Determining Caloric Expenditure through Indirect Calorimetry

Health Medical

ashford university

Question Description

I need help with exercise sceince lab testing

For this assignment, you will evaluate the breakdown in energy expenditure from a resting energy expenditure (REE) test and a graded steady-state sub-maximal exercise test.

Use the exported data from the demonstration in lab to create a spreadsheet file to analyze the data.

For further explanation on how to set-up and present this information refer to this document KIN636Week3AssignmentEE-2020.docx (attache)

Here is a sample spreadsheet (attached: energy expenditure...) for steady-state exercise and here is the Subject-resting2021-2.xlsx (REE) (attached) sheet to create your analysis and answer the questions.

Submit your spreadsheet which will include the data analysis, charts, and answers to questions.

to help you understand the material: use the POWERpoint, and the referenced article in the PowerPoint.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

KIN 6036 Clinical Exercise Testing Week 3 Reminders ● Group project ○ choose group and set-up on Canvas (by Feb 2nd) ○ week 4-5 lab (pre-screen, CPET, clinical summary, recommendations) ● Midcourse evaluation (Feb 3rd thru the 9th) Review Review Review Methods for Estimating Intensity Intensity %HRR or %VO2R %HRmax %VO2Max Based on Threshold RPE 6-20 Very light <30 <57 <37 <10 Light 30-39 57-63 37-44 10-11 VT1 Moderate 40-59 64-75 45-63 Vigorous 60-89 76-95 64-90 Near Max and Max >89 >95 >90 12-13 VT2 14-17 >17 Pescatello, L. S., ACSM Guidelines, 2014 Body Composition Assessment Methods & Health Related Risks ● Assessing body weight (BW) versus assessing body composition (BC) ○ Benefits of BC: ■ assess body fatness (%fat) and ■ assess body leanness (lean mass) ■ identify inadequate fat storage in patients ■ monitor changes in weight loss “quality” and effects of interventions or medical therapies ○ Drawbacks of BC ■ measurement devices can be unreliable and/or inaccurate ■ there are technician errors ■ patient or client can be confused by the measure Overweight & Obesity Defined “...abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health” (Ehrman, J. K., 2013) Being overweight is associated with the increased risk to develop: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● heart disease hypertension type 2 diabetes mellitus gallstones breathing problems musculoskeletal problems certain forms of cancer (National Institutes of Health, 2012) Body Types Not all people will respond to diet & exercise the same Ectomorphs – smaller bones & thinner limbs… tend to be thyroid and Sympathetic NS dominant and have a higher sensitivity to catacholamines. More able to tolerate high carbohydrate diet. Tolerate higher carbohydrate diets better. Mesomorph – medium sized bones and more muscular… tend to be testosterone and growth hormone dominant. Do well with mixed diet. Endomorph – large sized bones and have higher fat and overall body mass… tend toward Parasympathetic NS dominant. Do better on lower carb diets. John Berardi, PhD, 2018 Overweight & Obesity And Typical Results from the CPET What ventilatory responses might we expect to see from the obese patient/client ● ● ● ● ● ● Slightly low or normal VO2Max in ml/min Low VO2Max in ml/kg/min Low HR reserve High VE reserve AT (VT2) only at 40-50% of predicted VO2Max SPo2 may be low at rest – normal during exercise Kinnear and Blakely, 2014 Dieting Research Weight Loss Success “... research has repeatedly shown that being able to stick with a dietary approach is the only factor strongly associated with weight loss, regardless of dietary ideology or approach used (e.g., Paleo, low-carb, low-fat, etc.)” (Johnston, et al. 2014) Body Composition Desired Body Weight Determinations 1. 2. 3. 4. Determine % body fat Fat mass = BW x (%fat/100) Fat free mass = BW - Fat mass Desired weight = FFM/[1-(desired % body fat/100) Example: 1. 31% body fat, BW=213 lb; Desired %BF = 25% 2. Fat mass = 213 x 0.31= 66.03 lbs 3. FFM = 213 - 66.03 = 146.97 lbs 4. Desired weight a. 146.79/(1-0.25) = 146.97/0.75 = 195.96 Skinner, J.S. PH.D. 2015 Body Composition Obesity and the CPET How to determine if an Obese Individual’s functional capacity is abnormal or normal? Predicted VO2Max Formula Adjustment Relative = Predicted VO2max ml/kg/min = 50 – (0.4 x age in years) Absolute = His predicted VO2max in ml/min = _____________ (hint: multiply relative VO2 value above by his ideal weight in kilograms) Now we can determine if his absolute VO2Max <80% of the predicted absolute VO2max. Body Composition Obesity and the CPET - Example Relative = Predicted VO2max ml/kg/min = 50 – (0.4 x age = 54) = 28.4 Absolute = His predicted VO2max in ml/min = 28.4 x 196/2.2 = 2,530 ml/min or 2.53 liters/min If his actual VO2Max in L/min it 2.31 Take 2.31 / 2.53 = .913 or 91% Now we can determine if his absolute VO2Max <80% of the predicted absolute VO2max. Body Composition Measurement Devices ● Two compartment (fat mass and fat free mass) ○ skinfold testing ■ 3-site, 4-site, 7 site ○ hydrodensitometry (hydrostatic weighing) ■ body volume from water displacement ○ air displacement plethysmography (Bod pod) ■ body volume from air displacement ○ bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) ○ infrared interactance ● Other Techniques ○ computed tomography (CT) ○ dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan) Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Skinfold Measurement Body Composition (skinfolds) ● ● ● ● Measures the double thickness of skin and subcutaneous fat Assumptions ○ predicts non-subcutaneous fat (>50% fat is subcutaneous) ○ sites chosen represent thickness body wide ○ compressibility of fat is similar between individuals ○ skin thickness is negligible Limitations ○ technique error ○ skin thickness affected by exercise, dehydration, edema ○ poorly predicts visceral fat Multiple sites & equations ○ sum of skinfolds are inserted into appropriate regression equation to determine body density ○ density to body fat% ■ Siri: %fat=(495/BD)-450 ■ Brozek: %fat=(457/BD)-414 Pescatello, L. S., PhD , ACSM Guidelines, 2015 Hydrodensiometry Body Composition (underwater weighing) ● ● ● Measure body volume (BV) from loss of weight in water ○ Archimedes’ principle states when a body is immersed in water it is buoyed by a counterforce equal to the weight of water displaced. ○ weight in air - weight in water = water displaced = BV ○ body density = BW/BV ○ density to body fat% ■ Siri: %fat=(495/BD)-450 ■ Brozek: %fat=(457/BD)-414 Assumptions ○ density of fat and lean mass are constant ■ bone, muscle, and hydration status Limitation ○ residual volume determinations ○ who can be tested ○ cost Pescatello, L. S., PhD , ○ portability ACSM Guidelines, 2015 Body Plethysmography Body Composition (Bod Pod) ● Measure body volume (BV) from air displacement ○ Inject known volume of air into closed chamber ■ large body volume displaces air volume in chamber ■ results in larger increase in pressure with injection ● Advantages over hydro testing ○ more willing participants ○ more precise measurements ○ RV not a concern ● Limitation ○ cost ○ assumption of constant density of fat-free and fat mass Pescatello, L. S., PhD , ACSM Guidelines, 2015 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Body Composition(BIA) ● ● ● Measures a fairly reliable estimate of total body water - most conditions ○ accuracy similar to skinfolds (+3.5%) Basic Theory ○ measure impedance by body tissues to the flow of a small alternating electrical current ○ impedance is a function of ■ electrical resistance of tissue ■ electrical storage of tissue (reactance) ○ Fat = less water more impedance, Muscle = more water Limitations ○ very sensitive to changes in body water ■ caffeine, dehydration, exercise, edema, fasting ○ sensitive to body temperature ■ avoid exercise ○ sensitive to placement of electrodes (conduction) Pescatello, L. S., PhD , ACSM Guidelines, 2015 Energy in Balance Terminology ● Positive energy balance = overweight and obesity ○ food consumed > energy expended ● Negative energy balance = weight loss ○ energy expended > food consumed ● Energy Balance = energy intake is equal to expenditure Rosenbaum and Liebel, 2010 The Metabolic Effect Weight Management through Energy Imbalance Task is to find an effective balance between decreasing energy intake and increasing expenditure to lose or control weight Factors affecting this capability include: ● genetic influence (favors energy conservation for survival) ● environmental (encourages sedentary lifestyle and easy access to food) Rosenbaum and Liebel, 2010 Components of Expenditure Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) Thermic Effect (exercise & NEAT) Thermic Effect (food) RMR genetics activity hormones organ size Len Kravitz, PhD., 2010 Metabolic Rate BMR = Basal metabolic rate ● calorie burn rate in darkened room, post 8 hours sleep, 12 hours fasted and reclined RMR = Resting metabolic rate ● RMR measurements measured under less restricted conditions than BMR that do not require the subject spend the night sleeping in the test facility prior to testing REE = Resting energy expenditure ● synonymous with RMR REE is described in terms of kcals expended per 24 hours Skinner, J. S., PH.D. (2015) Energy Expenditure Measurement ● Direct Calorimetry – hermetically sealed isolation chamber to measure energy burned via heat given off. Very expensive and rarely used. (margin of error = up to 3.3%) ● Double Labelled Water Method – test subjects drink water containing 2 medical isotopes, which can be tracked by sampling water lost through urine, feces, and sweat, & CO2 from breathing. Physiological assumptions made and only accurate with minimal CHO intake. (margin of error = 10.2%) ● Indirect Calorimetry – Gas exchange used to estimate energy expenditure. Most calorie estimates are made with this method (margin of error = up to 45%) Simonson DC, DeFronzo RA. Indirect calorimetry: methodological and interpretative problems. Am J Physiol. 1990 Mar;258(3 Pt 1):E399-412. Review. Resting Metabolic Rate Factors affecting expenditure rate ● Body composition (25-30% variation) ○ higher lean mass = higher RMR ● Obese people have higher absolute RMR the lean people ● Strength training can increase lean mass but the impact on RMR is generally minimal in the short term. Long term may increase by up to 7% ● Endurance training does not increase RMR significantly in the short term (6 week) but may increase RMR over long term (16-months study) ● Diet only interventions can suppress RMR up to 20% ● Eating more frequently will increase thermic effect of food (up to 10% of TEE) NSCA’s Guide to Tests and Assessments, 2012 Len Kravitz, PhD., 2010 Obesity Unhealthy Trend Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Resting Metabolic Rate Best metabolic equations and calculations Mifflin-St Jeor Male: RMR = 10 x (wt kg) + 6.25 x (ht cm) - 5 x (age) + 5 Fem: RMR = 10 x (wt kg) = 6.25 x (ht cm) - 5 x (age) - 161 Harris-Benedict Male: RMR = 66.47 + 13.75 x (wt kg) + 5 x (ht cm) - 6.75 x (age) Fem: RMR = 665 + 9.6 x (wt kg) + 1.8 (ht cm) - 4.7 x (age) Indirect Calorimetry (Metabolic analyzer) Approximately 5 kcals are consumed for every liter of oxygen VO2 L/min x 5 = kcal/min) x 60 min x 24 hrs = REE NSCA’s Guide to Tests and Assessments, 2012 Len Kravitz, PhD., 2010 Treating Obesity Exercise & Weight Loss ● Cardio = 15-30% ↑VO2 (sometimes as much at 50-100%) ● Muscle Strength = training will enhance muscle strength but does not affect the amount of weight loss ● Muscle Endurance = improvement with training ● Flexibility = training will increase ROM but may be limited by excessive fat tissue. Effect on body composition: ● exercise alone does not result in significant reductions in weight ● 700 kcals expended will reduce weight ● exercise will help to preserve lean mass during weight loss Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Body Weight Clinical Classifications Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Body Composition Norms Classification Women (% fat) Men (% fat) Essential fat 10-13% 2-5% Athletes 14-20% 6-13% Fitness 21-24% 14-17% Average 25-31% 18-24% Obese 32% and higher 25% and higher Skinner, J.S. PH.D. 2015 BMI Limitations of this measurement BMI = Weight (kg) / Height2 (m) or Weight (lb) X 703 Height2 (in) Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Exercise Rx Obesity and Weight Loss ● Cardiorespiratory Frequency > 5 day per week to maximize caloric expenditure Intensity 40-59% HRR or VO2R, RPE 12-13 Progression to > 59% HRR or VO2R Time 30-60 minutes/day (>250-300 min/week) Can perform 10 minute bouts to accumulate to 30-60 m Type Rhythmic, large muscle group activities, such as: walking, jogging, cycling swimming Progression should be individualized depending on tolerance ● Strength (Start) Freq. Intensity Type Reps Sets Pattern Prog. 2-3/wk 60-70% 1RM Resist 10-15 2-4 2-3’ rest gradual Pescatello, L. S., PhD , ACSM Guidelines, 2015 Treating Obesity Medications & Weight Loss Ehrman & Gordon, 2014 Reference List Ehrman, J. K., Gordon, P. M., Visich, P. S., & Keteyian, S. J. (2013). Clinical exercise physiology (3rd ed.). National Institutes of Health. (2012). Retrieved from www.nhibi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/obe/obewhatare.html Pescatello, L. S., PhD (Ed.). (2014). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Wolter Kluwer / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Rosenbaum, M., & Leibel, R. L. (2010). Adaptive thermogenesis in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord International Journal of Obesity, 34. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.184 Skinner, J. S., PH.D. (2015). ACE Medical Exercise Specialist Manual. Thompson, W. R., Gordon, N. F., & Pescatello, L. S. (2010). ACSM's resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Selected Flowmeter0-800 Lpm STPD to BTPS 1.214643 Sample Resting Energy Expenditure test Age 24 Ht 177 Wt 63.6 Base Values for Sampling Base O2 20.94 % Base CO2 0.04 % cm kg female Measured O221.01798 % ========== . VO2 STPD L/min TIME min ---------0.26 0.53 0.77 1.05 1.31 1.54 1.81 2.07 2.25 2.51 2.75 3.01 3.27 3.52 3.76 4.04 4.26 4.56 4.80 5.01 5.25 5.62 5.78 6.05 6.26 6.53 6.78 7.01 7.29 7.52 7.80 8.01 8.27 8.50 8.84 0.271251 0.224853 0.250619 0.233208 0.233443 0.2532 0.304602 0.275426 0.236123 0.264483 0.286897 0.272262 0.235025 0.255065 0.25246 0.271452 0.269864 0.266237 0.283697 0.302379 0.272101 0.25995 0.241642 0.261106 0.255952 0.296575 0.373779 0.294623 0.229548 0.285602 0.22251 0.167336 0.196707 0.227194 0.213236 . VO2/kg STPD ml/kg/m 3.97835 3.297837 3.67575 3.420382 3.423823 3.713593 4.46749 4.039578 3.463142 3.879079 4.207822 3.993173 3.447028 3.740954 3.702752 3.98129 3.95801 3.904814 4.160892 4.434896 3.990822 3.812595 3.54408 3.829558 3.753961 4.34977 5.482097 4.321141 3.366705 4.188836 3.263477 2.454268 2.885035 3.332185 3.127468 METS 1.136671 0.942239 1.050214 0.977252 0.978235 1.061027 1.276426 1.154165 0.989469 1.108308 1.202235 1.140907 0.984865 1.068844 1.057929 1.137511 1.13086 1.115661 1.188826 1.267113 1.140235 1.089313 1.012594 1.094159 1.07256 1.242791 1.566314 1.234612 0.961916 1.19681 0.932422 0.701219 0.824296 0.952053 0.893562 . VCO2 STPD L/min 0.181335 0.150372 0.166437 0.154168 0.15418 0.164806 0.195929 0.169475 0.146946 0.16937 0.185467 0.18177 0.153929 0.167506 0.169727 0.187099 0.189156 0.185569 0.198698 0.210477 0.18795 0.175018 0.167221 0.185354 0.182331 0.205844 0.263355 0.205046 0.16238 0.20016 0.163413 0.118594 0.139522 0.165109 0.15129 . VE BTPS L/min 17.02333 12.18549 14.04976 13.97661 12.86576 13.95206 15.4432 15.91387 12.57696 13.85514 16.45694 13.61395 13.42549 15.00465 14.0014 15.03928 14.66563 14.63256 14.80486 15.69446 14.04868 15.53634 13.89637 14.07511 13.89898 16.86963 17.30069 15.23721 12.33645 18.51045 12.53672 11.2068 13.87047 14.1011 13.60347 RQ 0.668513 0.66876 0.664105 0.661077 0.660464 0.650895 0.643232 0.615319 0.622329 0.640383 0.64646 0.667628 0.65495 0.656718 0.672293 0.689252 0.700928 0.697005 0.700387 0.69607 0.690736 0.673278 0.692019 0.709878 0.712365 0.694072 0.704572 0.695961 0.707388 0.700833 0.734409 0.708718 0.709287 0.726728 0.709493 RR HR BPM bpm 15.5743 14.61632 16.48352 14.28571 15.67603 17.16738 18.67995 11.29235 11.25704 15.625 12.29508 15.78947 15.14196 11.92053 12.69393 14.02689 13.52367 13.64412 16.86578 13.69863 16.83029 13.72998 12.5523 14.73297 14.377 14.51906 20.14775 13.09091 14.20959 13.23529 14.03509 14.49275 11.63542 12.8388 8.797653 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 9.02 9.33 9.53 9.76 10.01 10.26 10.46 Max VO2 0.254177 0.225551 0.256839 0.305216 0.281161 0.25353 0.300499 3.727929 3.308077 3.766979 4.476496 4.123689 3.718443 4.407312 0.373779 L/min Exercise Time 0:00.00 Ve/Vco2 Slope 46.2 Vo2/Work Rate Slope 0.0(ml/min/W) Summary 1.065122 0.945165 1.07628 1.278999 1.178197 1.062412 1.259232 0.182383 0.157854 0.178588 0.210108 0.195343 0.173035 0.205136 13.01168 12.93013 14.92998 17.17557 12.71624 13.00953 15.95309 0.717542 0.699858 0.69533 0.688393 0.694773 0.682503 0.682653 5.482097 ml/kg/min 1.566314 METS 11.48325 12.7321 14.80263 13.18681 19.72387 16.30435 19.91701 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 VO2 L/min Measured CO2 0.112823 % 0.4 0.35 TM SPD mph TM GRD %Grd 0.3 0.25 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Instructions: copy the data from the original data sheet and paste it into this sheet. Make sure you only copy the actual numbers from the data sheet, do not copy the column headers. Do not change anything in the RER-KCAL Table Tab TIME 3.281833 3.5195 3.819834 4.050834 4.350501 4.556167 4.750668 5.011001 5.252168 5.507168 5.811834 7.545001 7.763834 8.024 8.297166 8.551999 8.808499 9.023166 9.316499 9.518498 9.761998 10.00283 13.04683 13.30616 13.50866 13.77183 14.03149 14.29583 14.52066 14.78199 15.03699 15.25433 15.53016 17.7795 18.01517 18.262 18.52966 18.75383 19.005 19.261 19.5025 19.76184 VO2 VO2 ml/kg METS VCO2 VE RER RR HR 1.317979 18.35160255 5.24331522 1.018161 26.5026 0.77252 10.8761 143 1.152323 16.04499626 4.584284782 0.946378 24.9383 0.82128 12.6227 199 1.152691 16.05012131 4.585749149 0.9838 26.0839 0.85348 16.6482 137 0.981899 13.67200947 3.906288385 0.851928 23.1578 0.86763 21.645 188 1.05964 14.75447464 4.215564251 0.911501 25.2236 0.8602 13.3482 141.5 1.037045 14.43986034 4.125674248 0.938279 25.9095 0.90476 14.5867 144 1.107612 15.42244339 4.406412601 0.980001 26.6764 0.88479 20.5656 140.5 0.744929 10.37243557 2.963552952 0.652847 18.4296 0.87639 23.0474 140.5 1.24592 17.34824753 4.956642151 1.072725 30.7365 0.86099 20.7325 142 1.1378 15.84277916 4.526508331 0.937453 26.1032 0.82392 15.6863 136.5 0.798673 11.12076759 3.177362204 0.688608 19.3586 0.86219 16.4114 136 1.196785 16.66409492 4.76116991 1.004026 27.1448 0.83894 17.5439 154 0.546169 7.604879379 2.172822714 0.4816 13.1363 0.88178 31.9878 153 1.39922 19.48280525 5.566515923 1.153355 31.692 0.82428 26.9058 146 1.139428 15.86545753 4.532988071 0.902223 23.8373 0.79182 21.9646 143 0.876068 12.19841766 3.485262156 0.717356 18.4725 0.81884 19.6207 133 1.511234 21.04250336 6.012143612 1.269106 32.0296 0.83978 19.4932 143 1.255818 17.48607826 4.996022224 1.17131 32.1521 0.93271 18.6335 152.5 0.960178 13.36957073 3.819877386 0.903645 25.6681 0.94112 13.6364 177 1.183578 16.480196 4.708627224 0.994131 27.0018 0.83994 14.8515 195 1.278828 17.80646706 5.087562084 1.067014 28.2455 0.83437 16.4271 187 1.487268 20.70879555 5.916798592 1.268888 34.1069 0.85317 20.7612 158 1.237424 17.22994995 4.922842979 1.289226 34.8369 1.04186 18.53 169 1.357829 18.9064846 5.401852608 1.346687 35.9103 0.99179 26.9923 146 1.852949 25.80055428 7.3715868 1.627221 40.3562 0.87818 14.8148 173 1.087938 15.14850235 4.328143597 1.076391 28.3932 0.98939 11.3996 173 1.902251 26.48703575 7.567724705 1.70105 42.7746 0.89423 15.4044 128.5 1.620482 22.56367302 6.446763515 1.563755 40.9795 0.96499 15.1324 171 1.220995 17.00119209 4.857483387 1.188391 31.1791 0.9733 17.791 195 1.897827 26.42543221 7.550123692 1.734153 44.8151 0.91376 22.9592 218 1.86377 25.95122337 7.414635181 1.797965 48.5412 0.96469 23.5294 216.5 1.449216 20.17895889 5.765416622 1.587927 44.9058 1.09571 18.4049 189.5 1.258974 17.53001976 5.00857687 1.285448 34.8053 1.02103 18.1269 217 1.891454 26.33669662 7.52477026 2.015244 58.373 1.06545 26.3323 197 1.556339 21.67053795 6.191582203 1.849987 57.2446 1.18868 25.4597 196 1.709611 23.80470467 6.801344395 1.893646 55.9934 1.10765 28.3592 19 ...
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

This question has not been answered.

Create a free account to get help with this and any other question!

Similar Questions
Related Tags