Biology Question

Science

Physiology

Franklin Pierce College

Question Description

use the power point to answer the questions below

History

A 28-year-old woman complains to her obstetrician of amenorrhea (abnormal absence or suppression of menses, menstrual cycle). She also complained of milk discharge from her nipples (galactorrhea).

The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident 3 months ago. Injuries were mostly superficial, but the impact was sufficient to break her helmet. The patient indicated she just has not " felt right since the accident." She is constantly tired, has gained 5 pounds, and drinks and urinates more than before the accident.

Lab results

Pregnancy test: negative

FSH levels: 2 mlU/mL (normal 4-30 mlU/mL)

LH levels: 2 mlU/mL (normal 5-30 mlU/mL)

Cortisol levels: 2 µg/dL (normal 3-15 µg/dL)

Thyroxine (T4): 3 µg/dL (normal 5-12 µg/dL)

Triiodothyronine (T3): 60 ng/dL (normal 115-190 ng/dL)

Prolactin levels: 70 ng/mL (normal <20 ng/mL)

Assignment:

For each of the hormones listed, provide the pathway for the physiological response (a flow chart is fine). If you handwrite the answer, please print. Remember the patient is a female.

Part 2

Read the case study carefully and provide the hormone(s) that affects each of the patient’s symptoms. You may have to do a bit or research. Insert the information in the table below. If you need to add a row, go to the end of the row and hit the enter key.

Symptom

Hormone(s)

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Communication • Signal Pathways requirements for Communication • • Electrical • Chemical 1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine, paracrine and autocrine Communication • Chemical signals • Requires a ligand • Types: • Autocrine • Paracrine • Endocrine 2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • Endocrine System • General function • Hormones • Molecules that stimulate target cells/tissue to produce a response 3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.1. Communication in the body: Long distance 4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System – Types of hormones • Hormones • Amino acid derivative • Peptide, a protein, a Glycoprotein • Steroid 5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hormones – amino acid derivative • Hormones • Amino acid derivative • Monoamines (biogenic amines) • Formed by removal of the carboxyl group and retaining the amino group. Derived from tyrosine or tryptophan • Adrenal gland, pineal and thyroid gland • Epinephrine and norepinephrine, melatonin, thyroid hormone 6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.6 Amine hormones Most amine hormones are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is the parent amino acid for catecholamines and thyroid hormones. HO H H C C H C O H N H OH Thyroid hormones are synthesized from two tyrosines and iodine (I) atoms. Catecholamines are made by modifying the side groups of tyrosine. HO HO H H C C H I H N HO H HO H H C C OH H I HO H H C C OH H I H H C C H C O H N H OH Thyroxine (Tetraiodothyronine, T4) H N H Norepinephrine HO O H Dopamine HO I I H N CH3 Epinephrine HO I O I H H C C H C O H N H OH Triiodothyronine (T3) 7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hormones – peptide hormones • Hormones • Peptide derivatives • Created from a chain of amino acids • Secreted by pituitary and hypothalamus • Oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, releasing and inhibiting hormones • Produced as inactive hormone referred as preprohormone • In the ER, it is converted to a prohormone • In the Golgi, it is converted to hormone Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 8 Figure 7.3(a) Peptide Hormone Synthesis and Processing 9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hormones - Glycoproteins • Glycoprotein • Protein and a carbohydrate (2 or more) • Secreted by the pituitary gland • Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone 10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hormones – Steroid hormones • Hormones • Steroid • Derived from cholesterol • Lipid soluble (lipophilic) • Secreted by gonads and adrenal glands • Estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, calcitriol and dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) 11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biosynthetic Pathway for Steroid Hormones 12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • Hormone Signal Pathway • Function: cell to cell communication • Steps in cell to cell communication 1. Synthesis of hormone (location) 2. Stimuli is required for the release from the endocrine cell 3. Transport in the bloodstream 4. Act on target tissue by attaching to receptors 5. Performs its physiological response 13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • 1. Synthesis: • • Gland(s) or cells or a group of cells (tissue) 2. Stimuli required for release from the endocrine gland is accomplished when a. A “substance” in the bloodstream stimulates its release b. Neural control causes its release c. Hormone influences the release of another hormone from a different endocrine gland 14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neural Regulating Systems: Overview a. “Substance” in the bloodstream is the stimulus • Increase or decrease of the substance (direct stimulus) • Endocrine gland • Hormone released • Physiological action 15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.7 Simple endocrine pathways Resorption = breakdown 16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine Reflex Pathways: Overview b. Neural stimulation “Stretching of the stomach” is the stimulus • Stimulus • Afferent signal • CNS (integration) • Efferent signal • Endocrine gland • Hormone is released and acts on target organ • Physiological action • Negative feedback Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 17 Figure 7.7 Simple endocrine pathways 18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hormone Release Influenced by another hormone c. Hormone influences release of a hormone • Hypothalamus produces: HRH, HIH, hormone • Pituitary • Anterior pituitary • Trophic Hormones Hormone Releasing Hormone Hormone Inhibiting Hormone or Hypothalamic Releasing Hormone Hypothalamic Inhibiting Hormone • Growth Hormone • Prolactin 19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.9 Hormones of the Hypothalamic-Anterior Pituitary Pathway The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones (-RH) and inhibiting hormones (-IH) that act on endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary to influence secretion of their hormones. Alternate names and abbreviations for the hormones are shown in the table below the figure. Neurons in hypothalamus secrete releasing and inhibiting hormones into the portal system HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES Dopamine TRH CRH GHRH GnRH Somatostatin Portal system Anterior pituitary ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES Prolactin TSH ACTH GH FSH LH Endocrine cells (Gonadotropins) To target tissues ENDOCRINE TARGETS AND THE HORMONES THEY SECRETE Thyroid gland Adrenal cortex Liver Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) Cortisol Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) Endocrine cells of the gonads Androgens Estrogens, progesterone NONENDOCRINE TARGETS Breast Many tissues Germ cells of the gonads 20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • Hormones: cell to cell communication molecules • Steps for cell to cell communication 1. Made in gland(s) or cells **** 2. Causes the release 3. Transport in the bloodstream *** 4. Act on target tissue by attaching to receptors** 5. Performs its physiological response 21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview 3. Transported in the blood system *** • Free/unbound • Bound • Specific transport protein • Albumin/prealbumin • Prolong half-life • Protection from degradation • Specific for a hormone Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 22 Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • Hormones: cell to cell communication molecules • Steps in cell to cell communication 1. Made in gland(s) or cells **** 2. Cause of released 3. Transported by blood system *** 4. Act on target tissue by attaching to receptors** 5. Performs its physiological response 23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • 4. Act on target tissue by attaching to receptors** • Extracellular receptors • Intracellular receptors 24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • Hormones: cell to cell communication molecules • Steps in cell to cell communication 1. Made in gland(s) or cells **** 2. Cause of released 3. Transported by blood system *** 4. Act on target tissue by attaching to receptors** 5. Performs its physiological response/action 25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Regulating Systems: Overview • How do hormones perform their physiological action? * a. Activating existing proteins • Used by all hormones except steroid hormones • Uses extracellular receptors b. Producing new proteins • Used by steroid hormones only • Uses intracellular receptors Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 26 Amine Hormone Structures and Functions • Activating existing proteins - All Hormones • Cell Surface receptors • Hormone binds to the receptor • (1) GPCR - Transduction and amplification • Enzyme activation • Second messenger systems • Open channels • (2) Receptor-enzyme system • Activate existing proteins • Physiological response Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 27 Figure 17.5 • Binding of Water-Soluble Hormones • Water-soluble hormones cannot diffuse through the cell membrane. These hormones must bind to a surface cellmembrane receptor. The receptor then initiates a cell-signaling pathway within the cell involving G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, the secondary messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP), and protein kinases. In the final step, these protein kinases phosphorylate proteins in the cytoplasm. This activates proteins in the cell that carry out the changes specified by the 28 hormone. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Steroid Hormones: Structure and Action • Production of new proteins • Steroid Hormone action • Derived from cholesterol, hydrophobic, enter target cell and attach to • Cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors • Activate DNA for protein synthesis (gene activation) • Slower acting, longer half-life • Examples: cortisol, estrogen & testosterone 29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 17.4 • Binding of Lipid-Soluble Hormones • A steroid hormone directly initiates the production of proteins within a target cell. Steroid hormones easily diffuse through the cell membrane. The hormone binds to its receptor in the cytosol, forming a receptor– hormone complex. The receptor–hormone complex then enters the nucleus and binds to the target gene on the DNA. Transcription of the gene creates a messenger RNA that is translated into the desired protein within 30 the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 7.1. Comparison of hormones 31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • How are hormone secretions regulated? • Negative feedback (short vs. long) • Positive feedback – • Up regulation and down regulation • Autoregulation processes • Cyclic hormone regulation • Acute hormone regulation 32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.20 Short-Loop and Long-Loop Feedbacks 32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Up and Down Regulation – Cell membrane receptors Hormone Receptor Response Low receptor density Weak response Increased receptor density Stronger response Increased sensitivity (a ) Up-regulation Response High receptor density Reduced receptor density Strong response Reduced sensitivity (b ) Down-regulation Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diminished response 34 Hormone Interactions • Hormone Interactions • Synergistic • Antagonistic • Permissive 35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • Endocrine System • Head • Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland • Neck • Thyroid and Parathyroid gland • Thorax • Thymus gland • Abdomen • Adrenal gland and pancreas • Pelvis • Ovary and testes Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 36 Brain Anatomy 37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pineal Gland and Melatonin • Pineal Gland • Located midbrain, superior to the corpora quadrigemina • Melatonin • Influences body clock (stimulation through visual system) • Other roles maybe to inhibit sexual maturation in children • Suprachiasmatic Nuclei 38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Secretion of Melatonin 39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypothalamus and the Nuclei associated with the Endocrine System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hypothalamic Nuclei Anterior commissure Pineal gland Superior colliculus Cerebral aqueduct Anterior nucleus Thirst; thermoregulation Arcuate nucleus Regulates appetite: secretes leaveshormones that releasing regulate anterior pituitary Dorsomedial nucleus Rage and other emotions Mammillary nuclei Relay between limbic system and thalamus; involved in longterm memory Paraventricular nucleus Produces oxytocin (involved in childbirth, lactation, orgasm); controls posterior pituitary Posterior nucleus Functions with periaqueductal gray matter of midbrain in emotional, cardiovascular, and pain control Preoptic nucleus Hormonal control of reproductive functions Suprachiasmatic nucleus Biological clock; regulates circadian rhythms and female reproductive cycle Supraoptic nucleus Produces antidiuretic hormone (involved in water balance); controls posterior pituitary Ventromedial nucleus Satiety center (suppresses hunger) Optic chasm Mammillary body Pituitary gland (b) Hypothalamus 40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • Hypothalamus • Paraventricular nuclei (PVN) • Oxytocin • Supraoptic nuclei (SON) • Vasopressin/AntiDiuretic Hormone • Arcuate (Tuberal) nuclei • Hormone releasing hormones • Hormone inhibiting hormones HypophysioTrophic hormones 41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Introduction to the Pituitary Gland • The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum • The pituitary is divided into an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) a.The anterior pituitary is glandular epithelium with two parts – pars distalis and pars tuberalis b.The posterior pituitary is nervous tissue and also called the pars nervosa 42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adenohypophysis • Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis) • Pars tuberalis • Pars intermedia • Pars distalis (anterior lobe) • Types of cells (epithelium derived) • Acidophils • Basophils • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal portal system 43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neurohypophysis • Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) • Median eminence • Infundibular stalk • Pars nervosa (posterior lobe) • Nervous tissue like (unmyelinated fibers) • Hypothalamo hypophyseal tract 44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11.14 Relation of the Pituitary Gland to the Brain and Hypothalamus and Neural and Vascular Connections Between the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract • PVN and SON produce Oxytocin and ADH • Neurohormones stored in posterior pituitary • Released into bloodstream caused by AP • Targets • Oxytocin-uterus (contraction) • Oxytocin-Mammary gland-myoepithelial cells (contraction-release milk) • ADH/Vasopressin-kidney (promotes water reabsorption) • Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 46 Figure 17.8 • Posterior Pituitary • Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus release oxytocin (OT) or ADH into the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. These hormones are stored or released into the 47 blood via the capillary plexus. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 26.12 • Aquaporins • The binding of ADH to receptors on the cells of the collecting tubule results in aquaporins being inserted into the plasma membrane, shown in the lower cell. This 48 dramatically increases the flow of water out of the tubule and into the bloodstream. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endocrine System • Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Portal System • Arcuate (Tuberal) Nuclei produce HRH and/or HIH (specific stimulus causes the release) • HRH or HIH released primary capillaries • Travel through the portal vessels • Stimulate cells in the anterior pituitary • Hormones are secreted in the secondary capillaries • To target cells or tissues or organs Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 49 Figure 17.9 • • Anterior Pituitary The anterior pituitary manufactures seven hormones. The hypothalamus produces separate hormones that stimulate or inhibit hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Hormones from the hypothalamus reach the anterior pituitary via the hypophyseal portal system. 50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 17.11 Major Pituitary Hormones Major pituitary hormones and their target organs. 51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structure of the Adrenal Glands • Found atop the kidneys • Consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla that function as separate glands a.The adrenal medulla is neural tissue and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to sympathetic neural stimulation. b.The adrenal cortex is glandular epithelium and secretes steroid hormones in response to ACTH; three layers – zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis 52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 17.17 • • Adrenal Glands Both adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys and are composed of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, all surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. The cortex can be subdivided into additional zones, all of which produce different types of hormones. LM × 204. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) 53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adrenal Medulla: A Modified Sympathetic Ganglion 54 Figure Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 11-10: The adrenal medulla Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production • Adrenal Gland • Made of cortex and medulla (ANS) • Medulla • Norepinephrine and Epinephrine • Heart (increase HR and force of contraction). Stimuli: • Blood vessels (vasoconstriction- BP Stimuli: • Liver (breakdown of glycogen to glucoseglycogenolysis) Stimuli: 55 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production • Adrenal Gland • Cortex • Zona glomerulosa • Aldosterone (kidney) • Stimulus: • Stimulus: • Zona fasciculata • Cortisol (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose) • Stimulus: • Stimulus: • Zona reticularis • sex hormones (various tissues) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin ...
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