English Question


Deanza college

Question Description

For this question (from Linguistics class), I need help with 1 Journal (Discussion) and one textbook assignment every week.

Every week there will be two kinds of assignments, mostly the format is the same.

And I'm looking for a tutor who can work with me for a month (weeks 5,6,7, and 8).

I've uploaded week 5 assignments to help you how the assignments look like. Original discussion post must be submitted before 9.00 am on Tuesday (PST) and 2 comments and textbook assignments should be submitted by Friday 9:00 am (PST).

During the discussion of Week 5, you are going to reflect about syntactic features of languages and translations and/or closed captioning. Your original post will consist of 2 paragraphs; the 1st paragraph will focus on unique language features; the 2nd paragraph will focus on the evaluation of computer translation and/ or closed captioning.

Original discussion post must be submitted before 9.00 am on Tuesday (2/2) PST:


a) Watch the video "Fantastic Features We Don't Have In The English Language".

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYlVJlmjLEc (Links to an external site.)

b) Answer the question that Tom is asking at end of the video: Can you think of a brand new language feature, something that every language should have, but does not?


a) Watch the video "Why Computers Suck At Translation":

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAgp7nXdkLU (Links to an external site.)

b) Write a paragraph in which you reflect the on your experience with using computer translation or monolingual close captioning. What types of words and sentences are usually translated or captioned correctly, and what kind of words and sentences are inaccurate?

* Your original post should be 200-250 words long (the combination of part 1 and part 2).

RESPONSE TO THE POSTS OF YOUR 2 CLASSMATES- must be submitted before 9.00 am on Friday (2/5) PST:

Follow these steps to write the discussion response:

1. Read all posts of your classmates.

2. Find a classmate who has not received a response to his/her post yet. You CANNOT respond to an original post which has already received a response if there are still some posts that have not received a response.

3. Just as you would during a spoken discussion, write what your think about the ideas of your classmate. You can add more ideas to the points that your classmate has made or write a different opinion in a polite manner.

* The response to each post should be 100-150 words long.


I have to submit the answers to the following textbook exercises:

I've attached the .pdf file for the textbook and must be submitted before 9.00 am on Friday 2/5 (PST).:

a) Pages 108-110: Exercise 1: sections 1-12

b) Pages130-131: Exercise 5: sections 1-3, in section 3- analyze sentences a, b, c, d that are on page 131

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Fourth Edition A Concise Introduction to Linguistics Bruce M. Rowe Los Angeles Pierce College Diane P. Levine Los Angeles Pierce College Routledge Taylor & Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK First published 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. ISBN: 9780133811216 (pbk) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rowe, Bruce M. A Concise Introduction to Linguistics / Bruce M. Rowe, Los Angeles Pierce College; Diane P. Levine, Los Angeles Pierce College. — Fourth Edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-0-13-381121-6 1. Linguistics. I. Levine, Diane P. II. Title. P121.R6926 2014 410—dc23 2014009620 DEDICATION This book is dedicated to our families: Christine, Aaron, and Andrew Rowe Brian, Kevin, and Samantha Levine; Heidi, Theo, and Lucy Sturm iii This page intentionally left blank CONTENTS Preface xiii About the Authors xvi 1 Introduction: The Nature of Communication 1 The Nature of Communication 2 Nonhuman and Human Communication Compared 6 The Dance of the Honeybee 6 Do Bees Learn Their Behavior? 8 The Vocalization of Birds 9 Inheritance and Learning in Birdsongs Bees, Birds, and Humans 11 9 Chimpanzees and Gorillas in Controlled Environments 13 Washoe 14 Kanzi 15 Koko 16 Skepticism over Ape-Language Studies 17 Theory of Mind 20 The Jury Is Still Out 21 Summary 22 Suggested Reading 22 Review of Terms and Concepts: The Nature of Communication 23 End-of-Chapter Exercises 25 2 The Phonological Component: Phonetics 29 Articulatory Phonetics 30 The Apparatus of Speech 30 Breathing and Speech 31 Voiced and Voiceless Sounds 31 Consonants and Vowels 33 Consonants 34 Vowels 34 Consonants: Place of Articulation 34 Consonants: Manner of Articulation 35 Some Consonants Not Used in English 37 Some Other Terms Relating to Consonants 41 Vowels 42 The Oral and Nasal Cavities 42 Vowels and the Shape of the Resonance Cavity 42 Some Other Terms Relating to Vowels 44 Some Vowels Not Used in English or in Standard English 45 v vi Contents Diphthongs 46 A Note on [a] and [ɔ] 46 Syllables and Syllabic Consonants 48 The Phonetic Environment 48 Suprasegmentals 49 Differences in Pitch 50 Duration 51 Differences in Stress 52 Connected Speech 52 Summary 56 Suggested Reading 56 Review of Terms and Concepts: Phonetics 57 End-of-Chapter Exercises 58 3 The Phonological Component: Phonology 61 The Phoneme and the Concept of Significant Differences in Sounds 61 Phonetics and Phonemics 63 Minimal Pairs and Sets 63 Free Variation 65 Naming the Phoneme 66 Broad and Narrow Transcriptions 67 A Comparative Example: Russian and English 68 Distinctive Feature Analysis 71 Distinctive Features 71 The Feature Matrix 72 Natural Classes 73 Combining Phonemes 74 Phonological Processes 75 Obligatory Phonological Processes 75 Optional Phonological Processes 77 The Continuous and Complex Nature of Speech, Revised 79 Distinctiveness Versus Redundancy Markedness 80 79 Summary 80 Suggested Reading 82 Review of Terms and Concepts: Phonology 82 End-of-Chapter Exercises 83 4 The Morphological Component The Morpheme 85 Different Types of Morphemes 88 Types of Bound Morphemes 89 Allomorphs 90 Morphological Typology 92 85 Contents How New Words Are Formed 93 The Concepts of Openness and Productivity, Revisited Compounding 94 Acronym Formation 94 Foreign Word Borrowing 94 Clipping 96 Blending 96 Derivation 96 Back-Formation 97 Eponyms: People’s Names 97 Trade Names 98 The Meaning of Words Can Change 100 93 Lexical Categories (Parts of Speech) 103 Summary 107 Suggested Reading 108 Review of Terms and Concepts: Morphology 108 End-of-Chapter Exercises 109 5 Syntax 111 Syntactic Construction 113 Types of Syntactic Structures 113 Types of Sentences and Clauses 113 Phrases 115 The Constituent Structure of Sentences 120 Labeling the Constituents of a Sentence Labeling Phrases 122 121 Phrase Structure Rules 124 Noam Chomsky and Generative Grammar 126 Transformational Rules 128 Basic Phrase Marker 129 Derived Phrase Marker 130 Other Types of Transformations 130 Optional and Obligatory Transformations 132 Sequences of Transformations 132 Grammaticality Judgments and Ambiguity 134 Grammaticality Judgments about Completeness 135 Grammaticality Judgments about Word Order 136 Grammaticality Judgments about Word Combinations Grammaticality Judgments: Several Nonfactors 138 Ambiguous Sentences 138 Synonymous Sentences 143 Summary 145 Suggested Reading 145 Review of Terms and Concepts: Syntax 146 End-of-Chapter Exercises 149 137 vii viii Contents 6 Semantics and Pragmatics 151 The Meaning of Words: Lexical Semantics 151 Semantic Properties of Words 153 Words That Have Shared Semantic Properties 155 Markedness in Semantics 155 Markedness within a Domain 157 Another Example of Markedness within a Domain 157 The -nyms 159 Hyponyms 159 Synonyms 160 Homonyms 162 Antonyms 163 Other Kinds of Meaning: Structural Semantics 165 Playing with Meaning 166 Pragmatics 170 Social Meaning 170 Affective Meaning 171 Speech Acts 173 Discourse Analysis 174 Greeting Rituals 177 Maxims of Conversation 179 Other Maxims of Conversation 179 Cross-Cultural Maxims of Conversation 181 Summary 182 Suggested Reading 183 Review of Terms and Concepts: Semantics and Pragmatics 184 Fieldwork Project: Puns and Riddles in School-Age Children 186 7 Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology Regional Dialects 188 Semantic Variation 189 Phonological Variation 189 Morphological Variation 190 African American English 193 Phonological Differences 194 Morphological Differences 195 Syntactic Differences 196 The “Man of Words” and the Style of AAE 197 Hispanic English 199 Phonological Differences 199 Syntactic Differences 200 The Bilingual Community 200 Contact Languages: Pidgin and Creole 201 Situational Dialects or Registers 202 Morphological Variation 203 Syntactic Variation 207 187 Contents Semantic Variation 208 The Social Meaning of Regional Dialects 210 Gender and Language 211 Gender Differences in English 213 Linguistic Anthropology 215 Language, Culture, and Linguistic Relativity 216 Does Language Influence Culture, or Culture Influence Language? 219 Language and Nationalism 222 Controversies over Language Rights 224 Summary 225 Suggested Reading 226 Review of Terms and Concepts: Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology 227 8 Language Acquisition 231 Language and the Brain 231 Ideas about Language Acquisition 232 How Do Children Acquire the Components of Language? 235 Phonology 235 Syntax 236 Morphology 239 Semantics 240 During Preschool and Beyond 244 Language Socialization: Three Examples 248 The Tiwi (Australia) 248 The Kaluli (New Guinea) 249 Western Samoans 249 The Acquisition of Sign Language 251 Bilingualism 252 Theories Concerning Bilingual Language Acquisition Second-Language Learning after Puberty 254 Phonology 255 Morphology and Syntax 255 253 Summary 257 Suggested Reading 258 Review of Terms and Concepts: Language Acquisition 258 9 Sign Language 261 The Nature of Sign Language 262 What Is ASL? 263 The Acquisition of ASL 266 Phonology of ASL 268 Non-Manual Grammatical Signals in ASL Markedness and ASL 272 272 ix x Contents Redundancy and ASL 272 Morphology and Syntax of ASL 272 Inflection and Three-Dimensional Space Does ASL Have Sentences? 273 273 Nicaraguan Sign Language: The Birth of a New Language 274 Social Dimensions of Sign Language 275 Summary 277 Suggested Reading 277 Review of Terms and Concepts: Sign Language 277 End-of-Chapter Exercises: Signing 279 10 Writing Systems 282 Writing Is Secondary to Speech and Sign Language 282 Types of Writing Systems 283 Logographic Writing 284 The Rebus Principle 284 Chinese: An Example of Logo-Syllabic Writing 287 Syllabic Writing 288 Alphabetic Writing 292 Spelling and Speech 293 Is English Spelling Really So Bad? 295 Writing’s Influence on Speech 297 Writing and Speech: Further Considerations 297 The History of Writing 300 Nonwritten Visual Communication 300 Two Views on the Origin and Development of Writing A Brief Outline of the History of Writing 304 A Survey of Ancient and Modern Scripts 305 302 The Printing Press 310 A Few Words about Computers 311 Summary 313 Suggested Reading 314 Review of Terms and Concepts: Writing Systems 314 End-of-Chapter Exercises 316 11 Nonverbal Communication What Does “Nonverbal” Mean? 320 Kinesic Behavior 320 Emblems 320 Illustrators 321 Regulators 322 Adaptors 322 319 Contents Affect Displays 322 The Eyes Have It 324 Physical Appearance 326 Touching (Tactile) Behavior 328 Paralanguage 330 Paralanguage and Stereotyping 330 Proxemics 331 The Physical Environment 333 “How-To” Books and Apps: A Word of Caution 334 Summary 335 Suggested Reading 336 Review of Terms and Concepts: Nonverbal Communication 336 End-of-Chapter Exercises 337 12 Historical Linguistics 339 The Relationships among Languages 340 The Family Tree Model The Wave Model 346 341 Types of Language Change 347 Sound Change 347 Conditioned Sound Change 348 Morphological Changes 350 Syntactic Changes 351 Semantic and Sociocultural Changes 352 How Long Does It Take a Language to Change? 354 Disappearing, Reappearing, and Emerging Languages 356 The Spread of Englishes 359 New Jargons 360 Summary 361 Suggested Reading 362 Review of Terms and Concepts: Historical Linguistics 362 Appendix A: Answers to Reviews of Terms and Concepts Appendix B: Answers to Selected Exercises Appendix C: Fieldwork Exercises Glossary Index 392 403 384 375 365 xi This page intentionally left blank PREFACE Why We Wrote This Book Linguistics courses are taught in several academic departments, including linguistics, English, and anthropology. In addition, students with majors other than linguistics, English, and anthropology might be required to take an introductory course in linguistics. These majors include communications, education, journalism, sociology, and deaf studies. Moreover, an introductory linguistics course often fulfills a general liberal arts requirement. Most linguistics books on the market are directed specifically to linguistics, English, or anthropology majors. Also, most linguistics texts reflect the research interests and theoretic stance of the author or authors. We have attempted to write an introductory text that covers the core topics of linguistics and provides the information and concepts that will allow students to understand more detailed and advanced treatments of linguistics, should they pursue the field further. In other words, our book is written with the general education student in mind, but it also provides the linguistics, English, and anthropology major with the resources needed to succeed in the next level of courses. The authors are anthropologists and have included numerous cross-cultural examples relevant to each of the topics covered. We have written this book in a manner that does not assume previous knowledge of linguistics on the part of the student. We explain all concepts in a systematic way assisted by numerous pedagogical aids. We attempt to make complex linguistic topics as easy to learn as possible. Features of the Book The book includes numerous pedagogical aids: Learning objectives: These learning objectives provided for each chapter help the student to know in advance of reading the chapter what concepts to keep in mind as they read a chapter. The student should be able to carry out the objective after reading the chapter. Numerous exercises and study questions: Short sections (usually three to seven pages) of each chapter are followed by exercises and/or study questions on that section. This helps the student to understand one subject before moving on to the next. Most other books have all of their exercises at the ends of the chapters. Suggested reading at the end of each chapter: Because this is a “concise” introduction to the topic, we provide more sources for further reading than most books. If students want to learn more about a topic that has been introduced briefly, they can use one or more of the sources provided. The sources might also be useful to a student required to write a paper for the course. We added new “Suggested Readings” to the fourth edition. Chapter summaries: Each chapter concludes with a chapter summary. The summary gives a concise overview of the contents of the chapter. In-margin running glossary and an end-of-the-book glossary: Using the in-margin running glossary, students can quickly check the definitions of terms they read in the text. In the end-of-the-book glossary, students can check the definition of a concept they have read earlier if they do not remember the chapter in which it was first used. Cross-cultural examples: We have numerous cross-cultural examples. As we explain concepts of importance to all students of language, we draw upon examples from xiii xiv Preface around the world. Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 12 cover topics of primary interest to linguistic anthropologists. Instructor’s Manual with Tests: The author-written test bank features nearly a thousand test questions in four question types—multiple-choice, true/false, matching, and essay. The fourth edition includes new questions on all new sections of the text. The answers to all of the exercises that are not answered in the text or in Ap-pendix B are provided to instructors in the test bank. 1MFBTFWJTJUUIFDPNQBOJPO XFCTJUFBUXXXSPVUMFEHFDPN. New to This Edition here. The following is a chapter-by-chapter list of the major changes made in the fourth edition.           Chapter 1 includes a new introduction that discusses the different subfields of linguistics. In Chapter 2, there is an expanded coverage of schwa and an added section on r-coloring of a vowel. In Chapter 3, we have made some additions and changes to the section on distinctive features. In Chapter 4, the section on lexical categories has been reworked and is now presented in a table. Chapter 5 has been reorganized so that the “Grammaticality Judgments and Ambiguity” section has been moved from the middle of the chapter to the end of the chapter to provide better flow of topics. The phrase structure rules and tree diagrams have been revised to be more compatible with each other and more consistent with modern generative grammar; the definition of predicate has been updated and refined; a diagram has been added to the box on recursion; and there have been many other smaller changes to the chapter. An alternative to generative grammar (cognitive-functional linguistics), especially in terms of the concept of a universal language acquisition device has been noted and the reader is referred to Chapter 8 where this alternative is discussed. In Chapter 6, the concept called “The Force of Language” has been added, as well as the concept of the ordering of an utterance and the use of silence in Samoa. We also provide an additional example for the maxim of quantity and further explanation of the Japanese concept of enryo. A new box (Box 7-1) has been added to Chapter 7. It examines the questions of how many dialects there are in a language. Also, information on Light Warlpiri and the unique process that lead to its development are included in the chapter. We have also added additional examples in the section on the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. There is a new section on “mock” languages. There is new information on the attempt to save endangered languages with Mayan being used as one of the main examples. In Chapter 8, there is new information on language and the brain. The section on “The Poverty of the Stimulus” has been rewritten and expanded. Information on cognitive-functional linguistics has been added and discussed in relationship to the controversy over whether there is a dedicated area of the brain involved in language acquisition (a language acquisition device), or if language acquisition is the result of more general cognitive processes. Minor changes have been made to Chapter 9. In Chapter 10, we have clarified the differences between the terms homograph, homophone, homonym, and heteronym by adding a chart on the topic; revised some of the figures dealing with the section “Ancient and Modern Scripts”; added some material to the section on the printing press and to the section on the significances of computers to modern human mass communication in the section called “A Few Words about Computer.” Preface   A new box on whistle “languages” was added to Chapter 11. In Chapter 12, we have added some new information on how some classes of words are more conservative than other classes in terms of change and replacement over time. We also added some information on how storytelling in the Zapotec language is helping to preserve this Latin American language. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Professors Philip L. Stein, Darlene K. Wittman, Cynthia L. Herbst, and Richard J. Follett of Los Angeles Pierce College for reading various sections of the manuscript. Especially, we would like to acknowledge Salpi Vartivarian, adjunct lecturer at Los Angeles Pierce College for her valuable comments on the manuscript for the fourth edition of the book. We would also like to thank the following people who reviewed the entire manuscript for the first edition: Karen Dykstra, Eastern Michigan University James G. Flanagan, University of Southern Mississippi Elizabeth Fortenbery, Tacoma Community College Paul B. Garrett, Temple University Daniel Lefkowitz, University of Virginia Rod Moore, Los Angeles Valley College Claiborne Rice, University of Louisiana at Lafayette David Samuels, University of Massachusetts Lynn Thomas, Pomona College Our appreciation is extended to the reviewers of the second edition: Monica L. Bellas, Cerritos College Sheikh Umarr Kamarah, Virginia State University Donna L. Lillian, East Carolina University Carol Moder, Oklahoma State University Stephanie Schlitz, Bloomsburg University Marit Vamarasi, Northeastern Illinois University Cynthia Vigliotti, Youngstown State University Penglin Wang, Central Washington University We would like to thank the people who reviewed the third edition: Dorothy Wills, California Polytechnic University–Pomona Lee Bickmore, University of Albany Stephen Tyler, Rice University We would like to thank the reviewers of the fourth edition: Netta Avineri, Visiting Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Monterey Institute of International Studies Edward Callary, Northern Illinois University Paul McDowell, Santa Barbara City College Salpi Vartivarian, Pierce College We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of numerous students, who over the years have made useful suggestions on both written material and lectures. Special thanks go to Sheila Kurland who proofread most of the manuscript. We would like to give special thanks to Christine L. Rowe for proofreading early drafts of this manuscript and to Jan Scopatz for typing an early version. xv ABOUT THE AUTHORS Bruce M. Rowe is a professor em ...
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