Answer the questions in at least 350 words.

Humanities

History

grossmont and cuyamaca college

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Please read the file I have attached down below and briefly answer the questions I have provided in at least 350 wordsQuplease make sure you included quotes from the chapter to support your answers and cite material. Please please use your own words And make sure you come u with answers from the chapter. I am looking for at least 350 words for your main entry.

Qestions:

As with Africa and India, some areas also experienced the long arm of European imperialism. Please discuss the Opium Wars. What were they, when did they happen, and why? What were the consequences of the Opium Wars for China?

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Moving Toward a Global Market Since ancient times, the peoples of Europe, Asia, and Africa have exchanged luxury goods and other commodities. This interaction led to the development of trade networks such as the ​Silk Road between China and the Levant. Trade networks in turn allowed for cultural interaction between the regions as the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam indicates. Despite economic and cultural exchange, the histories of the regions connected by trade networks were largely separate. The situation began to change in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. After nearly 100 years of demographic, economic, social, political, and religious crises – collectively known in European history as the “crisis of feudalism” – the various Eurasian civilizations slowly began to recover starting in the fifteenth century. Territorial expansion was a crucial aspect of their recovery, and the growth of gunpowder empires at this time led to the political integration of many areas of Eurasia. The ​Ottoman Empire expanded into the Mediterranean and the Balkans; the ​Mogul Empire was establishing itself in India and unifying the sub-continent; and China under the ​Manchus expanded into Xinjiang. European maritime expansion, however, had the most profound, long-term effect on the world. Europe was a marginal area in the Middle Ages, consisting of many small, warring kingdoms. It was not as wealthy as the other Eurasian civilizations. Yet, Europeans had an insatiable demand for the products of Asia and Africa, and the medieval trade networks failed to satisfy their desires. Consequently, Europeans sought direct access to African and Asian markets through transoceanic exploration. In the process, they discovered not only maritime routes to sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, but also to North and South America. Slowly, a new global market linking Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas emerged. European control over the transoceanic trade networks allowed Europeans to move from being at the margins of the world economy to being at its center. This chapter examines European expansion and the development of new trade networks in the first global age. This expansion transformed the world, connecting regions that had previously had limited or no contact with each other, thereby creating a new global economy. In some places, European explorers, merchants, and colonists tapped into existing markets and trade networks, but in other places their arrival disrupted existing networks or required the development of new marketplaces and new trade goods. In time, these new trade networks favored European merchants and undergirded European economic preeminence. Transoceanic expansion also led to intercontinental migration, most notably from Europe and Africa to the Americas. Migration led to new cultural syntheses and cultural tensions; it also left the painful legacy of slavery. Finally, transoceanic expansion and trade corresponded with internal reforms within Europe that led to the emergence of stronger European states, which dominated the world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This chapter highlights the role of Europeans, particularly the Portuguese and Spaniards, in the creation of a global market. This Euro-centric perspective should not eclipse the fact that without the cooperation and partnership of Africans, Asians, and Native Americans, many European achievements would have been impossible. Non-Europeans were active participants in the encounter that brought four continents together. African and Asian elites, for instance, often dealt with Europeans from a position of power, and they expected to benefit from the exchange. Moreover, prior to 1700, there were relatively few Europeans in Asia and Africa. So Europeans had little impact on those societies. Even in the Americas where the arrival of Europeans did radically change social relations, Native Americans were able to limit Spanish authority and retain significant autonomy in their communities. Portuguese Maritime Empire It was from Portuguese shores that European explorers initially set sail. Several factors explain why Portugal led the way in transoceanic exploration. First, Portugal had achieved greater political stability than larger, more important European kingdoms in the fifteenth century. Second, the Portuguese were skilled shipbuilders and had extensive knowledge of new navigational tools (such as the compass, the astrolabe​, and ​portolan charts​). Third, the geographical location of Portugal was ideal to explore the coast of Africa and to take advantage of the Atlantic trade winds and currents. Portuguese mastery of the prevailing winds, for instance, allowed for safer and faster voyages. Voyages of exploration would have been impossible without good ships, and the Portuguese had the perfect vessel – the ​caravela or ​caravel – for long-distance exploration by the early 1400s. In 1456, a Venetian sailor called the caravels, “The best ships that sailed the seas.” The average caravel weighed 50 tons, and was about 70 feet in length and about 25 feet in beam. The wide hull displaced little water, and the use of sternpost rudders (i.e., a rudder fixed to the stern-board of the keel, instead of the oar-like lateral rudder) allowed for better steering. The ships typically had two or three masts, and the use of both lateen and square sails allowed sailors to take advantage of a wider range of wind conditions than the use of a single lateen or square sail would have allowed. The use of lateen sails, for instance, meant caravels needed to tack less often in contrary winds, guaranteeing a speedier return, which made sailors more willing to risk longer outward voyages. Wind propulsion also meant that caravels required fewer sailors than galleys, and the small crew size – typically twenty sailors – made it possible for many more ships to ply unknown waters. The caravel’s shallow draft also reduced the chances of the ship running aground in unknown waters and made it easier for the crew to beach the vessel for repairs. Finally, caravels cost less to operate than larger vessels, so voyages of exploration could easily pay for themselves. To keep their bearings in the open sea, sailors looked to the heavens, using the sun, moon, stars, and constellations to mark their positions. Some stellar observations could be made with the naked eye, but instruments such as the astrolabe, the cross-staff​, and ​the quadrant allowed navigators to calculate their latitude, or north-south position, more accurately. The North Star was the primary reference point for navigators in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Southern Cross, which the Portuguese identified around 1500, for the Southern Hemisphere. Navigators could not calculate their longitude (east-west position), however, until the English developed an accurate sea clock in the mid-eighteenth century. The compass, which had come to Europe from China via the Arabs in the thirteenth century, compensated somewhat for navigators’ inability to calculate their precise coordinates by allowing them to maintain their course, even in cloudy weather, with only rough latitudinal coordinates. In addition to the astrolabe and compass, a navigator needed charts and tables to plot his course over the open sea. The most famous charts were the portolan charts (​portolanos)​ , with their “wind rose,” which indicated the orientation of the winds. Portolan charts also included compass directions for sailing from one port to another. They had no universal system of coordinates though, and no two charts were alike. Tables on the declinations of the heavenly bodies allowed navigators to match their latitude in the open sea to the latitude of known landmasses. The Portuguese added significantly to this knowledge by calculating the latitude of places on the African coast for future charts and tables. Despite improvements, navigation was still rather rudimentary. For instance, navigators relied on “​dead reckoning​” or estimating their east-west position by using sand clocks and observing the speed of the hull to calculate the distance traveled from a previously known position. Sailors were suspicious of the new navigational tools as well. Many sailors believed that the compass was an occult instrument, and early navigators consequently tried to hide their instruments. Navigators and captains, for their part, believed that onions and garlic could counteract the effects of a magnet and therefore barred sailors from bringing those vegetables on board. The participants in the voyages of discovery were still men of their times, with medieval tools and attitudes, even as their exploits on the high seas helped to move the world into modernity. Not only did it have the best ships and navigational techniques for overseas expansion, Portugal had the will to expand. The Portuguese population recovered sooner from the ​Black Death than other European populations, and by the fifteenth century, the growing population provided the manpower to carry out exploration. There was also wide support in Portuguese society for territorial expansion and exploration. Expansion offered the economically stricken aristocracy leadership opportunities as well as financial opportunities. The growing merchant class (​bourgeoisie​) saw exploration as a way to expand markets and to accumulate capital. The lower classes hoped to escape from dire economic straits and feudal rule at home. For the crown, overseas expansion minimized internal disorders by preventing societal pressures from building up. Portuguese expansion initially focused on Morocco. In 1415, Portugal captured the strategic city of Ceuta, and in subsequent years it captured other strategic points along the Moroccan coast. In many ways, the push into Africa was a continuation of the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from Islam. The spirit of crusade continued to motivate the Portuguese until the tragic death of ​King Sebastian and most of his army at the Battle of Alcazar el Kebir (1578) in Morocco. Expansion into Morocco also had a commercial aspect. The Portuguese hoped to reap financial rewards by controlling various North African termini of the sub-Saharan gold trade. The medieval ideas of crusade, which were foremost in the minds of Portuguese elites, such as ​Prince Henry “the Navigator” (d.1460), were often at odds with the commercial aspects of Atlantic exploration and expansion. The task of mapping the African coast was slow and arduous. Cape Bojador in the present-day Western Sahara was the first navigational obstacle. Strong northerly winds deterred many sailors from venturing beyond that cape, fearing that they would be unable to return. Finally, in 1434, an expedition led by ​Gil Eannes sailed beyond Cape Bojador and returned. Within the next 30 years, the Portuguese had reached Sierra Leone. Along the way, they established profitable trading posts (​feitorias)​ such as Arguin off the coast of present-day Mauritania. The prospect of profits motivated further sailors to undertake voyages and investors to finance them. In 1468, Fernão Gomes secured from the crown a five-year trade monopoly with coastal Africa beyond Arguin. All he had to do was pay the crown 500 ​crusados a year and discover 320 miles of coastline (i.e., 100 leagues) a year. Gomes profited handsomely from this contract. In 1471, he had reached the Gulf of Guinea and gained access to the gold producing regions in West Africa. The shoreline of the Gulf of Guinea initially led the Portuguese to believe that they had found the all sea route to India. On his last voyage, however, Gomes discovered that the coast turned suddenly south at Fernando Po Island. He sailed until Cape Santa Caterina before returning home. After Gomes’s contract expired, Portuguese exploration slowed down until the reign of ​King João II or John II (1481 – 1495). João II created a comprehensive plan to reach India and gave Portuguese exploration a unity that it had previously lacked. In 1482, he built the first European fort in sub-Saharan Africa, São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine), commonly called ​Elmina​, to protect Portuguese trading interests near the Volta and Niger deltas from other Europeans. Elmina was situated on the coast of present-day Ghana. The king also sent ​Diogo Cão to explore the coast south of Cape Santa Caterina and gave Cão giant stone crosses (called ​padrãos)​ to mark his most important landfalls. Between 1482 and 1486, Cão charted the coast to Cape Cross on the coast of present-day Namibia, where he died. He set up his first padrão at the mouth of the Zaire River, and his fourth marks his resting place at Cape Cross. All future Portuguese explorers erected padrãos at key places along the African coast. In 1487, João sent ​Bartolomeu Dias to continue the search for a seaway to India. Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope, the tip of Africa, in 1488. His men’s refusal to go further forced Dias to return home. That same year, João sent two emissaries by land to Ethiopia (believed to be the kingdom of the mythical ​Prester John​) and India to gather strategic information about potential Christian allies in the conflict with Islam and commercial information on trade routes, trade sources, and places for settlement. The Portuguese used this information to develop a strategy for expansion in the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese did not follow up on Dias’s accomplishment immediately. It was Christopher Columbus​’ returning from America in 1493 that prompted the Portuguese into action. In fact, Columbus’s discoveries almost sparked a war between Spain and Portugal because his discoveries were south of the Canary Islands and therefore according to the ​Treaty of Alcácovas (1479) belonged to Portugal. To prevent war, Pope Alexander VI intervened in 1493, dividing the non-Christian world between Portugal and Spain according to a meridian passing 100 leagues (320 miles) west of the Azores or Cape Verde Islands. The wording of the papal decree or bull, ​Inter Caetera​, however, was unacceptable to the Portuguese. In the ​Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), Spain and Portugal renegotiated the dividing line, making it a meridian line passing 370 leagues (1,184 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. In the end, neither side adhered strictly to the treaty’s clauses. Portuguese colonists eventually settled beyond the demarcation line in Brazil, and Spain claimed Portuguese territories in Asia. Other European powers, especially Protestant ones, also questioned the validity of the initial papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas. Nevertheless, papal bulls, such as ​Inter Caetera (1493), were fundamental to justify the Spanish and Portuguese claims to possess newly discovered territories and to legitimize their dominion. King Manuel (1495 – 1521) finally sent ​Vasco da Gama to India in 1497. After extensive preparation, da Gama’s four ships set sail in July. By skillfully using the prevailing winds, da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope in three months, half the time that it took Dias. On reaching the Indian Ocean, da Gama secured a pilot familiar with the Indian Ocean’s currents and winds to bring him to India. In 1499, da Gama returned to Portugal, having lost a ship but with promising ​results​. In 1500, ​Pedro Alvares Cabral led a larger expedition to India. The expedition was blown off course, and he discovered Brazil on April 22, 1500. Brazil was well within the Portuguese sphere according to the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). Cabral’s discovery came as no surprise to contemporary Portuguese, who apparently knew that land existed somewhere in that vicinity. This has led scholars to speculate that at Tordesillas the Portuguese purposefully negotiated a dividing line further west than the pope originally proposed in ​Inter Caetera to secure the anticipated landmass for themselves. While engaged in this project of exploration, Portugal also began to establish overseas colonies in the fifteenth century. Madeira and the Azores Islands served as the experimental laboratory for the Portuguese Empire in America. The Portuguese began to settle Madeira around 1419, and they replicated their way of life on these Atlantic islands. The islands were divided between several captains who had administrative responsibilities within their areas. Villages and towns were also established, and they eventually gained their own charters and municipal governments. When a community was large enough, the king petitioned the pope to create a bishopric. Agriculture was the main source of revenue from the Atlantic islands. Initially, the Portuguese planted wheat, but the soil of the islands, especially Madeira, was ideal for growing sugarcane. By the mid-fifteenth century, Madeira was exporting ​sugar​. The planting and harvesting of sugarcane was labor intensive, and the plantations were always short of labor. The importation of African slaves solved the labor problem. The traffic in slaves between Africa and the Atlantic islands was soon extended to the Americas, thereby beginning the transatlantic slave trade. Thus, in the Atlantic islands of Portugal, the prototype of the overseas plantation (relying on the monoculture of an export crop worked by black slaves from Africa, financed by outside capital, and often marked by absentee ownership) took shape. The basic structure of European colonization in the Americas developed in the Atlantic islands. Sugarcane Workers in the Dominican Republic Another mode of colonization employed by the Portuguese and their rivals was the trading post​. The establishment of trading posts predominated in Africa and Asia. Essentially, trading posts allowed Europeans to tap into existing trade networks or to establish new networks that were more convenient for African and Asian merchants. The Europeans were often on the fringes of the intra-Asian trade, shaving off a portion of that commerce for export to Europe. One reason Europeans played a marginal role in Asia is that Asian merchants desired few European goods except for silver, which was in short supply in the early sixteenth century. Since they had little to trade with Asians, the Portuguese tried to force their way into the Indian Ocean trading system. Governor-General ​Afonso de Albuquerque (1509 – 1515) is considered the founder of the Portuguese “empire” in Asia. He successfully conquered several strategic locations (Malacca, Hormuz, and Goa, which became the administrative capital), destroyed rival cities, and established Portuguese naval power in the region. The Portuguese lacked the military resources to create a land-based empire, and the military strength of the Muslim powers in the Indian Ocean basin prevented large-scale conquest. By occupying strategic points, though, the Portuguese disrupted existing trade networks and briefly monopolized the Asian trade with Europe. Portuguese control over the spice trade made Portugal extremely rich, but its monopoly only lasted about 30 years. By the 1530s, the Indian Ocean trade networks that had been disrupted by the Portuguese were operating once again, bringing spices and luxury goods to the Middle East to trade with Italian merchants. The bulk of Asian goods, however, continued to arrive in Europe via Portugal for the rest of the sixteenth century until the English and Dutch supplanted them in Asia in the seventeenth century. In addition to importing Asian goods to Europe, the Portuguese became middlemen in the lucrative intra-Asian trade. The profits earned from transporting goods within Asia helped the silver strapped Portuguese purchase more Asian goods for export to Europe. The Dutch and English would play the same role as middlemen in the seventeenth century. Only in the late eight ...
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