. Review: • Describe research using approaches of ecology of vs. ecology in the city and articulate research questions that could come from each approach. How might these approaches compliment each other? • Be able to define spatial heterogeneity, explain its characteristics and how it might be measured or described. • Discuss how two key ecological concepts – gradients and spatial heterogeneity – can be applied to describing the structure of urban systems. How are the applications of these two concepts similar and how do they differ? • Explain the abstract model of an ecosystem, what are the components that make it up? If this model is applied to urban systems, what components would need to be added. Be able to specify this abstraction using a specific example. • Understand why the spatial heterogeneity of urban systems can be described in many different ways and how those descriptions are linked to research perspectives and questions (remember that urban systems are integrated social‐ecological systems!). Understand the criteria that each approach to describing the spatial heterogeneity (structure) of urban systems (e.g. biotope mapping, HERCULES, etc) uses. • Describe the difference between land cover and land use, how it is used in different classification approaches, and the limitations and opportunities that each provides to linking the structure of the system to ecological functions. • Be familiar with the difference between a pixel approach to landscape analysis and a patch based approach. URBAN ECOLOGY Professor Mary Cadenasso ( Asynchronous with optional office hours/discussions Tuesdays from 10:30‐11:30. Zoom link on Canvas, no appointment needed to join! PLS 162: CRN 38732 3.0 credit hours (9 hours of work/week are expected) Prerequisite: Any upper division ecology or environmental science course including PLB 117, ESP 100, EVE 101, EVE 120, PLS 163 or consent of instructor. Figure 1: Oakland, CA. Professor's hometown WHAT WE’LL DO IN THIS COURSE This course applies ecological concepts and approaches to the urban system. Using a landscape and ecosystem ecology perspective, we will explore how ecological processes are altered (or not) in urban and urbanizing landscapes. Topics include: landscape heterogeneity, nutrient dynamics, altered hydrology and climate, biodiversity, invasive species, organism adaptation, air, water and soil pollution, green infrastructure, environmental justice and urban agriculture. As we work through the topics, students will understand how ecological concepts and theories can be applied urban ecosystems and develop critical thinking skills needed to evaluate the effects of urbanization on ecological processes. Lecture material and readings will focus on current research and be tightly integrated. A series of short exercises will encourage students to propose and evaluate interventions to maximize ecological outcomes while at the same time meeting the goals of multiple stakeholders within cities. LEARNING OUTCOMES      Gain knowledge of how ecological processes operate in urban systems and compare how that operation may vary from non‐urban systems and in urban systems embedded in different bio‐ geo‐physical contexts Demonstrate understanding by determining impact of urbanization on ecological processes Analyze data and results from primary research describing the reciprocal relationship between urban systems and ecological processes Evaluate urban management interventions to critique effectiveness Improve analytical thinking and reading skills through the use of primary literature (journal articles). Page 1|6 COURSE STRUCTURE This course is being taught asynchronously. However, office hours will by synchronous (but optional) on Tuesdays from 10:30‐11:30. No appointment is necessary to join, simply jump on Zoom. I will be happy to answer any questions you may have about material or discuss anything you find intriguing. There will be no midterm or final exam for this class. Instead, you will be encouraged to keep up with course content by completing a series of assignments consistently throughout the quarter. These assignments take many forms and are described below. The course is organized by modules which corresponds to weeks in the quarter. All lecture videos, assignments, readings, and quizzes for each module will be linked within a specific module. CRITICAL THINKING ASSIGNMENTS (60%) Most weeks of the quarter you will have 1‐2 short assignments that coincide with that week’s lecture videos. These assignments will vary but, in general, be of two types: 1) asking you to draw conclusions through the interpretation of data (no statistics needed!) and 2) evaluating or designing management options to solve particular problems using insights from the lecture material and readings or other critical thinking exercises. All assignments are due on Fridays by 11:59 pm. QUIZZES ON READINGS (15%) Six readings have been assigned throughout the quarter. These readings are journal articles from the peer‐reviewed literature, often referred to as “primary literature”. It is important to practice reading primary literature as this is the main way science is shared. This may be a new source of reading for some of you. I have prepared a set of guiding questions to help you organize notes on the readings that focus on the most important information. You can find that file (entitled: Article_review_template) in the introductory module. There is a quiz on each reading. Quizzes are due on Tuesdays by 11:59 pm (No quiz in weeks 1,7, 9, and 10). Quizzes will be timed and you will have 20 minutes to complete it. If I have received documentation of a time accommodation for you through the SDC the Canvas site has been modified to allow you more time. However, please not that this extra time will not extend past the 11:59 pm deadline. Quizzes will be opened on Sundays by 9 am giving you several days to take it, though you will only be allowed to take it once. All readings are available now. Sharing answers or questions with classmates, and working on the quiz together is considered cheating. Page 2|6 PHOTO ESSAY (15%) The goal of this assignment is to synthesize understanding of ecological concepts at work in the urban environment. You will be asked to connect concepts learned during different lectures and describe how you observe them in the urban environment using both written text and photography. The photographs must be your own taken specifically for this assignment. This assignment is intended to give you the opportunity to go outside and think about the concepts you are learning in this class as you walk around your surroundings. Remember, the way we are defining “urban” in this class is very broad and inclusive so this Figure 2 Tree lined street in Sacramento, CA will work if you are living in San Francisco, Roseville, Davis, or Beijing! If you are concerned that you are currently living in too rural of an area for this assignment, please contact me to discuss. There is a full explanation of the assignment and grading criteria in the assignment description file. The assignment is considered the final exam and due on Tuesday, March 9, 2021 by 11:59 pm QUESTIONS EMBEDDED IN VIDEOS (10%) Many of the lecture videos will contain poll questions or multiple‐choice questions to encourage active engagement with the material as you watch. These questions are distributed at various locations within the video and can be answered right in the video. It is meant to replicate interaction that may occur in the classroom. These questions are set to expire on the Friday of that module at 11:59 pm and these points cannot be made up. Your feedback and questions on the videos are encouraged! At the end of each module (except for module 1) I will ask for your feedback and provide a place to you to ask a question. These questions will be used to guide discussions during the Tuesday office hours. GRADING Quizzes, questions embedded in videos, and data interpretation assignments will be graded by points earned for correct answers or participation. The second type of critical thinking assignment – evaluating or designing management options and the photo essay will be graded using the following categories:       Exceeds expectations (95%) Satisfactory (85%) Close to meeting expectations (70%) Needs improvement (55%) Incomplete (percentage will vary depending on how incomplete) Not submitted (0%) Page 3|6 POLICIES ACCOMODATIONS If you currently receive academic accommodation, please submit your SDC Letter of Accommodation to me as soon as possible, ideally within the first two weeks of this course. If you come to realize that any part of the course is inaccessible to you, contact me right away so we can find a solution. I would like to hear your feedback so that future iterations of this course can be accessible from the start of term. UC Davis is—and I as your instructor am—committed to educational equity in serving a diverse student body. I encourage all students who are interested in learning more about the Student Disability Center (SDC) to contact them directly at, or 530‐752‐3184. LATE WORK In general, imperfect work that is submitted on time will earn more points than work submitted late. Late work can be submitted within 1 week of the due date for a maximum of 85%. Late work submitted past 1 week will receive 50% credit assuming it fulfills assignment criteria (if the work does not, it will receive less credit). This includes quizzes. The quiz will remain available for 1 week following the due date. The final photo essay, however, can not be late due to the need to submit grades on time. In all cases, if you have University‐excused reasons for being late (e.g. illness, care taking, family emergencies), get in touch with me; the deadline will be waived, and I will work with you to determine an alternative schedule allowing you to be successful in class. PLAGIARISM AND ACADEMIC INTEGRITY I trust that you are taking this class because you want to learn about urban ecology. Please don’t violate my trust in you by plagiarizing or using outside help for work in this course. It is unacceptable to submit ANY work that contains phrases or sentences you’ve copied or received from an outside source. Outside sources include any books/articles/pages/lecture slides that you’re not referencing as quoted sources. Unless specifically stated on the assignment prompt, you are supposed to be doing all work on your own. The Code of Academic Conduct prohibits unauthorized collaboration (such as working with another student to share answers on an assignment intended for individual work), cheating (such as bringing notes or a phone to look up answers on an exam), outside help (such ...
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