talk about Islamic ethics and morality

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After reading the word doc in the attachment below I want two bodies:

Talk about Islamic ethics and morality then write your impression about article(word doc) and give examples from Quraan that prove your idea.

so Body 1> about Islamic ethics

Body 2> morality


with total of 50 - 70 words

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320568572 Islamic Identity, Ethical Principles and Human Values Article in European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies · June 2017 DOI: 10.26417/ejms.v6i1.p325-336 CITATIONS READS 10 12,936 2 authors: Mansoureh Ebrahimi Zuryati Yasin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 56 PUBLICATIONS 67 CITATIONS 49 PUBLICATIONS 72 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: The 1st ICCTME 2017 View project All content following this page was uploaded by Mansoureh Ebrahimi on 07 April 2018. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. SEE PROFILE ISSN 2414-8385 (Online) ISSN 2414-8377 (Print European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies Sep.-Dec. 2017 Vol.6, Nr.1 Islamic Identity, Ethical Principles and Human Values Mansoureh Ebrahimi (PhD) Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Islamic Civilization, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kamaruzaman Yusoff (PhD) Professor at Faculty of Islamic Civilization, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Abstract Human ethics and values in general and Islamic ethics in particular have been studied as matters of concern since prophet Adam received respect from the angels in form of their prostration and then descended from alJannah (heaven) to earth. In surah al-Isra’, verse 70, Allah says, “And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference.” Hence, human beings were created to do what is good while being granted good things in the world. Islamic ethics address the means whereby mankind ideally accommodates divine guidance as applicable human behavior as well as good conduct and personal morality. This paper investigates the importance, essence and characteristics of Islamic ethics. Although Islamic attributions have significantly contributed to all civilizations, contemporary events raise issues that require a revisit. The authors submit this is because Islam’s Code of Ethics is grossly misunderstood, especially concerning the office of God’s vicegerent. This comprehensive study uses a qualitative approach and cites various verses of al-Quran and portions of the Prophet’s Sunnah to support an analysis that emphasizes Islam’s ethical principles and human values. By widely referencing verses from al-Quran, the authors highlight Islamic ethics and life principles that have had significant effects on civilization as valuable precepts for all aspects of daily living. Keywords: Islamic ethics, characteristics of Islamic ethics, human values Introduction The word ‘ethics’ derives from the Greek word ethos, which means ‘character’ or ‘custom’ (Ahmet and Akdogan, 2012). Human action, behavior, spirit, reasoning and culture comprise moral systems established by mankind. Ethics are referred to by several Arabic terms including ma’ruf (approved), khayr (goodness), haqq (truth and right), birr (righteousness), qist (equity), ‘adl (equilibrium and justice), and taqwa (pious) (al-Hassan et al. 2013). Taken together they describe attributions that define an advanced human society in which high levels of culture, science, industry and government have been attained (John, 1991). The Arabic term for ethics is akhlaq. Its singular form, khulq, is mentioned in As-Shu’ara: 137 and al-Qalam, 68:4. Another Arabic word is adab (manner) is closely related to akhlaq. Although some scholars think both terms have the same meaning there are essential differences that indicate application and source (Abdurezak, 2011). Akhlaq, is a characteristic state of soul that determines human actions based on moral philosophy; adab is the actual practice of moral philosophy. Moreover, Akhlaq describes a broad range of activities characterized as Amal Salih or ‘virtuous deeds’ in al-Quran (Nanji, 1991). According to al-Ghazali, akhlaq defines the science or study of the human soul in terms of qualities and characteristics that are congruent with methods of behavioral application. Al-Ghazali also stated this science comprised two forms: khalq (the physical) and khulq (or akhlaq), which is the manifestation of actions that are rooted in the soul. Al-Ghazali posited that Islamic ethics teach the soul to behave well, do what is good and guard against vices. From his viewpoint, Islamic ethics concern specific religious beliefs with regard to the actual practice of right vs. wrong behavior and not mere understanding (Al-Ghazali, 2014, P. 461). Accordingly, al-Ghazali’s opinion of akhlaq is strongly related to Islamic ethical positions on righteous deeds towards others and towards God through the actually knowing ones’ self, and Almighty Allah, and worldly 325 ISSN 2414-8385 (Online) ISSN 2414-8377 (Print European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies Sep.-Dec. 2017 Vol.6, Nr.1 realities, and the reality of the Hereafter (Al-Ghazali, 2014, P. 11). Similarly, other philosophers such as al-Farabi, Fakhruddin al-Razi, al-Tusi, al-Dawani, etc., mentioned a direct relation between akhlaq and human actions in which characteristics of the human soul determine individual accomplishments. Science and technology have developed rapidly bringing numerous benefits and opportunities (Saifuddeen et al. 2013). Ethics play a crucial role in improving qualitative outcomes that advance several sectors such as surgery, agriculture, astronomy, information technology, military capabilities and numerous fitting innovations. Despite ethical contributions to the increasing growth of science and technology, certain areas lack ethical oversight, which has consequently allowed severe challenges and technological risks to the world at large. According to Latifah et al. ( 2009), most developments in science and technology are pioneered and established by excellent research. However, many participants have disregarded ethical and moral concerns and their efforts have produced unethical outcomes. Nuclear energy and weapons, for example, continue to inflict pain and suffering through atomic radiation (Ahmad, 2016). For truly progressive benefits, the fields of science and technology require ethical constraints, especially since disastrous results from scientific endeavors cannot be considered ethically neutral. Hence, this review of Islamic Ethics should stimulate fascinating new advances in science and technology with respect to applied Islamic Ethics as a guide to safeguard humanity from destruction due to the decline of morals. Applied Ethics ensure civilization is sustained via important components having to do with education, training and practice (Helmut, 1995). Ethical practices also fundamentally strengthen and protect individual and communal rights within the extremely broad Islamic framework. Muslims also believe we are born with a sound moral nature that responds to faith and ethical values (Nikhat, 2014). Regarding the practice of blameless ethical behavior in all circumstances, Islam teaches that a strong relation with God leads to virtuous conduct. Human beings should convey piety and righteousness in life with sincere faith towards others made manifest by good habits that are well defined. Such a predisposition builds civilization by optimizing life ways that successfully benefit society. There is no doubt that Islamic ethics contributed to civilization from the beginning. Presently however, ethical values are neglected and consequently places civilization in danger. Al-Hassan et al. (2013) holds forth that several ethical theories, especially Islamic perspectives, need developing to clarify right vs. wrong activities for the purpose of distinctly preventing unethical matters from arising. This paper thus highlights the contribution of Islamic ethics towards building civilization and the challenges that confront the practice of these ethics in today’s world. The Significance of Islamic Ethics Ethics are important for the development of beneficial Muslim conduct and character as commanded by Allah in al-Quran. “God enjoins justice (and right judgment in all matters), and devotion to doing good, and generosity towards relatives; and He forbids you indecency, wickedness, and vile conduct (all offenses against Religion, life, personal property, chastity, and health of mind and body). He exhorts you (repeatedly) so that you may reflect and be mindful!” (An-Nahl, 16:90) Islamic ethics define value as ‘good character’ shaped by al-Quran’s teachings and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah as well as numerous precedents set by Islamic jurists (Sharia and Fiqh). Thus, Islam presents a complete code for living that is framed by ethical values. Islam’s guidelines for individuals, family, society, political, economics, judiciary and all aspects of modern living are replete with moral instructions. In al-Quran, many terms describe the concept of ethics such as khayr (goodness), maslahat (public interest), birr (righteousness), qist (equity), ‘adl (equilibrium and justice), haqq (truth and right), ma’ruf (known, approved), nahi munkar (avoidance of bad and harmful things), and Taqwa (piety). Moreover, above them all al-Quran commands Muslims to not only do good and but also to forbid evil actions (Zaroug, 1999). As a fundamental requirement for beneficial living, ethics provide the means for deciding purposeful courses of action that otherwise would become random, arbitrary and even aimless (Adibah, 2013). In a social environment that lacks an ethical code of conduct, there is no way to judiciously obtain specific outcomes because there are no established methods to choose, theoretically, from among unlimited objectives. Even within standard ethical milieus one could be successfully prevented from pursuing individual goals. Based on rational ethical standards, humans can more correctly organize and thus prioritize goals and actions to optimize outcomes. Any flaw in requisite ethics also reduces one’s ability to pursue certain endeavors successfully. Thus, morality and integrity are important characteristics that demonstrate a nation’s integrity, even for those with no aspirations for a career in law enforcement. We instinctively know that it is good and moral 326 ISSN 2414-8385 (Online) ISSN 2414-8377 (Print European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies Sep.-Dec. 2017 Vol.6, Nr.1 to act with integrity, but by establishing mutual understanding for the dignity and necessity of providing moral reasoning we become motivated to champion such behavior (Lafollette, 2007). Regardless of one’s position in society, the main reason to lead a moral life of integrity is to construct a better society by treating every member equally according to a uniform code of principles. Other reasons are to secure meaningful employment, business success and reduce levels of communal and personal anxiety. Ultimately, the importance of ethics do not concern philosophical understanding but rather the improvement of how we live (Lafollette, 2007). Being moral enriches our lives and the lives of those around us. It is especially important to live a moral life when young, as it is helpful to exercise and practice ethical concepts before being confronted by more complex issues. Ethics, like most everything else we strive to be good at, requires practice and effort to perfect correct decision making throughout life and pays great dividends when one is faced with serious moral dilemmas (Lafollette, 2007). Islamic ethics also emphasize the need to understand and develop virtue. Knowing that we ought to behave in a certain way but missing an opportunity to exercise moral behavior indicates the need to “sharpen moral vision”. For example, we know that we ought to stay in good physical shape but most of us do not. This illustrates a need to be mindful of an important virtue (in this case, perseverance) that should be developed. Muslims also believe that science and technology must follow a process of evidence, justification and truth. “They (Jews or Christians) say that none will enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. That is their wistfulness (vain desires and fancies). Say: ‘Produce your proof if you are truthful’.” (Al-Baqarah, 2:111) Sources of Islamic Ethics As a set of beliefs and directives for action without limitations of time, space and convention, Islamic ethics initially begin with al-Quran, the revelation God’s word, which is full of beautiful expressions and wisdom; and secondly from the Sunnah’s attributions ascribed to the last messenger of Allah that characterize his ethical practices. Both al-Quran and Sunnah attach great importance to a code of ethics that fundamentally aims to form honest personalities with truly human identities (Kemal, 2010). Prophet Muhammad was sent to preach an essentially moral message as specifically expressed in al-Quran: “We have not sent you (O Muhammad) but as an unequalled mercy for all worlds.” (Al-Anbiya’, 21:107) For this reason, the best sources of Islamic ethics provide ethical concepts that are not only taught in al-Quran but were also embodied by the Prophet’s example; thus providing us with the best model to emulate. Al-Quran states that the best person is a person who upholds moral foundations and invites others to practice these values (Abdurezak, 2011). “Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works righteousness, and says, I am of those who bow in Islam?” (Al-Quran 41:33) Moreover, the exemplary moral life of Prophet Muhammad articulated various applications of Islamic morality and ethics. Hence, ethics, from the Islamic perspective, signify behavioral traits that are regarded as good that are based on al-Quran and Sunnah. Both sources are referenced for laws and principles that guide the Islamic way of life as mentioned in the following verse: “… We have sent down on you the Book as an exposition of everything (that pertains to guidance and error, and to the knowledge of good and evil, and to happiness and misery in both worlds), and guidance and mercy and glad tidings for the Muslims (those who have submitted themselves wholly to God).” (An-Nahl, 16:89) Thus, Islamic ethics not only define ethical behavior but also instruct us in the building of a better way of life for the individual and social order in which he/she dwells. Islam instructs us that Allah created mankind and provided laws and regulations concerning belief and moral instructions suited for mankind’s implementation and governance. The modern age confronts us with many challenges including accelerating developments in science and technology. As Islam is a complete dynamic and holistic religion, everything that happens can definitely be handled by Islamic ethics with proper guidance from alQuran and Sunnah and other Islamic sources. Islamic ethics teach us how to conduct ourselves in a goodly manner and avoid wrong doing (Brown, 1999). Thus, Islamic ethics offer optimized guidelines to govern modern science and technology with assure beneficial outcomes for everybody. 327 ISSN 2414-8385 (Online) ISSN 2414-8377 (Print European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies Sep.-Dec. 2017 Vol.6, Nr.1 In addition, Islamic law depends on two further sources, Ijma’ and Qiyas (Huda, 2016). Ijma’ is a consensus of opinion offered by ulema’ or scholars within a community in the absence of a specific legal ruling for a certain situation. Qiyas occurs when people attempt to obtain a legal ruling that, unfortunately, has not been clearly addressed in other sources. Therefore, judges may use analogy, reasoning and legal precedent to decide new case law (Huda, 2016). In al-Quran, God revealed the eternal message of Islam as guidance for personal life as well as social life. The Sunnah completes these guiding principles with the Prophet’s example, interpretation and explication so that Islamic law is practiced with required precedent (Sikandar, 2005). In Islam, law and morality cannot be separated as both are intermixed and righteous deeds are established out of necessity once the religion is firmly believed. Islam is a perfect combination of faith (iman) and practice (amal) in which both elements represent law and morality, as mentioned in Shariah law and ordained by God. Literally al-Quran mentions that Muslims must take care of mental attitude by not cheating or exploiting the trust of others and by avoiding injustice and the distortion of rights as well as disloyalty. “If any person is so false, He shall, on the Day of Judgment, restore what he misappropriated; then shall every soul receive its due, - whatever it earned, - and none shall be dealt with unjustly.” (Al-Quran 3:161) Another verse promotes the practice of good moral behavior by expressing kindness, generosity, self-discipline and constantly forgiving the mistakes of others. “Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity; who restrain anger, and pardon (all) men; -for Allah loves those who are virtuous, through such actions, that is to say, He will reward them.” (Al-Quran 3:134) Human Characteristics of Islamic Ethics Undoubtedly, Islamic ethics improve human relations and shield civilizational constructs with metaphysical ramparts of decency and order. The several characteristics of Islamic ethics are exemplified in the message of al-Quran as revealed to Prophet Muhammad and as inscribed in his Sunnah (Nanji, 1991). Islamic ethics apply to various aspects of life including governance, business and the management of personal matters. Prophet Muhammad, who possessed perfect ethics, once said, “I was sent to perfect good morals” (Al-Sahihah, 2010). His mission was to imprint human hearts with impeccable morals that would guide us with exemplary conduct towards each other. Major characteristics of Islamic ethics include bravery, consideration, experience, fairness, justice, honesty and the pursuit of knowledge. Each ethic is discussed in detail below, along with examples and reference to al-Quran and Sunnah. 4.1 Bravery Courage is required for those working in the realms of Science and Technology. A courageous soul will survive the incredibly wild growth of science and technology (Rawls, 1999) and subsequent influences on the development of modern Muslims life ways. Scientific activity requires much effort and risk taking, including failures and even harm when one is striving to achieve desirable outcomes. Hence, a brave, courageous attitude helps scientists overcome confrontations with numerous challenges. The brave character is mentioned numerous times in al-Quran with respect to protecting Muslim property. Muhammad set an excellent example of noble manners and merits, including courage. Al-Quran presents the Prophet as the best of moral role models: “You are surely of a sublime character, and do act by a sublime pattern of conduct” (Al-Qalam, 68:4). His valor was a byword among his contemporaries because he gallantly stood against the greatest odds while enduring painful injuries and still victoriously fought on to overcome and afterwards show mercy to stone-hearted ignorant Arabian infidels (Emara, 2011). He endured pain and sufferings for thirteen long years in Mecca while inviting people to Islam, without ever being intimidated by the sheer force, numbers or arrogance of the Jahiliyya. The Prophet never succumbed to fear or threats in extremely difficult situations and crises. He put his full trust in Allah and depended on Him alone (Syed, 2010). He accepted the decrees of his Lord, was satisfied with God’s support, and trusted God’s promise. Such bravery also applies to those working in science and technology who should be courageous enough to stand up and protect knowledge from unethical applicati ...
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