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Hardy‐Weinberg Activity
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Go to http://virtualbiologylab.org/ModelsHTML5/PopGenFishbowl/PopGenFishbowl.html
Read the background information and go through the tutorial.
Check out the Hardy‐Weinberg Video (Ch 23) on blackboard.
Hint to make the simulation work better: When asked to choose a value, do NOT choose 1.0, 0.0, or 0.5 unless
specifically instructed to do so.
Once you enter the Experimental Design Page, keep the parameters to the pre‐set values to begin with (you can
refresh your web browser to reset them to the pre‐set values if needed).
Click on the “To Data” arrow at the bottom of the notebook.
Press pause, and click the reset (round arrow) button at the top to reset to generation 0 (you may have to hit
play, pause, or rewind quickly for it to go from generation 1 to generation 0 – a glitch in the programming).
Write the Hardy‐Weinberg equation, replacing p and q with the symbols R and r. (1 point)
The initial frequency values for the population are shown in the virtual data notebook. Plug the proportion of R
allele and the proportion of r allele into the Hardy‐Weinberg equation, and show the mathematical steps for
how the proportion of RR, proportion of Rr, and proportion of rr can be calculated. (3 points)
a. Hardy‐Weinberg allows us to determine if evolution in a trait of a population is occurring by comparing
the frequency of alleles between two time points. We will use the proportion of r at generation 0 as our
baseline time point measurement.
Using the pre‐set parameters, let the simulation run to a generation number between 30 – 40, and pause the
simulation. (Feel free to fast forward.)
a. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (Did the bars fluctuate a lot, a little,
not at all; did one bar grow or shrink substantially?) (2 points)
b. What generation did you pause the simulation at? (1/2 point)
c. What is the proportion of r in that generation? (1/2 point)
d. Find the percent change in proportion by using the equation below. (show your work) (2 points)
│final ‐ initial│ x 100 = % change
Initial
e. Usually, a 5% change is considered a significant change. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring
under the pre‐set parameters? (1 point)
Click on the “To Design” arrow at the bottom of the notebook to get back to the design parameters.
Change the “Migrant ‘R’ Allele pop.” to 0.5 so that an equal number of R and r alleles will migrate to the
population. Change the “Migration Rate” to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the migration rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (it will be slightly different on each run of the simulation)?
(1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
Keep the “Migration Rate” set to the same value as used in 12, and change the “Migrant ‘R’ Allele pop.” to
something other than 0.5 and run the simulation to between 30 – 40 generations.
a. What did you set the migrant R allele to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (it will be slightly different on each run of the simulation)?
(1/2 points)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
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e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1/2 point)
Write a summary statement (~2 sentences) about how migration may or may not cause evolution within a
population. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the “Initial ‘R’ allele prop.” to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the Initial ‘R’ allele prop.” to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (this should be quite different from previous runs)? (1/2
point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Write a summary statement (~1 sentence) for how initial allele proportion alone affects evolution. (2
points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Notice that on previous runs, all the genotypes had a relative fitness of 1. Change the relative fitness of one of
the genotypes to a different value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 ‐ 40 generations.
a. Define relative fitness in your own words. (2 points)
b. Which genotype did you choose to change? (1/2 point)
c. What did you set this genotype’s relative fitness to? (1/2 point)
d. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
e. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
f. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
g. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
h. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
i. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 points)
j. Write a summary statement for how relative fitness affects evolution. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the mutation rate of R to r to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the mutation rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Write a summary statement for how mutation affects evolution. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the assortaitive mating rate to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. Define assortaitive mating rate in your own words. (2 points)
b. What did you set the assortaitive mating rate to? (1/2 point)
c. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
d. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
e. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
f. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
g. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
h. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
i. Write a summary statement for how assortaitive mating rate affects evolution. (2 points)
23. Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
24. Change the mortality rate to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40 generations.
a. What did you set the mortality rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Compare and contrast the effects of evolution from the overall mortality rate to the effects of evolution
from relative fitness. (2 points)
25. In this simulation, what parameters led to evolutionary change and what parameters did not? Do your results
match the conclusions that Hardy‐Weinberg came to? Explain using scientific reasoning. (12 points)
Post‐Lab Questions
26. In the simulation, a co‐dominant trait was studied. Why are Hardy‐Weinberg parameters easier to study than
simple Mendalian traits? Explain your reasoning. (3 points)
27. Hitch‐hiker’s thumb is a Mendelian dominant trait. Meaning that people that have HH or Hh have a hitch‐hiker’s
thumb, while people who are hh do not. Approximately 33% of people have hitch hiker’s thumb. What is the
frequency of H and h in the population? Show your work. (8 points)
Hardy‐Weinberg Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Go to http://virtualbiologylab.org/ModelsHTML5/PopGenFishbowl/PopGenFishbowl.html
Read the background information and go through the tutorial.
Check out the Hardy‐Weinberg Video (Ch 23) on blackboard.
Hint to make the simulation work better: When asked to choose a value, do NOT choose 1.0, 0.0, or 0.5 unless
specifically instructed to do so.
Once you enter the Experimental Design Page, keep the parameters to the pre‐set values to begin with (you can
refresh your web browser to reset them to the pre‐set values if needed).
Click on the “To Data” arrow at the bottom of the notebook.
Press pause, and click the reset (round arrow) button at the top to reset to generation 0 (you may have to hit
play, pause, or rewind quickly for it to go from generation 1 to generation 0 – a glitch in the programming).
Write the Hardy‐Weinberg equation, replacing p and q with the symbols R and r. (1 point)
The initial frequency values for the population are shown in the virtual data notebook. Plug the proportion of R
allele and the proportion of r allele into the Hardy‐Weinberg equation, and show the mathematical steps for
how the proportion of RR, proportion of Rr, and proportion of rr can be calculated. (3 points)
a. Hardy‐Weinberg allows us to determine if evolution in a trait of a population is occurring by comparing
the frequency of alleles between two time points. We will use the proportion of r at generation 0 as our
baseline time point measurement.
Using the pre‐set parameters, let the simulation run to a generation number between 30 – 40, and pause the
simulation. (Feel free to fast forward.)
a. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (Did the bars fluctuate a lot, a little,
not at all; did one bar grow or shrink substantially?) (2 points)
b. What generation did you pause the simulation at? (1/2 point)
c. What is the proportion of r in that generation? (1/2 point)
d. Find the percent change in proportion by using the equation below. (show your work) (2 points)
│final ‐ initial│ x 100 = % change
Initial
e. Usually, a 5% change is considered a significant change. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring
under the pre‐set parameters? (1 point)
Click on the “To Design” arrow at the bottom of the notebook to get back to the design parameters.
Change the “Migrant ‘R’ Allele pop.” to 0.5 so that an equal number of R and r alleles will migrate to the
population. Change the “Migration Rate” to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the migration rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (it will be slightly different on each run of the simulation)?
(1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
Keep the “Migration Rate” set to the same value as used in 12, and change the “Migrant ‘R’ Allele pop.” to
something other than 0.5 and run the simulation to between 30 – 40 generations.
a. What did you set the migrant R allele to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (it will be slightly different on each run of the simulation)?
(1/2 points)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1/2 point)
Write a summary statement (~2 sentences) about how migration may or may not cause evolution within a
population. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the “Initial ‘R’ allele prop.” to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the Initial ‘R’ allele prop.” to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0 (this should be quite different from previous runs)? (1/2
point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Write a summary statement (~1 sentence) for how initial allele proportion alone affects evolution. (2
points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Notice that on previous runs, all the genotypes had a relative fitness of 1. Change the relative fitness of one of
the genotypes to a different value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 ‐ 40 generations.
a. Define relative fitness in your own words. (2 points)
b. Which genotype did you choose to change? (1/2 point)
c. What did you set this genotype’s relative fitness to? (1/2 point)
d. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
e. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
f. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
g. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
h. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
i. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 points)
j. Write a summary statement for how relative fitness affects evolution. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the mutation rate of R to r to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. What did you set the mutation rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Write a summary statement for how mutation affects evolution. (2 points)
Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
Change the assortaitive mating rate to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40
generations.
a. Define assortaitive mating rate in your own words. (2 points)
b. What did you set the assortaitive mating rate to? (1/2 point)
c. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
d. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
e. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
f. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
g. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
h. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
i. Write a summary statement for how assortaitive mating rate affects evolution. (2 points)
23. Reset the parameters to the original pre‐sets (you can refresh your browser to do this easily).
24. Change the mortality rate to a value of your choosing and run the simulation to between 30 – 40 generations.
a. What did you set the mortality rate to? (1/2 point)
b. What was the proportion of r at generation 0? (1/2 point)
c. While the simulation was running, what happened to the bar graph? (2 points)
d. What generation did you stop the simulation at? (1/2 point)
e. What was the proportion of r at that generation? (1/2 point)
f. Calculate the % change. Show your work. (2 points)
g. Based on your calculation, is evolution occurring under these parameters? (1 point)
h. Compare and contrast the effects of evolution from the overall mortality rate to the effects of evolution
from relative fitness. (2 points)
25. In this simulation, what parameters led to evolutionary change and what parameters did not? Do your results
match the conclusions that Hardy‐Weinberg came to? Explain using scientific reasoning. (12 points)
Post‐Lab Questions
26. In the simulation, a co‐dominant trait was studied. Why are Hardy‐Weinberg parameters easier to study than
simple Mendalian traits? Explain your reasoning. (3 points)
27. Hitch‐hiker’s thumb is a Mendelian dominant trait. Meaning that people that have HH or Hh have a hitch‐hiker’s
thumb, while people who are hh do not. Approximately 33% of people have hitch hiker’s thumb. What is the
frequency of H and h in the population? Show your work. (8 points)
...