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Colorado State University: Global Campus

Question Description

Helping Save a Species

In addition to the paper you also need to prepare a brief presentation (approximately 3 minutes) about your project to deliver to the class in Module 8. This presentation could take the form of a PowerPoint presentation, or an audio recording with accompanying visual elements. If you have another idea beyond these, email your instructor to obtain approval for that delivery method. This will need to be turned in Thursday by 8pm.

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Running head: HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH Helping Save Green Humphead Parrotfish Student’s Name ORG500 Foundations of Effective Management Colorado State University-Global Campus Instructor’s Name Date HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 2 Saving Green Humphead Parrotfish Introduction The Green Humphead Parrotfish is one of the largest members of the parrotfish family. This fish species is widely distributed in the Indo-West of the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. Green Humphead Parrotfish is among the largest reef fishes and uncommon in most oceans. The fish is known to play a crucial role in structuring and maintaining the coral reefs eco-systems. The Green Humphead Parrotfish mainly feed on coral reefs and grazes on the benthic reef organism. Anglers highly hunt this fish in the locations where it exists because it is considered good for eating and its large size. In other regions, Green Humphead Parrotfish is valued for some ceremonial rites. However, the Green Humphead Parrotfish population is declining because it is easy to harvest due to its conspicuousness, the coastal habitat, and the habit of sleeping on coral reefs. Description of the Green Humphead Parrotfish The Green Humphead Parrotfish, also known as the Bolbometopon Muricatum, is one of the largest reef fish and parrotfish species. They live in the edges of coral reefs within the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea at approximately 40 meters, weighing 45kgs. Most of the Green Humphead Parrotfish habitats are found in Japan, Mexico, Australia, Brazil, and the coastal regions of South America (Patankar, Wagh & Marathe, 2020). The Green Humphead Parrotfish live in these areas because of the warm water and have good feeding and reproductive grounds. The larger juvenile Green Humphead Parrotfish are found in the lagoons, in sea grass beds, and adults are found in the seaward reefs in a depth of up to 30 meters. Green Humphead Parrotfish feeds on benthic algae and the corals. The adult Green Humphead Parrotfish can ram its head on coral to enhance its feeding. The adult fish ingests more than five tons of coral reefs every year, which contributes significantly to coral reefs' bioerosion. The HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 3 Green Humphead Parrotfish's main predators are sharks and human beings (Kobayashi et al., 2011). Green Humphead Parrotfish have the ability to change colors to hide from predators. The interaction between the Green Humphead Parrotfish and the humans occurs in fishing activities. Commercial and spearing fishing by humans has significantly caused a reduction in the Green Humphead Parrotfish population. IUCN Red List status of Green Humphead Parrotfish The Green Humphead Parrotfish has been listed in the IUCN Red List as one of the vulnerable/endangered species. Research shows that there are no laws that have been put in place to protect the Green Humphead Parrotfish specifically, which makes them endangered species. The main threat to the survival of Green Humphead Parrotfish human commercial fishing, spearfishing, night netters (IUCN, 2020). These species usually sleep in large groups, which makes them vulnerable to exploitation by fishers. Threats facing Green Humphead Parrotfish The destruction and curtailment of habitat Green Humphead Parrotfish usually feeds on the coral, with one fish using more than 5 tons of coral yearly. However, coral reefs are vulnerable to degradation; thus, threatening the Green Humphead Parrotfish's natural habitat. Due to high temperatures and unusual calm conditions, the coral bleaching causes a significant threat to the Green Humphead Parrotfish. Ship groundings and fishery practices affect the coral reefs adversely. According to WildEarth Guardians (2009), severe waste disposal in the oceans, such as toxic batteries and electronics, are threats to coral reefs. Activities of water pollution from sewage, fuel spillovers, and marine debris affects all kinds of fish species in the oceans and seas. Overfishing Group resting behavior and shoaling (deformation of waves) renders Green Humphead Parrotfish vulnerable to overfishing, especially at night, mainly in the pacific region. Overfishing HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 4 both for commercial or subsistence purposes has been a big threat to the Green Humphead Parrotfish species. This species is particularly vulnerable to the threat of night spearfishing and net fishing because most of these fish sleep at night in large groups (Hamilton et al., 2016). Besides, some cultures use Green Humphead Parrotfish for ceremonial events; thus, it has been a target by fishers for food and cultural events. Increased commercial and subsistence fishing levels affect all species of fish that humans use in the live food fish trade or for ceremonial purposes. Predation and Diseases Diseases that affect the coral reefs due to poor waste disposal and predators constitute a threat to the Green Humphead Parrotfish. For instance, diseases were associated with the huge loss of coral reefs in the Caribbean, and Indo-Pacific, which affected the habitat and food of Green Humphead Parrotfish. Research has established a correlation between the rise of temperature in the sea and the Acropora white syndrome occurrence, which is a serious threat to the species (WildEarth Guardians, 2009). Other species such as the Starfish are also affected by the outbreak of diseases such as Micronesia that restructures the coral communities. Inadequate regulations There are no enough state and federal laws and policies to prevent the Green Humphead Parrotfish from extinction. It is noted that there are high levels of commercial fishing in the Pacific regions with little monitoring, which has led to the continued depletion of the species. Due to ineffective laws and policies in fishing, spearfishing activities at night has been increasing, mainly targeting the Green Humphead Parrotfish (Chan, Sadovy & Donaldson, 2012). Lack of laws and regulations and inadequate monitoring of fishing affects other species of fish such as tilapia. HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 5 Humans are one of the threats facing the endangered Green Humphead Parrotfish species in different ways. First, humans are highly involved in commercial and subsistence fishing, which enhances the depletion of the species. Secondly, humans and organizations are responsible for the development of coastal regions, pollution, and improper disposal of waste materials in the oceans and seas, which affects the lifespan of the species (Bellwood, Hoey & Hughes, 2012). Finally, humans and organizations are the main cause of global climate change, which increases the temperature of waters in oceans and seas; thus, destroying the natural habitat of the species. Solutions to the threats facing Green Humphead Parrotfish The first solution to Green Humphead Parrotfish's threats is reducing the destruction of coral reefs that provide the habitat to the species. Human and organizations' activities happening in the land threaten coral reefs. Some of the important activities to reduce the threat include proper treatment of sewage and eliminating dirt that ends up in oceans and seas to reduce reefs' suffocation (National Geographic, 2017). The solution that conservationists have presented in the field include encouraging proper sewage treatment, ensuring waste tunnels are not directed to the water bodies, and annual cleaning and conservation of seas and oceans to purify the water. The second solution is enacting fishing laws and policies that regulate overfishing. The laws should specifically protect the Humphead Parrotfish to limit night spearfishing and fishing with compressed air such as carbon dioxide tanks. The solution that people have presented in the field include establishing marine protected regions where fishing is not allowed to protect fishes (Chan, Sadovy & Donaldson, 2012). In improving this solution, conservationists can work with government agencies to fund and reinforce applicable laws that regulate fishing. Finally, there is a need to have adequate habitat protections, recovery planning, and funding to protect seas and oceans. There is a need to prohibit Green Humphead Parrotfish's HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 6 taking within the Red Sea and Indo-Pacific region. This will reduce the importation and exportation or the possession of the species by individuals or organizations (Chan, Sadovy & Donaldson, 2012). The solution that people have presented in the field include preventing the use of underwater apparatus to dive for fish, except for individuals appointed by the government., banning the night diving and limiting the use of underwater torches. Based on what I have known about Green Humphead Parrotfish, coral reefs, habitats, and the threats they face, the best solution to protect them is raising awareness to the community about the species' threats. Conservationists should focus on reducing the pollution of the speciesenvironment by ensuring proper waste disposal and treatment of sea and ocean waters. Raising awareness about Green Humphead Parrotfish's continued depletion will help conservationists get more funds from donors and support from federal government agencies. This will significantly improve the efforts of saving the species. Threats the species faces, the importance to conserve the species, and recommended actions in conservation effort. The main threats that the Green Humphead Parrotfish species face include commercial and subsistence overfishing, destruction of coral reefs, degradation of habitats, and diseases resulting from global climate change. It is important to conserve Green Humphead Parrotfish species by reducing overfishing, protecting the coral reefs, and finding better ways to sustain their habitats. The importance of conserving Green Humphead Parrotfish species is due to their sustainability benefits in the ecosystem. The species use about 90% of their day cleaning reefs of algae (The Nature Conservancy, 2017). The cleaning enables corals to grow, and healthy reefs support more fish's growth and development in the oceans. The conservation of Green Humphead Parrotfish contributes to sand on the beaches. They usually snack the hard parts of coral reefs that turn into white sand that they leave behind in the reef. For those eager to HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 7 conserve the Green Humphead Parrotfish species, I would recommend that they focus on establishing laws and policies that would reduce commercial and subsistence fishing. The interested conservationists should make all the habitats of the species protected areas, where fishing should be banned, protect the degrading of the habitats, and avoid any form of industrial wastes to the species habitats. Ways to help save Green Humphead Parrotfish species The first action I engaged in to help save the species is helping an organization in recycling, particularly industrial waste products. I chose this action because it can reduce habitation degradation, which causes a significant threat to the species. Directing waste products to the seas and oceans, which inhibits the growth of coral reefs and supply of oxygen; thus, inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the species. Although I do not have statistics to show the impact of my recycling, I am certain that by recycling industrial wastes, the carbon footprint will be reduced significantly; thus, benefit the ecosystem of the species positively. The second action I have undertaken to save the species is creating awareness of protecting the Green Humphead Parrotfish in my social media accounts such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. I have continuously made researches on the protection of Green Humphead Parrotfish, make lengthy posts on my social media accounts, tag and share with friends, families, and colleagues. I have been receiving feedback from many people through the comments sections; some are interested in what I do and are willing to donate and contribute towards improving the Green Humphead Parrotfish's sustainability. I chose to use my social media accounts to raise awareness because I realized that I have many followers on my social media, which would help me reach a huge population. So far, I have reached thousands of people, and hundreds are already supporting my awareness program. HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 8 After seeing the impact I have made through recycling industrial waste products, ensuring waste materials are not directed in the seas and oceans, and starting social media campaigns to raise awareness on saving the Green Humphead Parrotfish, I feel this is something I will continue doing. Through continued recycling and reducing industrial waste to the water, the environment in the seas and oceans will be protected, reduce the downgrading of species habitat, enhance the growth of coral reefs; thus, save the life of the species. In addition, raising awareness will encourage people to reduce the fishing pressure, which will enhance the growth and development of the species. HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 9 References Bellwood, D. R., Hoey, A. S., & Hughes, T. P. (2012). Human activity selectively impacts the Ecosystem roles of parrotfishes on coral reefs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279(1733), 1621-1629. Chan, T., Sadovy, Y., & Donaldson, T. J. (2012). Bolbometopon Muricatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www. Iucnredlist. org. Hamilton, R. J., Almany, G. R., Stevens, D., Bode, M., Pita, J., Peterson, N. A., & Choat, J. H. (2016). Hyperstability masks declines in Humphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon Muricatum) populations. Coral Reefs, 35(3), 751-763. IUCN. (2020, October 12). Latest IUCN red list assessment finds parrotfish and surgeonfish Facing heightened risk of localized extinction. Kobayashi, D. R., Friedlander, A. M., Grimes, C. B., Nichols, R. S., & Zgliczynski, B. (2011). Bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon Muricatum) status review. National Geographic. (2017, December 14). To save coral reefs, start with Parrotfish. National Geographic Society Newsroom. Patankar, V., Wagh, T., & Marathe, A. (2020). Protected areas and benthic characteristics Influence the distribution of the vulnerable bumphead parrotfish Bolbometopon Muricatum in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Oryx, 54(4), 564-571. HELPING SAVE GREEN HUMPHEAD PARROTFISH 10 The Nature Conservancy. (2017). Pass on Parrotfish: Saving Reefs by Protecting Parrotfish. The U.S. Agency for International Development Caribbean Marine Biodiversity Program. The Nature Conservancy: A World Where People & Nature Thrive. WildEarth Guardians. (2009). Petition to list the Bumphead Parrotfish (Bolbometopon Muricatum) under the US, Endangered Species Act. ...
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