Experiment 1: Polarity

Science

Chemistry 2

Mechanical Engineering

Question Description

I'm working on a chemistry report and need an explanation to help me study.

hi how are you ?i need you to do a report for this Experiment not more then there pages.

Question: How does the polarity of a molecule affect its solubility?

Goals

  1. Students understand polarity.

Objectives

  1. Students can draw Lewis dot structures.
  1. Students can use dot structures and online molecular models to predict the polarity of a compound.
  1. Students can predict the solubility and miscibility of different substances.

Introduction

Background: Solutions are homogeneous mixtures consisting of at least two substances. The substance present in the larger amount is the solvent and the substance present in lesser amount is the solute. We are most familiar with solutions in which the solvent is a liquid, and that’s what we will examine in this experiment. However, the solvent can also be a gas, as is the case with air, or a solid, in an alloy such as brass. When two liquids mix completely, we use the term miscible rather than soluble. Two liquids that do not mix are immiscible.

The polarity of a molecule plays an important role in its physical properties, such as solubility. A general rule of thumb is "like dissolves like." Polar solutes will typically be soluble in polar solvents, and non-polar solutes will be soluble in non-polar solvents. Since ionic compounds dissociate when they dissolve, they will dissolve best in solvents that are capable of stabilizing the charge on the ions. Because of this, polar solvents (which have a permanent dipole capable of interacting with dissolved ions) will dissolve ionic compounds, whereas non-polar solvents will not. In this experiment you will predict the polarity of a series of different compounds and then obtain experimental evidence that you can use to support or refute your prediction.

Equipment

  1. Vortex mixer
  2. Parafilm
  3. Disposable pipettes
  4. Test tubes

Reagents

  1. Sodium chloride
  2. Water
  3. Ethanol
  4. Hexane
  5. Octane
  6. 2-propanol

Resources

  1. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics -You may use any edition.
  2. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) - http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/ (Links to an external site.)
  3. Comprehensive Guide to Chemical Resistant Best Gloves - http://www.chemrest.com/ (Links to an external site.)
  4. Molview - https://molview.org (Links to an external site.)

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