Deliberate Development Plan, writing homework help

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INSTRUCTIONS:

1. Select a subordinate or Airman you currently supervise, mentor, and/or work with regularly. If you do not work with Airmen, reflect on yourself as a past airman.

2. Assume you are about to discuss deliberate development with this selected individual.

3. Write a subordinate deliberate development plan for this individual.

4. As a minimum, your plan must address the following areas of development. Provide a brief description and/or supporting information for each of your development considerations. Explain how each developmental consideration benefits the member’s preferred team role (CARE Concept) see attached** from team building attachment and cognitive preference (A-I Theory) see attached**. Then, identify and explain how and why your recommended actions will benefit the subordinate and the Air Force.

5. Format DDP as follows.

PART I - Considerations

TIG:

TIS:

Current Training Status:

Team Member Most Probable Preferred Role:

Cognitive Preference Behaviors/Indicators:

Goals and Aspirations:

PART II - Recommendations

Additional Duty:

Special Duty Assignment:

Training:

Education:

****Please try and use military terms and stick to the attached rubric (see attched) so that I can receive maximum points.

1 Oct 16 DELIBERATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FORMAT INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Select a subordinate or Airman you currently supervise, mentor, and/or work with regularly. If you do not work with Airmen, reflect on yourself as a past airman. 2. Assume you are about to discuss deliberate development with this selected individual. 3. Write a subordinate deliberate development plan for this individual. 4. As a minimum, your plan must address the following areas of development. Provide a brief description and/or supporting information for each of your development considerations. Explain how each developmental consideration benefits the member’s preferred team role and cognitive preference. Then, identify and explain how and why your recommended actions will benefit the subordinate and his/her branch of service. 5. Format DDP as follows. PART I - Considerations TIG: TIS: Current Training Status: Team Member Most Probable Preferred Role: Cognitive Preference Behaviors/Indicators: Goals and Aspirations: PART II - Recommendations Additional Duty: Special Duty Assignment: Training: Education: 6. Use the Deliberate Development Plan Evaluation Instrument as a guide. 7. Post your plan in the Learning Management System (LMS) Assignment Center in accordance with the course schedule. If you believe you may want to make changes, save as draft. It must be submitted as final on the due date in order to be graded. Failure to complete the assignment is an automatic failure. See schedule for specific suspense date. DDPHO3 - 1 FORMAT REQUIREMENTS: 1. Use Microsoft Word or PDF format 2. Narrative writing style within each element in Part II (no bullets) 3. Written to subordinate 4. Times New Roman, 12-point font 5. One-inch margins (all) 6. Double-spaced between elements, sentences, and lines 7. Include cover page (see sample) 8. Number all pages, bottom center, excluding cover page (e.g. cover page, 1, 2, 3) DDPHO3 - 2 (DELIBERATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN COVER PAGE EXAMPLE) SUBORDINATE DELIBERATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR RANK FIRST NAME LAST NAME [ENTER NAME] NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER ACADEMY STUDENT: RANK FIRST NAME LAST NAME DAY MONTH YEAR INSTRUCTOR: TSgt JOHN DOE DDPHO3 - 3
CONSIDERATIONS Identified TIG, TIS, and explained current training status. Identified and properly applied member's most probable preferred team role. Identified and properly applied member's most probable cognitive preference behaviors/indicators. Identified and explained member's personal goals and aspirations ADDITIONAL DUTY RECOMMENDATION Identified and fully justified an Additional Duty recommendation Explained how AND why the Additional Duty will benefit the member’s most probable preferred team role. Explained how AND why the Additional Duty will benefit the member’s most probable cognitive preference behaviors/indicators. Explained how AND why the Additional Duty will benefit his/her branch of service. SPECIAL DUTY RECOMMENDATION Identified and fully justified a Special Duty recommendation. If no Special Duty was recommended, explained the earliest opportunity that a Special Duty will be appropriate and described the circumstance(s) that would justify the recommendation at that time. Explained how AND why the Special Duty will benefit the member’s most probable preferred team role. Explained how AND why the Special Duty will benefit the member’s most probable cognitive preference behaviors/indicators. Explained how AND why the Special Duty will benefit his/her branch of service. TRAINING RECOMMENDATION Identified and fully justified training recommendation. Explained how AND why the training recommendation will benefit the member’s most probable preferred team role. Explained how AND why the training recommendation will benefit the member’s most probable cognitive preference behaviors/indicators. Explained how AND why the training recommendation will benefit his/her branch of service. EDUCATION RECOMMENDATION Identified and fully justified an education recommendation. Explained how AND why the education recommendation will benefit the member’s most probable preferred team role. Explained how AND why the education recommendation will benefit the member’s most probable cognitive preference behaviors/indicators. Explained how AND why the education recommendation will benefit his/her branch of service. GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS No distracting use of unfamiliar words; acronyms defined as needed; no redundancies, word choice clearly conveyed meaning Format How well did the student’s paper conform to the Deliberate Development Plan format requirements: Used Microsoft Word or PDF format, cover page (includes rank/name or subordinate), one-inch margins, pages numbered (bottom center except cover page), Times New Roman (12-point font), double spaced between sentences, elements, and lines, and written to subordinate?
168 CHAPTER SIX: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Inside this chapter: Preferred Cognitive (Thinking) Approach A-I Theory’s Basic Principles Adaption-Innovation Theory Proper Terms and Perception Implications for Use of A-I Theory “To problem solve successfully . . . we need to view problems and conceive solutions in terms of what is needed. . . we need to understand how each person in our problem-solving team works, so as to get the best out of everyone as the nature of each problem changes” – M .J. Kirton Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: TERMINAL COGNITIVE OBJECTIVE: Comprehend how A-I Theory impacts NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Terminal Cognitive Samples of Behavior: 4. 5. 6. Explain how A-I Theory impacts NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Give examples of A-I Theory impacting NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Predict the impact of A-I Theory NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVE: Value A-I Theory and how it enhances NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Affective Samples of Behavior: 1. 2. 3. Read about A-I Theory concepts with an open mind and remember new information (receiving). Complete all activities (progress checks, exercises, and selfreflection), and question concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them (responding). Accept the idea that effective use of A-I Theory concepts positively impacts individual, unit, and mission effectiveness (value). Willingly develop a preference for using A-I Theory concepts to enhance individual, unit, and mission effectiveness (value). Commit to using A-I Theory concepts to enhance individual, unit, and mission effectiveness (value). mission effectiveness (value) 169 Imagine this. The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force has been levied with the task of creating a new performance system for enlisted personnel. He forms a team of the leading experts in enlisted force development. The experts begin to propose different designs to use to build the new performance system. There are strains developing within the team. They seem to bicker a lot and lose track of the objective. It appears they will never develop the new performance system. What problems do you see? You could label them Problem A: creating a new performance system for enlisted personnel; and Problem B: getting the team to work toward the common objective of creating a new enlisted performance system. Why should NCOs be concerned with Problem A and Problem B situations? NCOs typically work in teams on the job. Teams typically solve problems better than individuals solve and therefore, are seen as superior in handling complex problems involving intertwining competencies and expertise. Teams are superior only if they can solve the problems for which they were created. Teams are superior only if they can stay focused on Problem A. Teams that are consumed with Problem B will never solve Problem A. Leaders must learn to solve difficult problems that are complex and hard to define. Because change is 4. constant, problem solving has to change and flex with the situations as they develop. A vibrant solution in 5. one situation would be a disaster in another. Problem solving teams rely on blending different talents in different combinations in order to reach viable solutions at the strategic levels of the Air Force. The A-I Theory helps you understand attributes that enhance the team. It also makes you aware of another aspect – that of diversity. This chapter will convey useful information to help you understand the A-I Theory. Don’t confuse the A-I theory with the techniques of adaptive thinking and innovative thinking that you learned about in Chapter 4, Strategic Thinking. The techniques in chapter 4 augment our “preferred style of problem solving” covered in this chapter. In order for you, as a supervisor, to understand the A-I Theory, you will look at preferred cognitive (thinking) approach, A-I Theory’s Basic Principles, understanding adaption-innovation, proper terms and perception, cognitive gap, bridgers, and coping behavior. 170 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Preferred Cognitive (Thinking) Approach Thinking is the means by which we solve problems and are creative. We cannot “see” thinking occur so we have to devise means to identify one’s preferred thinking (cognitive) style. The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) is a precise measure of preferred thinking style. The KAI is a psychometric instrument that has been tested across many cultures, and for over 40 years, proven to be one of the world’s most reliable and valid instruments for measuring cognitive preference. Kirton’s work proves that preferred styles are established by the late teenage years and remain stable throughout life. The instrument is so reliable that if you took it when you first joined the Air Force and then take it again today, your score today would be within one half of a standard error of measurement (10 points) deviation from your original score. A-I Theory’s Basic Principles A-I Theory Emphasizes Three Key Issues: 1. When we problem solve we are limited by the way we are built (e.g. our intelligence, no one has endless capacity or flexibility). 2. All of us are intelligent and creative, at different levels and with different styles, and therefore, all of us are capable of learning to contribute to team problem solving, as long as there is both motive and opportunity. Problem A: This is an ‘actual problem’ that two of more individuals come together to solve. Problem B: This encompasses all of the problems (team dynamics, interpersonal skills, communication, collaboration, etc.) that stem from ‘human interactions’ and it steals time and energy from efforts needed to solve Problem A. 3. Leaders interact with people to solve a myriad of problems every day and to be truly successful at solving both problem A and problem B, leaders must be able to effectively manage the diversity that stems from people whose A-I preference ranges from highly adaptive to the highly innovative and every point in between. Adaption-Innovation Theory One could spend years reading and learning about this theory and still not understand fully its power. Even today, Dr. Kirton, along with his closest colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania and the Thomas N. Barnes Center for Enlisted Education are learning new things about the theory and new ways it can be used to help organizations, and the leaders of those organization solve problems and manage change. With that said, our purpose here is to provide a basic understanding of the theory in order to help you better understand yourself and those you lead. As they say, leadership begins with selfawareness. Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 171 The Adaption-Innovation Theory is founded on the assumption that all people solve problems and are creative, and that both are outcomes of the same brain function. “The theory sharply distinguishes between level and style of creativity, problem solving, and decision making, therefore the theory is ONLY concerned with style” Level: Refers to potential capacity (intelligence or talent) and learned levels (such as management, supervisory and leadership competency). It is important to understand and remember that both styles (adaption and innovation) are found at every level—from the highest to the lowest. Style: Refers to “how we think,” our preferred cognitive approach to problem solving, and decision making. These style differences, which lie on a normally distributed continuum, range from strong adaption to strong innovation. Progress Check 1. What is the difference between Problem A and Problem B? 2. The Adaption-Innovation Theory is only concerned with ___________. 3. What is the difference between style and level? 172 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Proper Terms and Perception Although people tend to use the terms adaptors and innovators, we should always use the more precise terms of “more adaptive” and “more innovative.” These are better because they keep us from labeling others as only adaptive or only innovative. The fact is, although your position on the continuum remains stable over time, how you are perceived is relative and changes depending on who (individuals/groups) you are interacting with. The bell curve below shows the distribution of style preferences along the A-I continuum. All numbers refer to the general population relative to a normal distribution of the responses (Bell Curve): 1. 68% fall between Mild Adaptor and Mild Innovator (34% on each side of mean) 2. 26% are moderate adaptors or moderate innovators (13.59% each) 3. 5% are strong adaptors or strong innovator (2.14% each) Bell Curve Refer to Perceptions Figures below: Example 1: In this example, you (Y) are in the Mild Adaptor area of the continuum and the people (P) you work with are very close to your position on the continuum. These people perceive you (and you perceive them) as being very similar, e.g. all of you take a very similar approach to problem solving. You may also notice that it is easy to communicate with the members in this group. Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 173 Example 2: Although your position (Y) on the continuum has not changed, the people you interact with fall in the Moderate and Strong Innovator areas of the continuum, and as a result, they may perceive you as conforming, predictable, inflexible, wedded to the system, and intolerant of ambiguity. You probably see them as unsound, impractical, risky, abrasive, and a threat to the established system. You may also notice some challenges in communicating (getting your thoughts across) to this group Example 3: Once again, your position has not changed, but this time, the people you must interact with fall below you in the Strong Adaptor area of the continuum. This means they will more than likely perceive you as unsound, impractical, risky, abrasive, and a threat to the established system, just as you perceived the people in example 2. Again, you may also notice some challenges in communicating (getting your thoughts across) to this group. So, it is all relative! Although your position on the continuum does not change, how others perceive you and how you perceive them depends on where you are on the continuum in relation to their position. Perceptions 174 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory So what is the take away from these examples: First, it is equally important that you understand how others perceive you, and why they perceive you that way. Remember it is relative to where you and others fall on the continuum. Second, although large gaps between styles means greater chances of conflict (i.e. Problem B), it also offers greater potential/ability to solve problems (Problem A) because of cognitive diversity. Regardless of where we fall on the continuum, we can all be equally creative, which also means we can all be equally good or equally bad at handling change. Before moving on, let’s be clear about Problem A and Problem B. Problem A: This is the ‘actual problem’ that two of more individuals come together to solve. Problem B: This encompasses all of the problems (team dynamics, interpersonal skills, communication, collaboration, etc.) that stem from ‘human interactions’ and it steals time and energy from efforts needed to solve Problem A. In the examples above we used words and phrases such as predictable, inflexible, wedded to the system, and unsound to describe the more adaptive and words like impractical, risky, and abrasive to describe the more innovative. In reality, both styles have many traits, tendencies, and characteristics as described below. See if you recognize any of them in yourself. Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Adaptors exhibit the following tendencies: 175 Innovators exhibit the following tendencies: - Prefer more structure and more of it consensually agreed. - Prefer less structure and can tolerate less of it consensually agreed - Improve or extend the paradigm in order to solve problems. - Challenge or break the paradigm in order to solve problems. - Use rules to solve problems. - May break the rules to solve problems. - Bring order out of turbulence. - Catalyze the necessary turbulence. - Revitalize current systems for tomorrow. - Help create break from worn-out systems. - Work within the system to bring about new improvement, ideas, and greater efficiencies. - Work outside the system to bring about different ideas and different structures for the high Adaptors - Value themselves for being: - Value themselves for being -- Improvers -- Full of Ideas -- Resource Effective -- Provocative -- Supportive -- Assumption Challengers -- Consistent -- Accepting of Change -- Methodical -- Intuitive -- Masters of Structure -- Mold Breakers -- Sound -- Shocking -- Prudent Risk-takers -- Daring Risk-takers 176 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Progress Check 4. What is a more precise term for adaptors? 5. What is a more precise term for innovators? 6. Why is it important to know where you fall on the Adaption-Innovation continuum? 7. Why does a large gap in style offer greater potential/ability to solve problems? 8. What are some of the tendencies adaptors exhibit concerning “structure”? 9. What are some of the tendencies innovators exhibit concerning “structure”? 10. What are some of the tendencies adaptors exhibit concerning “the paradigm”? 11. What are some of the tendencies innovators exhibit concerning “the paradigm”? Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 177 Implications for Use of A-I Theory Cognitive Gap: There are two forms of cognitive gap. The first form is the distance between one’s preferred style and the behavior actually needed in a particular situation (i.e. the distance between ones preferred style and his/her task). The second form is, the distance in a social interaction, between the preferred styles of 1) two people, 2) a person and a group, or 3) two groups (refer back to figure 2). According to A-I Theory, the larger the cognitive gap, the greater the potential for conflict and for productive problem solving Potential for Conflict Small Gaps: A difference in cognitive styles becomes noticeable when the distance between two individuals (or two groups) falls on the extreme edges of a style (e.g. Moderate Innovators). The advantage of this small gap is there is very little, if any, conflict. If conflict does occur, both individuals find it easy to manage. The disadvantage of this gap is likeminded thinking can lead to less than optimal solutions. Large Gaps: These are when one individual (or group) has one style and the other person or group has an adjacent style (e.g. Mild Adaptor interacting with a Mild Innovator). With this difference, individuals find they must consciously manage the relationship due to minor, but very noticeable conflict caused by their difference in styles. The advantage here is that different perspectives lead to better solutions to Problem A (i.e. the task at hand). The disadvantage is that individuals must expend some energy and time coping and managing the relationship (i.e. resolution of Problem B). Significant Gaps: These are when one individual (or group) has one style and the other person or group has a style that is separated by one style (e.g. Strong Adaptor interacting with a Mild Adaptor). When the cognitive gap is at the extreme ends of the ranges for the groups, these individuals (or groups) experience a great deal of conflict and need increasing amounts of coping behavior to manage/maintain the relationship. Once again, the advantage of this cognitive gap is a wider range of thinking that can lead to outstanding solutions to Problem A. The disadvantage is that individuals usually end up expending way more energy and time coping and trying to fix Problem B than they expend on solving Problem A. In many cases, without help, these individuals or groups may never even get to Problem A. When the cognitive gap is separated by two or more styles (e.g. Strong Adaptor. interacting with a Mild Innovator), the effort required for successful coping rises exponentially with the size of the gap. Moreover, coping becomes even more difficult when this gap lies between two people, one of whom is the boss or when the rewards and penalties for success or failure are high. 178 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Potential for Problem Solving Adaptors and innovators are equally good at solving problems…but optimal problem solving results from both adaptors and innovators working on the problem together because it brings all sides (perspectives) of a problem to light. Although this brings Problem B into the mix, leaders who manage this cognitive diversity effectively end up with the best possible solutions. Because all organizations naturally cycle through periods of steadiness-change-steadiness, they need a mix of adaptors and innovators to help with the myriad of challenges that stem from this cycle. Imagine an organization (or team) comprised of only adaptors. Given the information in table 1 above, we’d have an organization full of people who are extremely good at solving problems by “staying within the organization’s paradigm”, “working within the existing structure, rules, and policies’, and by ensuring they had group consensus on every decision before implementing any change. This organization would have great efficiency and operate like a well-oiled machine…at first. However, nothing in the United State Air Force is static for long. Missions change and when they do, the organization must be able to change and adapt as well. Organizations with only adaptors handle small, incremental changes just fine…but major changes send it into a death spiral. Now imagine an organization (or team) comprised of only innovators. Given the information in table 1 above, we’d have an organization full of people who are extremely good at solving problems by “breaking the rules”, “working outside the existing structure, rules, and policies’, and by having little or no concern for group consensus before implementing change. Although this organization might experience major success when new, it would not be very efficient in the long run because of the constant change and very little rule following (i.e. little stability). In summary, organizations with only adaptors or innovators quickly perish (or fail in executing its mission). The take away here is optimal problem solving results from both adaptors and innovators working on the problem together which also requires effective management of the cognitive gap (i.e. Problem B). An effective method for managing cognitive gap is through the use of Bridgers. Bridgers Ways to manage cognitive gap include changing jobs, changing the job, position or duties, delegating or reassigning team roles, reorganizing teams, and reassigning certain members. Although these methods may work occasionally, as members of the military, we seldom have the luxury of changing job or reassigning people. Thus, we must find another way to manage the cognitive gap. That’s where Bridgers come in. So what is a Bridger? - First, and foremost, bridging is a social role that requires: -- human relation skills (which can be taught) Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 179 -- bridger to be acceptable to those they bridge -- a willingness to fulfill the role To be a successful Bridger, one needs to be willing to undertake the role and ideally (albeit not mandatory) have a cognitive preference (style) between those to be bridged. For example, a Moderate Adaptor might help bridge the gap between a Strong Adaptor and Mild Adaptor. Likewise, a Moderate Innovator might help bridge the gap between Mild Innovator and Strong Innovator. Another example might be a Mild Innovator bridging between a Strong Adaptor and a Strong Innovator. Although being in the area between those to be bridged is ideal, a person can still bridge whose style is outside those to be bridged can still act as a bridger. For example, a Strong Innovator could bridge between a Strong Adaptor and a Mild Innovator. Successful Bridgers help those being bridged understand each other’s approach through the use of interpersonal skills, active listening, and effective questioning techniques. These help both parties understand why and how the other party approaches problem solving and they help both parties understand each other’s strengths and weakness, which helps both parties expend more effort on Problem A. Bridging is reaching out to people in the team and helping them to be part of it so that they may contribute even if their contribution is outside mainstream. Bridgers are important in maintaining group cohesion and can significantly reduce Problem B by redirecting group energy to solving Problem A. (Kirton, 2003, p. 247). The Bridger fills roles of counselor, mediator, and negotiator (Kirton, 2003, p. 253). Bridging is a learned skill, one that effective NCOs must learn to be effective…there are no official Bridgers as it is a learned skill. Kirton also observes “Bridgers need the skills necessary to intervene and the motive to want to risk it” (Kirton, 2003, p. 250). When we add the power of collaboration to Bridging, we add another effective way of facilitating problem solving. Although Cognitive Diversity increases the likelihood of coping behavior occurring, when used positively it can also be used to increase the team’s ability to solve Problem B and subsequently solve Problem A. When we build teams with Adaptors and Innovators, each provides or attend to the following for their team: 180 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Adaptors - Supply consensus, sensitivity, and group cohesion Innovators - Provide the break with accepted theory - Provide stability and continuity - Provoke the group to reconsider consensus related issues - Provide a safe testing group for risky ventures - Supply the dynamics to bring about discontinuous change When no one is available (or willing) to fulfill the role of Bridger, NCOs may find themselves in a situation where they have no choice but to act as a Bridger…just one more reason for possessing a solid grasp of A-I Theory. Coping Behavior Having a Bridger certainly helps when there is a large cognitive gap between two people, a person and a group, or two groups of people. However, there are times when all of us must behave (i.e. problem solve) outside of our preferred style. To put it in simple terms: “Coping Behavior is effort required to do something that is not our preference” Why do we need Coping Behavior? We need coping behavior because we cannot always solve problems using our preferred style. There are two main reasons for operating outside our preferred style. The first reason is the nature of the problem and the second reason is the nature of the solution (desired by oneself or by authority). The Cost of Coping Behavior It is important to understand that everyone copes at some point, and that working outside one’s preferred style is psychologically expensive. When coping, adaptors must move away from familiar, consensually agreed structure into territory with more of the kinds of risk they carefully avoid. Of course, they can (and do) use techniques (which can be taught) to cope. However, there is a big difference between indulging in a brain storming exercise in a comfortable setting away from the job and carrying out the same exercise in an environment that is hostile. A person who is more innovative in the same situation would worry less. Innovators too have their difficulties when problem solving in adaptive modes/environments. They must constantly remind themselves that to survive successfully in an established group, they need to master the rules and operate intelligently and creatively within consensually agreed constraints just as the more adaptive people do. Why do people cope? If operating outside our preferred style is psychologically expensive—why do we do it? Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 181 The answer is Motive which generates additional energy and discounts additional discomfort until either the task is complete, or it becomes possible to solve the problem within limits closer to one’s preferred style. Of course, if there is no opportunity, then there is no motive. Although there are many definitions for motive and opportunity, for our purposes we define them as follows: Motive: “An emotion, desire, physiological need, or similar impulse that causes one to take action.” Opportunity: “An appropriate or favorable time, occasion, or situation favorable for attainment of a goal” When motive is switched off, coping behavior is also switched off! There at least four conditions where we simply “turn off” our coping behavior. Condition 1 When operating in an environment where we can use our preferred style (i.e. little to no Cognitive Gap exists) Condition 2 When operating in an environment where we cannot use our preferred style because of a large Cognitive Gap (e.g. Mild Adaptor working with/for Strong Innovator) Condition 3 When the opportunity (need) for/to cope no longer exists (new position, duties, assignment, boss, etc.) Condition 4 When the motive for coping no longer exists or is no longer important (unable to get promoted, recognized, or rewarded or something in life has changed, etc.) Effective Leadership Rarely do we get to work in an environment where we can operate entirely within our preferred style. Therefore, as enlisted leaders, we must recognize that actual behavior is always a blend of one’s preferred style and coping behavior. Effective leaders create environments where they only ask for minimum coping behavior most of the time and only have to ask for maximum coping behavior in times of crisis. The Cost of Coping Behavior Figure on the next page is a visual representation of the cost of coping behavior. SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: What are the disadvantages of working with team members that have the same cognitive style as the leader? 182 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Cost of Coping Behavior The Cost of Coping Behavior figure above shows us two very important points: First, we can cope for long periods of time when the behavior required is not too far away from our preferred style. Second, the further we move away from our preferred style, the harder it is to continue coping. If we are unable to walk away from a situation for reasons outside our control, and must continue coping, the effort takes a toll on our mental and physical health. Eventually, the effort becomes so psychologically costly that, regardless of the consequences, we lose our motive and switch off our coping. When this happens, we see people make life-changing choices in order to get away from the situation so they can return to state where they can use their preferred style. When people switch off their coping, we often see a significant impact: switching career fields, no-notice retirements, and separation from the service without benefits, divorces, and suicides. SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: How can an understanding of coping behavior help you become a better leader? Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 183 Progress Check 12. What are the two forms of cognitive gap? 13. According to A-I Theory, the larger the cognitive gap, the greater the potential for conflict and for __________. 14. Leaders who manage ______________ effectively end up with the best possible solutions. 15. Organizations with only adaptors or innovators quickly _______________. 16. An effective method for managing cognitive gap is through the use of ___________. 17. What is bridging? 18. Why do we need coping behavior? 19. Effective leaders create environments where they only ask for __________ coping behavior most of the time and only have to ask for __________ coping behavior in times of crisis. 184 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Matching Exercise Match the terms on the left to their definitions on the right. Each term will be used only once. 1. ___ Problem A A. potential capacity: intelligence or talent 2. ___ Level B. preferred approach to problem solving, and decision making. 3. ___ Coping Behavior C. precise terms use to describe the A-I Continuum 4. ___ More Adaptive or Innovative D. problem that two of more individuals come together to solve. 5. ___ Style E. problems that stem from human interactions 6. ___ Problem B F. distance between one’s preferred style and the behavior actually needed in a situation 7. ___ Cognitive Gap #1 G. social role requiring human relation skills, and an intermediate score (ideally) 8. ___ Opportunity H. effort required to do something that is not one’s preference 9. ___ Bridger I. emotion, desire, physiological need that causes one to take action 10. ___ Cognitive Gap #2 J. All of us are intelligent and creative, at different levels and with different styles 11. ___ Motive K. An appropriate or favorable time, occasion, or situation favorable for attainment of a goal 12. ___ Basic Principle of A-I Theory L. distance in a social interaction between preferred styles Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 185 Summarize and Reflect The A-I theory rests on the assumption that all of us are intelligent and creative, at different levels and with different styles, and all of us are capable of contributing to team problem solving as long as there is both motive and opportunity. A-I theory is concerned with our preferred way of problem solving, so it is important to remember that no one style is better than the other; both styles (more adaptive and more innovative) have advantages and disadvantages. Kirton wrote, “To problem solve successfully . . . we need to view problems and conceive solutions in terms of what is needed. . . we need to understand how each person in our problemsolving team works, so as to get the best out of everyone as the nature of each problem changes” (Kirton, 2003, p. 24). If your team is efficient, you, your unit, and the mission benefit. Why does that matter to you? The relationship between cognitive style and diversity of a team is a strong relationship! Insufficient creativity /problem-solving diversity leads to poor problem solving (e.g., teams with a closely grouped style hinder the diversity of the team). Teams should not be all innovative or all adaptive, either can be fatal. 186 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory Key Terms Adaptors, 172, 175 Bridgers, 178 Cognitive Diversity, 174, 178 Cognitive Gap, 177 Coping Behavior, 180 Innovators, 172, 175 Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory, 170 Level, 171 More Adaptive, 172 More Innovative, 172 Preferred Cognitive Approach, 170 Problem A, 170 Problem B, 170 Style, 171 References Kirton, M. J., (2003). Adaption-Innovation in the Context of Diversity and Change Kirton, M. J., (1999). Adaptors and Innovators: Why New Initiatives Get Blocked Paper Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 187 Progress Check Answers 1. What is the difference between Problem A and Problem B? Problem A is the ‘actual problem’ that two of more individuals come together to solve. Problem B encompasses all of the problems (team dynamics, interpersonal skills, communication, collaboration, etc.) that stem from ‘human interactions’. 2. The Adaption-Innovation Theory is only concerned with style. 3. What is the difference between style and level? Level refers to potential capacity (intelligence or talent) and learned levels (such as management, supervisory and leadership competency). Style: refers to “how we think,” our preferred cognitive approach to problem solving, and decision making. 4. What is a more precise term for adaptors? More adaptive 5. What is a more precise term for innovators? More innovative 6. Why is it important to know where you fall on the Adaption-Innovation continuum? How others perceive you and how you perceive them depends on where you are on the continuum in relation to their position. 7. Why does a large gap in style offer greater potential/ability to solve problems? Because of the cognitive diversity 8. What are some of the tendencies adaptors exhibit concerning “structure”? Prefer more structure and more of it consensually agreed 9. What are some of the tendencies innovators exhibit concerning “structure”? Prefer less structure and can tolerate less of it consensually agreed 10. What are some of the tendencies adaptors exhibit concerning “the paradigm”? Improve or extend the paradigm in order to solve problems 188 Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 11. What are some of the tendencies innovators exhibit concerning “the paradigm”? Challenge or break the paradigm in order to solve problems 12. What are the two forms of cognitive gap? The first form is the distance between one’s preferred style and the behavior actually needed in a particular situation (i.e. the distance between ones preferred style and his/her task). The second form is, the distance in a social interaction, between the preferred styles of 1) two people, 2) a person and a group, or 3) two groups (refer back to figure 2). 13. According to A-I Theory, the larger the cognitive gap, the greater the potential for conflict and for productive problem solving. 14. Leaders who manage cognitive diversity effectively end up with the best possible solutions. 15. Organizations with only adaptors or innovators quickly perish. 16. An effective method for managing cognitive gap is through the use of bridgers. 17. What is bridging? Bridging is reaching out to people in the team and helping them to be part of it so that they may contribute even if their contribution is outside mainstream. 18. Why do we need coping behavior? Because we cannot always solve problems using our preferred style. 19. Effective leaders create environments where they only ask for minimum coping behavior most of the time and only have to ask for maximum coping behavior in times of crisis. Chapter Six: Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory 189 Matching Exercise Answers Match the terms on the left to their definitions on the right. Each term will be used only once. 1. D Problem A A. potential capacity: intelligence or talent 2. A Level B. preferred approach to problem solving, and decision making. 3. H Coping Behavior C. precise terms use to describe the A-I Continuum 4. C More Adaptive or Innovative D. problem that two of more individuals come together to solve. 5. B Style E. problems that stem from human interactions 6. E Problem B F. distance between one’s preferred style and the behavior actually needed in a situation 7. F Cognitive Gap #1 G. social role requiring human relation skills, and an intermediate score (ideally) 8. K Opportunity H. effort required to do something that is not one’s preference 9. G Bridger I. emotion, desire, physiological need that causes one to take action 10. L Cognitive Gap #2 J. All of us are intelligent and creative, at different levels and with different styles 11. I K. An appropriate or favorable time, occasion, or situation favorable for attainment of a goal 12. Motive J Basic Principle of A-I Theory L. distance in a social interaction between preferred styles
CHAPTER ONE: Team Building Inside this chapter: Introduction Teams x Group x Team The Team Mission Team Roles x Roles x The P.E.P. Cycle x The “Z” Process x A-I Theory Team Dynamics x Five C’s of a Team x Five Common Dysfunctions of a Team Stages of Team Development TSgt Gates has been recently assigned the duty of putting together an honor guard team for the Squadron. Each workcenter within the Squadron is providing him with personnel. At what point will TSgt Gates and his personnel be considered a team? What will it take for TSgt Gates to produce a strong team with personnel assigned from different work centers? “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.” - Henry Ford x Forming x Storming x Norming x Performing x Adjourning & Transforming Measuring Team Success 8 Chapter One: Team Building Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: TERMINAL COGNITIVE OBJECTIVE: Comprehend team building and its impact on team success and NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Terminal Cognitive Samples of Behavior: 1. Explain how team building impacts team success and NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. 2. Give examples of team building’s impacts team success and NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. 3. Predict the impact of team building on team success and NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. Remember standing with other recruits in front of the flag at the MEPS (military entrance processing station) waiting to take your first oath of enlistment? Were you and the other recruits a group or a team? Sure, you all shared the same goal as teams do (to join the military), but you were still only a group of people. What does it take to produce a strong team from a group of strangers? How will you manage these men and women through struggles, conflict, and even victory? You will begin by examining what it takes to construct and lead Air Force teams. First, you will learn to identify the difference between groups and teams and then look at the importance of your team’s mission. You will then examine the five common roles that team members fulfill and understand the importance of having each role represented on your team. AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVE: Value team building and how it enhances on NCO, unit, and team effectiveness. Affective Samples of Behavior: 1. Actively participate in reflective thinking opportunities associated with team building and its impact on NCO, unit, and team effectiveness. 2. Willingly accept that team building is important to NCO, unit, and team effectiveness. 3. Willingly develop a preference for using team building to enhance NCO, unit, and team effectiveness. 4. Commit to using team building to enhance NCO, unit, and team After that, you will explore team dynamics, AKA the ongoing interaction by individuals that help, and sometimes hurt, teams trying to reach their goals. You will continue with examining and understanding of some pitfalls and dysfunctions that can negatively affect true team building. And then move on with the five stages of team development and discuss where you feel TSgt Mifflin’s team from The Office stands. You will wrap up with an understanding of the attributes of successful teams. Additionally, included in this chapter are Self-Reflection Opportunities that will ask you to think about how you’ve impacted your work center through personal examples of how your team building impacted NCO, unit, and mission effectiveness. By the end of this chapter, you should be better prepared to lead and manage units as evidenced by your comprehension of team building. Chapter One: Team Building 9 Teams Teams are everywhere! You will find them on school playgrounds, in musical bands, in organizations (like process improvement teams), professional sports teams, military peacekeeping and humanitarian effort coalitions, inspection teams, etc. There is also the team you’re a part of, your work center team. As a noncommissioned officer, you are the leader of and a team member among Airmen. You may not have selected your team and its members-you were either assigned to it or it was assigned to you. Definitions From your own experiences, how would you explain the difference between a group and a team? Often times, groups are associated with words such as: collection, gaggle, crowd, cluster, assembly, gathering, or mass. When taken in this context it is easy to see that a group is simply an assembly of people or objects. With this definition, it is easy to see how a group can mature into a team. As history and your personal experiences show, teams are a special kind of group, but not all groups become teams. A group is an assemblage of persons (or objects) located or gathered together. A team is a group organized to work together. Words that describe teams include: unified, cohesive, collaborative, solidarity, joint, and coalition. From a review of these words you should be able to recognize a team as being an organized group of individuals working together to reach a common goal. This statement may seem simple enough. However, there are several key elements to consider before a group becomes a team. For instance, a group must first be organized in order to work together. Just like a well-tuned machine, several parts (or persons) must be positioned with efforts synchronized to function in a way that produces a mutually-desired result. Teams will typically outperform any group and most reasonable expectations placed on each of its members. This is due to the synergy teams generate. One plus one equals a lot more than two. It is important to understand the difference between a group and a team. A group is just people gathered together with no common goal or shared identity. An example of this would be a collection of strangers on a bus or elevator. Sure, they all share the common goal to reach the same destination, but they are not coordinating, or organizing, their individual efforts to reach this goal. 10 Chapter One: Team Building However, if a group adopts a common objective and begins working together toward that objective-they become and are referred to as a team. Members of a team appreciate that their own (individual) success is determined by the collective performance of everyone on the team. They have a much greater motivation to help and support those team members whose performance may fall behind ... for whatever reason. An example of this would be a deployed medical team. Working in a field hospital in a deployed location, a wounded Airman is brought in with an injured leg from an IED. Although each member of the medical team has their own success in their specialty, the medical staff members work together using their life-saving tactics, advanced medical techniques, and skills to save lives in the field and complete their mission. AFI 36-2618, The Enlisted Force Structure, states that NCOs must, ― “Lead and develop subordinates and exercise effective followership in mission accomplishment. It goes on to say that as one prepares to become a senior NCO, they must “lead and manage teams while maintaining the highest level of readiness to ensure mission success.” When an organization operates as a team and not a group, they will often show team spirit. Team spirit is indicated by: x Increased productivity x High morale during high ops tempo x Willingness to help fellow teammates x Strong identity/camaraderie x Little to no negative conflict x Differences resolved through Individuals who are just part compromise or collaboration of a group typically feel indifferent and tend to consider a group’s efforts unimportant, meaningless, and with no significant purpose. In contrast, when you are part of a team the feeling is typically one in which personnel feel like they have a part in something special, have an identity, and a better chance of succeeding. In a team, teammates work harder, are more willing to help, achieve greater results, and have an increased pride in self and the team’s success. The challenge faced as enlisted leaders is convincing your people that they are not just members of a group, but members of an important team; a team with members committed to each other, and a team committed to their organization’s mission, their wing’s priorities, and their nation’s security. There is a place for groups in our society, but not in our military forces. As enlisted leaders, you are responsible for health, welfare, and performance. The demands placed on our people and organizations call for the power of real teams. Together we pursue a mutual goal that we refer to as our team mission. Chapter One: Team Building 11 12 Chapter One: Team Building SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: Based on what you read in the “The Office” activity, would you say the flight functioned as a group or a team? Why? Chapter One: Team Building 13 Progress Check 1. Define group and give some examples. 2. Define team and give some examples. 3. How do you feel when you are part of a group? 4. When you are just part of a group, how did you feel about supporting its efforts and its members? 5. When you are part of a team, how do you feel? 6. What are some indications (signs, symptoms, or behaviors) of an organization with a healthy team spirit? 14 Chapter One: Team Building The Team’s Mission AFDD1-1, Leadership and Force Development states that, “The primary task of a military organization is to perform its mission.” The Department of Defense Dictionary defines mission as, “the task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore…a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task.” Regardless of specialty, organization, duty location, or rank; as Airmen, it is your purpose to proudly serve the American People and partner nations by accomplishing the Air Force mission: Mission is a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task. “Fly, fight and win...in air, space, and cyberspace.” As Airmen, you are all part of a unique and outstanding team expected to produce results that contribute to fulfilling this mission. The above statement acts as a focal point or “lighthouse” that motions our Air Force toward a common objective. As NCOs and enlisted leaders, you must completely understand and accept your team’s mission before you can influence and motivate others to commit to it. Developing a clear vision that captures the desired outcome is necessary especially when articulating it to, and providing direction for, your team. One method used to assist in guiding personnel is known as a mission statement. For instance, Air University’s mission: “As the intellectual and leadership center of the Air Force, Air University provides dynamic comprehensive education to prepare graduates to develop, employ, command, research and champion air, space, and cyberspace power at all levels.”1 The Thomas N. Barnes Center for Enlisted Education is a subsidiary of Air University whose mission statement is more specific, detailing what this organization does to support Air University initiatives that support the Air Force mission. The Barnes Center is committed to: “Provide the continuum of education necessary to inspire and develop enlisted leaders with the moral framework of integrity, service, and excellence.”2 Chapter One: Team Building 15 With focus on this mission statement, members of the 8T000 Air Force Specialty orchestrate all efforts to provide enlisted members with a continuum of education necessary to develop them as the world’s best enlisted Air Force leaders. Curriculum designers conduct hours of research to capture the latest and greatest theories, concepts, practices, techniques, methodologies, and strategies. They use these information sources to construct student guides and teaching instruments that are used at ALS and NCO academies worldwide as well as the AFSNCO Academy and Chief’s Leadership Course located at Maxwell-Gunter AFB, Alabama. Management is in-place to oversee the organization’s various functions, academies, programs, and processes to ensure “Team PME” meets its mission to provide a continuum of education for today’s enlisted force. Their combined efforts support enlisted Airmen in fulfilling their overarching Air Force mission. 16 Chapter One: Team Building SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: Based on what you read in the “The Office” activity, what would you say was the team’s mission? If you were on the team, what would you write as the mission statement? Chapter One: Team Building 17 Progress Check 7. What is meant by “team mission?” What is your team’s mission? 8. As an NCO and team leader, how important is it for you to understand and articulate your team’s mission to the team? Why? 18 Chapter One: Team Building Team Roles The mission cannot be completed without people and those people play certain roles within the team to accomplish that mission. Each member of the team is uniquely structured with a combination of personality temperaments, traits, strengths, and skill sets. These characteristics may lead to one’s selection for a particular job, responsibility, or role on a team. According to Allen N. Fahden and Srinivasan Namakkal, developers of the Team Dimensions Concept and the Team Dimensions Profile, there are four roles that are typically found on teams and together spell out CARE: These are roles that people find most comfortable fulfilling based on their most natural thought processes and behavioral tendencies. These responsibilities represent the key roles that people perform on successful teams to accomplish a shared mission to reach a desired result. Please understand none of us are locked in to any one role. In fact, when part of a team, you may often find yourself performing roles and responsibilities that are not natural for you to perform. The first of these basic roles is the Creator. Creators focus on the possibilities. They generate new ideas and fresh concepts. They prefer to live in a world of possibilities. Creators look for activities that are unstructured or abstract, and they thrive on innovation and unique solutions. Creators are good at reframing a problem and looking for outside the box solutions. Creators are not limited by fear of reprisal or failure, or by existing rules, regulations, or boundaries. Creators “see” problems or situations from a globalist perspective so they are often able to recognize alternatives that others may miss. Chapter One: Team Building 19 Creators are: x Spontaneous, exciting, enthusiastic, and great at brainstorming ideas. x Typically, the ones who offer a fresh perspective. x Offer bold, untried approaches and ideas. x Able to see the “big picture.” x Optimistic and visualize the possibilities. x Willing to solve problems. After ideas are created, savvy team leaders hand them off to the Advancer. Advancers focus on the interaction. They communicate new ideas and carry them forward. Advancers manage the human component of any solution and enjoy whipping up enthusiasm for a project. Advancers recognize ideas and new directions in their early stages and develop ways to promote them. Advancers use insightful planning based on past experiences and successful methods to “advance” ideas towards implementation. Advancers prefer familiar ideas but are not inclined to let rules and boundaries discourage them. Actions are directed toward achieving objectives by the most direct and efficient means. Advancers are: x Positive with self-confident attitudes x Insightful planners and use past experience to guide success x Energetic support of team goals and objectives x Well-developed promoters x Persistence in championing and advancing new ideas x Not easily discouraged An Advancer recognizes new opportunities, develops ways to promote ideas, and moves toward implementation. It is critical for them to be open to what should happen next; this is when smart team leaders turn to the Refiner on the team. 20 Chapter One: Team Building Refiners focus on the analysis. They challenge all concepts. Refiners use a methodical process to analyze things in an orderly manner to detect possible flaws and identify potential problems under discussion. Refiners are good at reviewing ideas and implementation plans, modifying those ideas or coming up with new ideas, and rationally reviewing them to ensure successful implementation. Refiners use logic and a systematic approach to redesign a solution, and they make sure that ideas are sound before moving them to the next level. Refiners are: x Able to identify and clarify possible problems x Detail-oriented x Experts in specifics and the development of a sound implementation strategy x Analytical x Able to offer new ideas and alternatives x Practical “sounding boards” to validate ideas As the Refiner challenges and analyzes ideas and plans, they are often passed back and forth among the Advancer, Creator, and Refiner until the Refiner is satisfied that the idea or plan is ready for implementation by the Executor. Executors focus on the realization. They follow up on team objectives and implement ideas and solutions. Executors deliver concrete results and seek successful implementations. The Executor focuses on ensuring the implementation process proceeds in an orderly manner, based on a wellthought-out plan. Executors strive for achieving highquality results, with attention to details. Executors prefer to let others take the lead on creating and refining ideas because they enjoy the task and responsibility of final implementation. Executors pride themselves on their ability to meet objectives professionally and efficiently. Chapter One: Team Building Executors are: x Willing to implement ideas x Meticulous in following directions and completing tasks x Assertive x Independent x Keepers of high standards x Able to bring up problems early enough to effectively solve them The Executor lays the groundwork for implementation, manages the details, and moves the process to completion. One final role that may be present on the team is the Flexer. Flexers can focus on everything. They are a combination of the other four roles. Flexers have an equal preference for most or all of the roles. Flexers can often adapt their styles to fit the needs of the team, and they probably view issues from different perspectives. Given their ability to adapt their style, Flexers are very good at monitoring contributions of all team members and filling the gaps in order to keep things moving in the right direction. Flexers are: x Able to connect and negotiate with all types of people x Tolerant and understand different members of the team x Able to identify what is missing in the process, and fill in the gap to allow for uninterrupted progress x Willing to offer suggestions to improve the process Because we almost never to get to pick our team members, we need to be prepared for what could occur when one or more of the roles are missing. Here are a just a few examples: 21 22 Chapter One: Team Building Only Creators and Executors: Without Advancers to promote the ideas and Refiners to think through the implementation process, the team will likely rush into implementing a new but unfeasible idea or plan. Only Refiners and Executors: Without a Creator to propose fresh concepts and an Advancer to promote the concepts, the team winds up idling indefinitely because they review problems and revisit old solutions over and over. Only Creators and Refiners: Without an Advancer to promote ideas and think of ways to implement them or an Executor to “execute the plan, the team discussion results in an endless debate between the Creator and the Refiner. By continuously revaluating and challenging their own ideas, Creators and Refiners struggle to “advance” and/or “execute.” Only Advancers and Creators: These teams would likely move forward with the Creator’s new ideas even though they have not been scrutinized. Though skeptical, the Advancer would promote the idea with the hope of eventually discovering how an idea could be successfully implemented. Here is a brief summary: x Without Creators, there are no new concepts x Without Advancers, ideas stall or do not come to light x Without Refiners, new directions are not thought through; details are overlooked x Without Executors, there is no implementation x Without Flexers, there are gaps in the team Chapter One: Team Building 23 Never assume Creators are natural team leaders simply because they feel comfortable thinking up original ideas or that Executors make good team leaders because of their assertiveness. The situation and team dynamics are what influence how team roles play out. SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: What team roles, if any, do you see represented in the scenario? If so, how successful do you think the team will be with those roles represented? 24 Chapter One: Team Building Progress Check 9. In “The Office” activity at the beginning of this lesson identify the character with each role of a team. How can you identity them? Character [Name] Team Role 10. Using the table, list the five roles associated with teams and some of the characteristics for each. Roles Characteristics Chapter One: Team Building 25 11. Again, list the five roles associated with teams and what the impact to the team might be if the role was not present. Roles Impact to Team without this Role present 12. What are the advantages of having a Flexer on your team? 26 Chapter One: Team Building The P.E.P. Cycle As roles are played out and ideas come about, there is a process the idea naturally goes through; it is called the P.E.P. Cycle. The P.E.P Cycle is a Panic-Elation-Panic cycle that occurs whenever you are in a situation that requires you to come up with new ideas (team meetings, problem solving sessions, AFSO21 events, etc.). The P.E.P. Cycle begins with the call for ideas in order to reach a specified team goal. At this point, all team members panic as they attempt to come up with ideas. When brainstorming begins, the Creator’s Panic lasts only a few seconds as they immediately visualize all the possibilities and produce ideas. Other members come up with ideas too, but the Creators are almost always the first to respond with new and innovative ideas. Creators quickly move up the “bell curve” to Elation as every idea is a “great idea” to a Creator. However, without the Advancers’ support and encouragement without critical judgment, (or encouragement from the team leader) even creators return to Panic. When other team members come up with an idea, they also move from Panic to Elation simply because they “thought of something” but most quickly return to Panic because they immediately begin doubting their own ideas. When brainstorming begins, Refiners are usually unable to offer any ideas until they have more information and so they remain in Panic mode. Therefore, instead of generating ideas, Refiners observe the interaction between the Creators and Advancers, scrutinizing (analyzing) every proposal. They examine ideas, considering facts and logic, to determine whether they are reasonable. Some of the ideas may be confirmed as unacceptable which will cause Creators to “slide” back to a state of Panic until the next “great idea” evolves. NCOs who fully understand this process can utilize their knowledge to help team members embrace ideas during the elation phase. When team leaders catch ideas, at the top of the P.E.P. cycle and hand off ideas appropriately, team members become highly motivated and, in turn, the team becomes very effective. The key to success is effective use of the P.E.P. cycle. Chapter One: Team Building 27 “Z” Process Ideas often bounce back and forth among the Creators, Advancers, and Refiners in what’s called the “Z” Process. The Creator comes up with an idea and as the Advancer begins promoting it, the Refiner begins analyzing it. The idea might go back and forth several times before the Refiner (along with the Creator and Advancer) agree the idea is ready to pass off to the Executor. The Executer, who has been waiting for an idea to come to fruition (realization) then, moves the idea into production. Flexers assist the other roles by satisfying the unfulfilled needs of the team in order to reach the goal. 28 Chapter One: Team Building Leaders must effectively manage throughout the P.E.P. Cycle and “Z” Process to make sure the team succeeds. Without continuous leadership involvement and oversight, Creators are likely to continue developing ideas, gaining support from the Advancers and criticism from the Refiners. In the meantime, the Executor waits impatiently idle, waiting for the call to action. It is up to the team leader to: x Recognize when Creators reach Elation x Allow productive discussions with Advancers to exist and continue x Involve Refiners at the appropriate time x Activate the Executors to put the idea into motion Along with “Z” Process and the P.E.P. Cycle, Team dynamics has a significant impact on team effectiveness. Adaption-Innovation (A-I) Theory has a significant impact on team effectiveness. SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: In successful teams there are key roles that people perform to accomplish a shared mission to reach a desired result. In the accomplishment of your work center’s mission who are the Creators, Advancers, Refiners, and Executors. Do you have Flexers on your team? Chapter One: Team Building Progress Check 13. How would you summarize the P.E.P. cycle? 14. Why is it important to understand the P.E.P. cycle? 15. From your reading, how would you summarize the “Z” Process? 16. Why is it important to understand the “Z” Process? 29 30 Chapter One: Team Building 17. How can you use this information on team roles, P.E.P. Cycle and the “Z” Process to help your flight? 18. How will knowledge of team roles the P.E.P. Cycle, and the “Z” Process, help you in the future? Chapter One: Team Building 31 Adaption Innovation (A-I) Theory Since we usually don’t get to pick our team members, it is important to understand how our team members’ preferred approach to problem solving (i.e. thinking style), impacts team dynamics. As you learned in the Adaptive-Innovative chapter, preferred cognitive styles range from more adaptive to more innovative. This cognitive diversity is what makes teams so good at solving Problem A (the task or purpose of the team—the mission). Leaders should keep in mind that adaptors and innovators are equally good at solving problems…but optimal problem solving results from both adaptors and innovators working on the problem together because it brings all sides (perspectives) of a problem to light. These different perspectives also bring Problem B (human interactions) into the mix, and leaders who manage this cognitive diversity effectively (i.e. manage team dynamics) end up with the best possible solutions. SELF-REFLECTION OPPORTUNITY: In successful teams there is a diversity of people performing to accomplish a shared mission. In the accomplishment of your work centers mission who are the more adaptive and the more innovative. Team Dynamics “The key elements in the art of working together are how to deal with change, how to deal with conflict, and how to reach our potential...the needs of the team are best met when we meet the needs of individuals persons.” - Max DePree Each team is made up of individuals who raise concerns for the interpersonal dynamic of the team. Managing or leading teams can be extremely difficult because developing a group into a team depends on relationships within the team. Team Dynamics is an ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to move toward or away from achieving the desired objective. How well people get along determines the team’s effectiveness and its ability to progress through the stages of team development. It is these interpersonal relationships, or team dynamics, that hold a team together or tear it apart. Successful team leaders pay close attention to interpersonal relationships because they know the team’s success rests on the success of its team dynamics. 32 Chapter One: Team Building There are three critical and interrelated elements found in this definition. x The term ongoing process indicates continuous activity. Group dynamics is one in which members remain engaged in for as long as they are team members. x Interaction of individuals is the essence of team dynamics. You must understand that needs may vary considerably for each individual. Some may require status or elevated self-esteem; others may need power while others rely on social relationships and acceptance. However, it is through team dynamics that members satisfy these needs as they gain an identity and personal satisfaction as team members. x Achievement of the desired objective is what separates a team from a group. Previously noted are the efforts to reach a desired result and is the real reason why the team exists in the first place. One of the greatest factors that distinguish groups from teams is what each member contributes. Groups are usually formed without consideration to each person’s skill set. Groups evolve from members with random and overlapping skills and abilities. These people usually are considered crowds with no defined purpose to direct their various talents toward. Teams, on the other hand, are more organized as members become aware of their partner’s skills and responsibilities (roles). Cohesive teams have the ability to realize the needs of their teammates and are considerate of their strengths. It is this understanding among team members that proves vital to the team’s development and overall success. Webster’s dictionary defines teamwork as: “Work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole.” Whether you work for a small town grocery store with ten employees or a squadron with two hundred assigned, your organization’s success is a result of teamwork. Without teamwork, people are likely to pursue their own personal dreams and agendas, allowing the mission to idle. However, effective teamwork directs the energy of all towards one concerted effort which typically leads to incredible results. Chapter One: Team Building 33 One question leaders often ask: “How do I build a solid team of people who work well together to move the organization forward?” While many managers find themselves directing individuals instead of teams, there is a way to build a true team that’s geared for success; it’s called the Five C’s of a Team. The Five C’s of a Team Team building is not easy. It requires knowledge and skill on your part as an enlisted leader to take an assembly of complicated individuals with differing backgrounds, interests, personalities, and strengths and mold them into a collaborative, successful team. To help you in your role, you should have a thorough understanding of the Five C’s of a Team. Community. Part of our job is making sure every member of our team feels like an essential and important part of the team and the unit. Building the community begins the first day members report for duty. For Airmen, explaining the organization’s mission, culture, values, and expectations are very important. This is why sponsoring new arrivals is so important to individual and team needs. Sponsors assist in “bringing others into the fold” and smoothing a fellow Airman’s transition into the team. Developing a sense of community is a wonderful example of Service Before Self. Cooperation encourages the team concept by making sure everyone knows and understands the organization’s mission and purpose. Cooperation encourages a participative approach to meeting these objectives. Allowing members the opportunity to assist by sharing ideas, and suggestions is valuable in fostering team cohesion and mutual respect. Though you may not act on someone’s suggestion, allowing members to voice their opinion and listening to what they have to say develops a greater sense of involvement in the organization’s direction. 34 Chapter One: Team Building Coordination ensures all members realize how important they are to the mission. Explain member responsibilities in detail and how their actions affect the organization’s success. Also, confirm members assigned to your team accept their roles and responsibilities and are held accountable for their actions. Each person is assigned to specific locations to fulfill Air Force needs; remind your people of that fact often. Communication. In order for people to feel like part of the team, they need feedback early and often. Make sure everyone knows what’s going on by including such vital information in staff meetings, roll calls, and other daily/weekly get-togethers. Proper communication ensures everyone is on the same page and working toward the shared goal. Whenever possible, keep informational meetings to no longer than twenty minutes. Long meetings tend to drain energy and challenge attention spans. During these short meetings, make sure everyone has an opportunity to speak by “going around the room” or asking if there are any questions or concerns. This is a simple way to let your team know everyone has the opportunity to offer their perspective and it supports cooperation. Coaching. When you teach others, you broadcast a very important message that says, “You’re important and I’m here to help you succeed.” Your team needs to know that coaching is available and that you promote from within. Training opportunities and advancement are two essential components that encourage and motivate members to grow and excel. Coaching creates a positive outlook for your personnel enabling your team to meet and even exceed their goals. Whether a new arrival, or a seasoned NCO, coaching is an important component of continuous development. Chapter One: Team Building 35 No matter how large or small your team, success doesn’t happen overnight, but it does begin with your leadership. That’s why it’s vital to lead by example. Be willing to do whatever you ask your team members to do. Focus on people’s positive actions, decisions, and behaviors and encourage more of it. Bottom line: do things right and acknowledge it when others do things right too. Before you know it, you’ll have a winning team capable of achieving amazing results that propel the organization forward.3 Unfortunately, many organizations fail to develop effective teams because managers overlook five dangerous but natural team behaviors. Executive team development and organizational health specialist, Patrick Lencioni, refers to these behaviors as the “Five Common Dysfunctions of a Team.”4 The Five Common Dysfunctions of a Team Absence of Trust: Absence of trust among team members impacts the willingness for members to open up and share knowledge, feelings, and concerns with one another. This deprives the team of valuable information that would allow others to acknowledge the individual strengths, experience, and abilities that exist. A team’s potential is never fully realized when members are unable to trust each other. Fear of Conflict: A lack of trust often increases the potential for conflict. Though positive conflict and debate produces greater ideas and better solutions; negative conflict threatens trust, healthy communication, morale, welfare, and mission accomplishment. Lack of Commitment: Refusing to trust one another and failing to openly communicate will have negative consequences on efforts to reach a mutual agreement or consensus among team members. Team members must have clarity on the strategy, buy-in by all involved, and a commitment for the long term mission. Avoidance of Accountability: This person’s lack of dedication will likely surface in their duty performance. Substandard performance or behaviors is oftentimes counterproductive and detrimental to the team’s success and merits correction. 36 Chapter One: Team Building However, holding others accountable usually leads to uncomfortable and confrontational interactions. Those who fear retaliation and conflict are likely to avoid the situation altogether. Inattention to Results: This dysfunction occurs when members place their individual needs and goals ahead of the team and the organization. When this attention shifts to personal agendas, team leaders will find members working individually on activities that benefit their careers, boost their egos, or enhance their reputations. Chapter One: Team Building 37 38 Chapter One: Team Building Stages of Team Development The stages of team development are widely known in educational circles and have been studied for years by psychologists who specialize in human behavior. One way to view the stages is to compare them to a relationship. When initiating a relationship, you typically begin with introductions. As rapport develops and you become more comfortable with the relationship, you find yourself sharing more personal information like views, values, and opinions. This communication usually sparks interest or debate. However, it’s not long before you realize what intrigues or irritates the other person so you try to pursue harmony in hopes the relationship grows into something more. Potentially, the relationship matures to a level where you find yourselves working toward goals together. Then, sadly, the relationship ends, either by choice or an unforeseen circumstance. All teams begin as groups and gradually (sometimes rapidly) progress as teams. According to an accepted theory on development sequence in small groups put forth in 1965 by Psychologist Bruce W. Tuckman, teams progress through four (maturing) stages. A fifth stage was added in 1977. These five stages are known as the Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning stages which help determine the progress of the team’s development by identifying typical events that occur during each stage and how to properly manage them. Overreacting or misinterpreting these events could prove detrimental to a team’s ability in achieving its goals and may negatively affect the team’s dynamics. Forming Stage When teams begin forming, members will cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior. Like hesitant swimmers, they stand by the pool, dipping their toes in the water testing its temperature. Chapter One: Team Building 39 This stage transitions people from individual to member status. Establishing (Forming) a team usually appears unstructured and quite chaotic which often results in delayed progress and a slow start toward reaching the team’s goal. This is perfectly normal.5 During this stage, everyone is polite and on their best behavior as group members become acquainted with one other. Team leaders incorporate introductions and socials (“ice breakers”) and introduce the team’s objective which should accelerate the team’s forming process. Every team begins in this initial stage of team development. Once the initial excitement and enthusiasm subside, team members soon realize that there is work to be done. Conflict usually does not occur at this time as members attempt to keep ideas simple, avoid serious topics, and communicate respectfully in order to avoid any controversy. If feelings are shared, feedback is kept to a minimum. Productivity is usually little to none during the Forming stage. When a team has outgrown the forming stage, it enters the storming stage. Storming Stage Storming is considered the most difficult stage for a team. Here is where members acknowledge what the intent of the team is and what the eventual goal is. Referring to the earlier swimming analogy, members dive in the water and, thinking they’re about to drown, they thrash about. It is in this stage where members realize the difficulty of the task which leads to increased stress and anxiety levels. Dissatisfied with the team’s progress and its ambiguous expectations, members begin to argue and debate about what the team should do next. Tensions rise as members contemplate where they fit in as productive members, relying solely on their personal and professional experience and resist efforts to collaborate.6 During the storming stage, some team members may attempt to rationalize their position and spend considerable time trying to convince others to “side” with them. The team lacks a strong sense of camaraderie, which adds to the already uncomfortable and hostile environment. Conflict escalates to the highest levels in this stage. Cliques begin to form, reducing the confusion and conflict. Team leads are encouraged to clearly define the team’s goals and objectives. Though it may not seem possible, there is some productivity as the team slowly progresses toward a unified direction. Once all members agree to and accept the team goals, negative conflict, and confusion subside. The team begins to focus on the mutually-desired outcome and enters into the Norming stage of team development. 40 Chapter One: Team Building Norming Stage During this stage, members reconcile disputes, “agree to disagree,” and abandon negative and unproductive energy, redirecting all efforts to achieve the team’s objective. They accept the team, its ground rules, their responsibilities, and respect the individuality of each member. Emotional conflict is held to a minimum for the sake of the team and previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. Like the swimmers, it is in the Norming stage that team members realize they’re not going to drown and assist each other in staying afloat. Team members now have more time to work the task at hand and make considerable progress.7 Productivity is high in the Norming stage. The team dynamics at this stage involve processes of communication, decision-making, leadership, and sharing of power, and include the development of norms and expectations. With greater collaboration and a more conducive environment for production, the team may transition into the performing stage. To keep the team progressing, team leads should maintain this level of collaboration and dynamics by doing things such as monitoring performance and rewarding or correcting as needed; resolving negative conflict; keeping the team focused on goal; and adjusting roles as required to maximize performance. Performing Stage By this stage, there is heightened morale and loyalty to the team and its success. Members work together to diagnose problems by collectively brainstorming and collaboratively selecting solutions. Creativity is high as members are willing to share ideas without fear of negative criticism and reprisal. Like a swimming team, the team members are in sync with one another and swim in concerted effort as an effective, cohesive unit.8 Productivity remains high as the team makes steady progress. Eventually the team reaches their goal, which is one reason teams may move into the adjourning and transforming stage of team development. Chapter One: Team Building 41 Adjourning and Transforming The fifth stage is referred to as the Adjourning or the Transforming stage, and it depends on the type of team involved. Adjourning occurs as teams disassemble and members separate from the team. Under favorable circumstances, adjournment is planned as a result of the team accomplishing its goal. One example is process improvement teams. These temporary endeavors eventually reach a resolution and no longer have a reason to exist. Under other circumstances, external influences (like organizational restructuring or downsizing), lack of funding, mission changes, or loss in significant members of the team can cause a team to terminate before it completes its objectives.9 Regardless of the reason for adjournment, plan the process whenever possible. On the other hand, transforming teams continue to exist, moving from one objective to the next. After achieving one goal, the team immediately focuses on its next mission. Rather than adjourn, transforming teams remain together with the occasional loss of some members (PCS, PCA, Retirement, etc,) and the addition of other members whose expertise and familiarity of the new goal prove beneficial to the team’s next success. As leaders, it is your responsibility to move your teams through the stages of development as smoothly as possible. This requires developing a comprehensive understanding of your team’s mission and the personnel assigned in order to properly match each person with the right role and identify some of the team’s dynamics. Below are some common behaviors you may see as a team progresses through the stages of development. Forming Stage occurs when the team meets and starts to work together for the first time. Storming Stage occurs when the members within the team start to "jockey" for position and when control struggles take place. Norming Stage occurs when rules are finalized and accepted and when team rules start being adhered to. Performing Stage occurs when the team starts to produce through effective and efficient working practices. Adjourning & Transforming Stage occurs when a team disbands or moves on to a new task. 42 Chapter One: Team Building Moving from Forming to Storming, members: x Abandon comfortable conversation for interactions that risk the possibility for conflict x Continue discussions of the group’s purpose committing to one that some members may not completely accept or agree with x Criticize and personally attack one another Transitioning from Storming to Norming, members: x Set aside differences and willingly listen to each other’s inputs x Begin trusting one another x Encourage participation and cooperation x Depend on one another’s skills and abilities to reach shared x Agree to disagree, accepting the perspectives and opinions of each member Advancing to the Performing stage, members: x Become highly cohesive, compassionate, and uphold synergy as a standard x Expect maximum participation and cooperation from all members x Trust each other whole-heartedly x Will reject or cast out those who choose not to advance with the team Chapter One: Team Building 43 Regression of a Team’s Development A team proceeds through these stages only as far, and as fast, as its members are willing to grow. Each member must be prepared to give up something at each stage to make the move to the next stage. Here are some causes for regressing and methods to assist in recovering a highperformance team. New Member: New personnel can affect interpersonal relationships in ways that upset or reinforce team dynamics. Regardless of what stage teams are at, more often than not, they return to the forming stage in order to develop a relationship with the new members. New members learn details regarding the goal, their role, and expected performance and behaviors. Teams may quickly progress through the stages to get back to where they were before or not, it all depends on well new members interact and are accepted. New Goal: A new goal often sends teams back to the storming stage as they determine a new strategy or plan and reassign roles. Explaining the reason for the change in mission (creating a felt need for the change) and encouraging participation in role selection while cultivating a cooperative environment can minimize the time spent in the storming stage. Team Schedule: Altering a team’s schedule can affect performance because activities and roles usually change too. These changes cause stress which leads to conflict (storming). Leaders anticipate the potential for elevated tension and take steps to mitigate conflict by maintaining open channels of communication and encouraging members to communicate their concerns. Unresolved Conflict: When conflict occurs, savvy leaders quickly determine whether the conflict is constructive/positive or destructive/negative and if it is destructive, they take immediate steps to manage the issue. Leaving conflict unresolved, allows team members to “take sides” creating even more conflict and drawing the team’s focus and momentum away from the goal and reducing its productivity.10 44 Chapter One: Team Building Chapter One: Team Building 45 Progress Check 19. Identify each characteristic by selecting one of the five C’s. A. Community _____ Encourages the team concept by making sure everyone knows and understands the organization’s mission and purpose, which encourages a participative approach to meeting these objectives. B. Cooperation _____ Ensures all members realize how important they are to the mission. C. Coordination _____ Proper communication ensures everyone is on the same page and working toward the shared goal. D. Communication _____ Creates a positive outlook for your personnel enabling your team to meet and even exceed their goals. E. Coaching _____ Makes sure every member of the team feels like an essential and important part of the team and the unit _____ Explains member responsibilities in detail and how their actions affect the organization’s success _____ Ensure everyone has an opportunity to speak, to ask questions, and raise concerns _____ Develops a greater sense of involvement in the organization’s direction _____ Training opportunities and advancement are two essential components that encourage and motivate members to grow and excel. 46 Chapter One: Team Building 20. Match each of the Five Common Dysfunctions with its characteristic? A. Absence of Trust _____ Avoid conflict as its negative connotation threatens trust, communication, morale, welfare, and mission accomplishment B. Avoidance of Accountability _____ Doubt in others or mission will cause members to struggle to commit fully to ideas, decisions, or tasks made by other members of the organization C. Fear of Conflict _____ Holding others accountable usually leads to confrontation. Members are likely to avoid these situations D. Inattention to Results _____ Unwillingness to confide in and share knowledge, feelings, and concerns with one another E. Lack of Commitment _____ When members place their individual needs and goals ahead of the team and the organization 21. How might positive team dynamics affect a team’s effectiveness? Negative Team Dynamics? 22. What team dynamics were evident during “The Office” activity? Chapter One: Team Building 47 23. Identify each characteristic by selecting one of the Stages of Team Development. A. Forming _____ Accept roles and responsibilities B. Storming _____ Collaboration and camaraderie grow C. Norming _____ Creativity is high as members are willing to share ideas without fear of negative criticism and reprisal. D. Performing _____ Eventually the team reaches their goal E. Adjourning/ Transforming _____ Heightened morale and loyalty to the team and its success _____ Little or no conflict _____ Minimum shared feelings and feedback _____ Productivity is high _____ Teams disassemble and members separate from the team _____ Most difficult stage _____ Disputes and arguments occur _____ Members acknowledge the purpose and goal of the team _____ Stress and anxiety increase _____ Minimum shared feelings and feedback _____ Members “Agree to Disagree” 48 Chapter One: Team Building Measuring Team Success Measuring your team’s success is not just looking at the “numbers.” It includes evaluating and using the knowledge, skills, experience, assessment and evaluation results, and resources you have in the most efficient ways possible to effectively complete the mission. Determining how well a team meets their mission is difficult. Clear assessments of team performance are usually obtained after the team reaches the goal during the Adjourning stage of team development. Some methods and forums used to assess team success include after action reports (AARs), “Hot Wash” meetings, and lessons learned. Consider the following when assessing your team’s success: x How well did the members work together? x How resourceful and cost-effective were the team’s actions? x Did the team meet mission objectives ahead of schedule? On time? Behind schedule? x How well did the team overcome challenges? x How effective was each member in fulfilling their assigned roles? x Consider customer feedbacks and surveys? Were the responses favorable or unfavorable? x Were the leader’s actions successful in effectively advancing the team toward their goal? What could have been better? An easy way to remember all the elements when creating a complete team performance assessment is the “TEAM concept”: x Talents (skills and abilities) x Expertise (knowledge and experience) x Assessments (Customer surveys, inspections, performance evaluations) x Means: (Resources to include: equipment, facilities, financial, time, information) Chapter One: Team Building 49 As enlisted leaders, you are responsible for the overall performance of your teams. Making time to review your team’s progress after achieving a goal offers an opportunity to recognize the actions and efforts made by each member, offers an opportunity to learn from mistakes made, and prepares the team for greater success when pursuing future goals. Taking the time to hone your expertise as team leaders now prepares you for future responsibilities as SNCOs as you lead and manage teams while maintaining the highest level of readiness. 50 Chapter One: Team Building Progress Checks 24. What should you consider when assessing team success? Summarize and Reflect Whether you are leading a section with multiple teams or just one, teamwork is visible as the groups mature into close-knit units that work together to achieve a common goal. Through trial and tribulation, teams are able to exceed all expectations, enduring tremendous challenges and willing to sacrifice all for the benefit of their comrades. Developing teams to reach the highest levels of performance demands a person ready, willing, and able to accept the responsibility and be their leader. Are you willing to lead your team? Paul “Bear” Bryant, legendary college football coach for the University of Alabama was once asked how he got his “Roll Tide” football players to work as a team. This was Coach Bryant’s response: “There’s just three things I would ever say: If anything goes BAD, I did it. If anything goes SEMI-GOOD, then WE did it. If anything goes REAL GOOD, then YOU did it. That’s all it takes to get people to win football games for you.” Chapter One: Team Building 51 Formative Exercise 1. TSgt Tuckman is tasked to lead a team in identifying efficient ways of doing engine swaps. Though most of the team members already know each other, he starts the first meeting by asking each member to introduce themselves. Then, Tuckman states the team’s objective and opens it up for discussion. During the discussion, several people have disagreements. One member says, “I think the real issue is with the location.” Another member responds, “That’s not the issue! There are too many layers of inspections.” Tuckman lets it go on for a little while and then refocuses the group on the objective. After several minutes of discussion, the team identifies the problem area and then develops a plan to swap engines more efficiently. This scenario BEST illustrates TSgt Tuckman’s understanding of the ___________ impact on team success. a. Five C’s of a team and their b. stages of team development and their c. P.E.P. Cycle and its 2. Since TSgt Bair is good at connecting and negotiating with all types of people, he was charged with improving the unit’s performance evaluation process. To help with the task, he selects unit members who are good at viewing problems from different perspectives and who are able to review solutions rationally. He also selects other members who are not inclined to let rules and boundaries discourage them. TSgt Bair’s understanding of _______________________ will MOST LIKELY ____________ team success. a. team dynamics; enhance b. team dynamics; degrade c. team roles; enhance d. team roles; degrade 52 Chapter One: Team Building Key Terms Group, 9 Mission, 14 Team, 9 Team dynamics, 31 References Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 1-1, Leadership and Force Development, 18 February 2006. Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-2618. The Enlisted Force Structure, 27 February 2009. Applewhite, Ashton, William R. Evans III, and Andrew Frothingham. And I Quote (Revised Edition): The Definitive Collection of Quotes, Sayings, and Jokes for the Contemporary Speechmaker. New York: St Martin’s Press/Thomas Dunne Books, 2003. Businessballs.com. “Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing Model,” http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm Center for Internal Change. “The Team Dimensions Profile 2.0,” http://www.internalchange.com/disc_profile_store/mall/teams_online.asp (accessed 15 March 2011). Clark, Donald. “Growing a Team.” 2005. http://www.nwlink.com. Department of the Air Force. United States Air Force Core Values, 1 January 1997. DuBrin, Andrew J. Essentials of Management. International Thomson Publishing Inc. London, 2000. George, J. A., & Wilson, J. M. Team Leader’s Survival Guide. McGraw-Hill Publishing, NY, 1997. Inscape Publishing, Team Dimensions Profile Research Report, 1995. Inscape Publishing, Team Dimensions Profile Kit. Joint Publication (JP) 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001, As Amended Through 30 September 2010. Katzenbach, Jon R., and Douglas K. Smith. The Wisdom of Teams. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 1986. Chapter One: Team Building 53 Lencioni, Patrick. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team. Jossey-Bass Publishing/Wiley Imprint, CA, 2002. Merriam-Webster.com. http://www.merriam-webster.com Stewart, Greg, Charles Manz, and Henry Sims. Team Work and Group Dynamics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999. Streibel, B.J., P.R. Scholtes, and B.L. Joiner. The Team Handbook, 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Oriel Incorporated, 1996. VanGundy, Arthur B. 101 Activities for Teaching Creativity and Problem Solving. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2005. Net Library e-book. Yee, Kevin. “Interactive Techniques”, University of Central Florida, http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/TeachingAndLearningResources/CourseDesign/Assessment/content/101 _Tips.pdf, (accessed 17 Mar 2010). 54 Chapter One: Team Building Progress Check Answers 1. Your response should center on: - Groups are just assemblies of people or objects - Words associated with groups include: collection, gaggle, crowd, cluster, assembly, gathering, mass 2. Your response should center on: - Teams are organized groups of individuals working together to reach a common goal - Words that describe teams include: unified, cohesive, unified, collaborative, solidarity, joint, coalition 3. Your response should center on: - Detached/disconnected - Alone/solitary - Removed - Uncomfortable - Disinterested 4. Your response should center on: - Indifferent - Group’s success was unimportant - Efforts seemed meaningless - Had no significant purpose Chapter One: Team Building 55 5. Your response should center on: - Part of something special - Had an identity - Better chance of succeeding - Worked harder for teammates - More willing to help - Achieved greater results - Increased pride in self/team’s success 6. Your response should center on: - Evident Esprit-de-Corps - Increased productivity - High morale during high ops tempo - Willingness to help fellow teammates - Strong identity/camaraderie - Little to no negative conflict - Differences resolved through compromise or collaboration 7. The Department of Defense Dictionary defines mission as, “the task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore…a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task.. 8. NCOs who fully understand their team’s mission can use that knowledge to contribute to their team’s success. Chapter One: Team Building 56 9. In “The Office” activity at the beginning of this lesson identify the character with each role of a team. How can you identity them? Character [Name] Team Role SSgt Moss Creator TSgt Kramer Advancer TSgt Coleman Refiner TSgt Reed Executer TSgt Knight Flexer 10. Using the table, list the five roles associated with teams and some of the characteristics for each. Roles Creator Advancer Refiner Executer Characteristics x Enthusiastically offered plenty of innovation and unique solutions x Recognize alternatives that others missed. Flights with no Creators (very rare) might hear… “We struggled to formulate ideas and thoughts as a flight” x Encouraged Creators x Thought of ways to make ideas work x Prompted team interactions x Verbally sparred with Refiners Flights with no Advancers might hear… “Flight was not united/in agreement on any idea, it was hard to move forward” x Identify and clarify possible problems x Obviously detail oriented x They explored each idea in-depth x Offered critical, but sound opinions x Played the “devil’s advocate” x Ensured ideas were reasonable Flights with no Refiners might hear… “We selected ideas that may not have been the best solution or well thought out.” x Willing to implement the ideas x Documented everything x Formulated results into presentable product x Presented the flight’s results x Ensured project was completed Chapter One: Team Building Flexer x x x x x x 57 Monitored our contributions and when necessary, stepped in to fill gaps to keep things moving in the right direction very participative throughout Offered ideas to get the process going Encouraged and supported ideas when others didn’t Participated in the examination of each idea Supported efforts to implement and complete the activity 11. Again, list the five roles associated with teams and what the impact to the team might be if the role was not present. Roles Creator Advancer Refiner Executer Impact to Team without this Role present. x No one to offer fresh concepts or ideas; offer processes/methods to move forward x Without Creators, nothing improves; teams remain stagnant by repeatedly revisiting old solutions. x No one to communicate/promote new ideas or to think of ways to implement them x No one to whip up enthusiasm for a project x No one to recognize ideas and new directions in the early stages x Without Advancers, team discussion results in an endless debate between the Creator and the Refiner who will continuously revaluate and challenge their own ideas No one to: x Analyze, challenge, and detect flaws in concepts and ideas x Use a logic, systematic approach to redesigning solutions x Ensure ideas are sound before moving them to the next level ideas, good or bad would be pursued without proper evaluation No one to: x To implement ideas and solutions in an orderly manner, based on a well-thought-out plan x Ensure end results are of high quality put ideas into a workable plan 58 Flexer Chapter One: Team Building Flexers are able to: x Focus on everything x Adapt their styles to fit the needs of the team x View issues from multiple perspectives x Monitor contributions of all team members and when necessary, step in to fill gaps in order to keep things moving in the right direction. x Demonstrate equal preference for most or all of the roles 12. What are the advantages of having a Flexer on your team? Advantages: Flexers are able to: - focus on everything - adapt their styles to fit the needs of the team - view issues from multiple perspectives - monitor contributions of all team members and when necessary, step in to fill gaps in order to keep things moving in the right direction. - demonstrate equal preference for most or all of the roles 13. How would you summarize the P.E.P. cycle? It begins with a call for ideas and when team members come up with an idea, they move from Panic to Elation, then without encouragement they slide back to Panic. 14. Why is it important to understand the P.E.P. cycle? - Knowing the cycle exists allows team leaders to monitor idea generation and then, at the peak of elation, hand ideas off to the Advancer. This gives Creators (and others) the confidence to put forth additional ideas. - Without continuous monitoring of the cycle, ideas die soon after creation because no one recognizes their importance or promotes them. In the meantime, the Refiner and Executor wait impatiently idle. Chapter One: Team Building 59 15. From your reading, how would you summarize the “Z” Process? Ideas often “bounce” back and forth among the Creators, Advancers, and Refiners in what’s called the “Z” process. The Creator comes up with an idea and as the Advancer begins promoting it, the Refiner begins analyzing it. The idea might go back and forth several times before the Refiner (along with the Creator and Advancer) agree the idea is ready to pass off to the Executor who has been waiting for an idea to come to fruition (realization). 16. Why is it important to understand the “Z” Process? - Knowing the “Z” Process allows team leaders to monitor the team’s progress and manage conflict generated from passing ideas back and forth. - In the case of teams without a Creator (or Advancer or Refiner or Flexer) the team leader can step in and fill the gap to ensure the “Z” Process continues to work effectively. - The “Z” Process ensures ideas are well thought out before attempting implementation 17. How can you use this information on team roles, P.E.P. Cycle and the “Z” Process to help your flight? - Increase team success by encouraging ¾ Creators to offer ideas by catching them at the peak of the P.E.P. Cycle ¾ Advancers to support and promote ideas ¾ Refiners to assess ideas ¾ Executers to move forward with the plan - Ensuring ideas moves to the next role at the right time - Whenever possible, select members for my team based on their preferred roles - Will help when coming up with a flight war cry 18. How will knowledge of team roles the P.E.P. Cycle, and the “Z” Process, help you in the future? - The P.E.P. Cycle helps to verify when to get involved with the team to pursue ideas - The “Z” Process helps to identify where the team is in the development of ideas and who to engage at the appropriate time - Assist in properly aligning the team member with the role that suits them - All concepts will enhance team leadership abilities to maximize team productivity and success 60 Chapter One: Team Building 19. A. Community B . Encourages the team concept by making sure everyone knows and understands the organization’s mission and purpose, which encourages a participative approach to meeting these objectives. B. Cooperation C . Ensures all members realize how important they are to the mission. C. Coordination D . Proper communication ensures everyone is on the same page and working toward the shared goal. D. Communication E . Creates a positive outlook for your personnel enabling your team to meet and even exceed their goals. E. Coaching A . Makes sure every member of the team feels like an essential and important part of the team and the unit C . Explains member responsibilities in detail and how their actions affect the organization’s success B . Ensures everyone has an opportunity to speak, to ask questions, and raise concerns B . Develops a greater sense of involvement in the organization’s direction E . Training opportunities and advancement are two essential components that encourage and motivate members to grow and excel. Chapter One: Team Building 61 20. Match each of the Five Common Dysfunctions with its characteristic? A. Absence of Trust C . Avoid conflict as its negative connotation threatens trust, communication, morale, welfare, and mission accomplishment B. Avoidance of Accountability E . Doubt in others or mission will cause members to struggle to commit fully to ideas, decisions, or tasks made by other members of the organization C. Fear of Conflict B . Holding others accountable usually leads to confrontation. Members are likely to avoid these situations D. Inattention to Results A . Unwillingness to confide in and share knowledge, feelings, and concerns with one another E. Lack of Commitment D . When members place their individual needs and goals ahead of the team and the organization 21. Positive team dynamics result in high-performance teams: - Team members communicate well, respect each other, have equal amounts of commitment, are willing to recognize and work with each other’s strengths and weaknesses, and utilize preferred roles. Negative team dynamics result in low-performance and may even tear teams apart. - Team members do not communicate well, show no respect for each other, offer very little commitment, are refuse to recognize and work with each other’s strengths. 22. - Communication - Integration of various skill sets - Perspectives - Temperaments 62 Chapter One: Team Building - Personal experience - Roles assumed by team members - Actions that positively/negatively affected the team’s performance 23. Identify each characteristic by selecting one of the Stages of Team Development. A. Forming B. Storming C. Norming C . Accept roles and responsibilities C . Collaboration and camaraderie grow D . Creativity is high as members are willing to share ideas without fear of negative criticism and reprisal. D . Eventually the team reaches their goal D . Heightened morale and loyalty to the team and its success A . Little or no conflict A . Minimum shared feelings and feedback C . Productivity is high E . Teams disassemble and members separate from the team B . Most difficult stage B . Disputes and arguments occur B . Members acknowledge the purpose and goal of the team B . Stress and anxiety increase A . Minimum shared feelings and feedback C . Members “Agree to Disagree” D. Performing E. Adjourning/ Transforming Chapter One: Team Building 24. How efficiently & effectively the following were used to complete the mission: - Talents (skills and abilities) - Expertise (knowledge and experience) - Assessments (Customer surveys, inspections, performance evaluations) - Means: (Resources to include: equipment, facilities, financial, time, information) 63 64 Chapter One: Team Building Formative Exercise Answers 1. CORRECT ANSWER: b RATIONALE a. This answer is INCORRECT. According to Team Building chapter, the Five C’s of a team are the qualities of community, cooperation, communication, coaching, and coordination, needed in making of a strong team. Although there is slight indication of communication in the scenario, there is not enough information to determine TSgt Tuckman’s understanding of the Five Cs. See rationale for correct response for additional information. b. This answer is CORRECT. According to the Team Building chapter, stages of team development are known as the Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It helps determine the progress of the team’s development by identifying typical events that occur during each stage and how to properly manage them. In the scenario, there are indications of the work group going through those stages (Forming: introductions and team objective; Storming: disagreements; Norming: when Tuckman refocuses the group; Performing: identifies the problem and develops a plan.) and Tuckman is helping the team move along in those stages to ensure team success. c. This answer is INCORRECT. There is no indication in the scenario for P.E.P. Cycle which, according to the Team Building chapter, is a Panic-Elation-Panic cycle that an idea naturally goes through. There is no indication in the scenario of panic or elation. See rationale for correct response for additional information. Chapter One: Team Building 65 2. CORRECT ANSWER: c RATIONALE a. This answer is INCORRECT. According to the chapter, team dynamics is an, “Ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to move toward or away from achieving the desired objective.” There is no evidence in the scenario illustrating team dynamics. TSgt Bair is using his understanding of team roles to select his team. See rationale for correct response for additional information. b. This answer is INCORRECT. See rationale for ‘a’ and correct response for additional information. c. This answer is CORRECT. According to the Team Building chapter, there are roles that people find most comfortable fulfilling based on their most natural thought processes and behavioral tendencies. TSgt Bair used his understanding of team roles to pick creators, refiners, and advancers to give his team the best chance for success. Because TSgt Bair used his understanding of team roles to build his team, this will most likely enhance team success. d. This answer is INCORRECT. TSgt Bair’s understanding of team roles will enhance, not degrade, team success. See rationale for correct response for additional information. 66 Chapter One: Team Building End Notes 1 Air University public website. Air University. http://www.au.af.mil/au/facts.asp#top (accessed 24 Mar 11). 2 Air University public website. Air University: Thomas N. Barnes Center for Enlisted Education. http://www.au.af.mil/au/barnes/ (accessed 24 Mar 11). 3 Rutter, Paul. The Five C’s of Team Success. Rismedia website. http://rismedia.com/2007-0406/the-5-cs-of-team-success/ (accessed 24 Mar 11). 4 Lencioni, Patrick. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team. Jossey-Bass Publishing/Wiley Imprint, CA, 2002, 187. 5 B. J. Streibel, P. R. Scholtes, and B. L. Joiner, The Team Handbook, 2nd ed., (Madison, WI: Oriel Incorporated, 1996), 6-5. 6 Ibid. 6-5. 7 Ibid. 6-6. 8 Ibid. 6-7. 9 Stewart et al., Team Work and Group Dynamics, 88. 10 AFI 36-2618. The Enlisted Force Structure, 27 Feb 09, 5.

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benwamonicah
School: Carnegie Mellon University

Attached.

Running Head: DELIBERATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Deliberate Development Plan
Institution Affiliation
Date:

1

DELIBERATE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

2

CONSIDERATIONS
Grey is a member of the air force with quality critical thinking skills and who also loves
the force with a lot of energy. SSgt Grey would make an effective ALS creator in his team. Grey
is one airman that loves new challenges and would be willing to promote new concepts to be
followed by his team rather than focusing on old techniques. This challenge will allow SSgt Grey
an opportunity to ensure that his team is not idle but engaging in implementation of new
concepts. As a creator in air force field SSgt Grey will have to train with the team members on
how to effectively execute the proposed ideas and also how to best promote them. Creation f new
ideas alone will not benefit the team as the team will only have ideas t implement without a
direction on how to best approach them. Additionally as an ...

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Wow this is really good.... didn't expect it. Sweet!!!!

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