TAMU Commerce Methods used in Cyber Warfare Technical Report

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A technical report (also scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem.[1][2] It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research. Unlike other scientific literature, such as scientific journals and the proceedings of some academic conferences, technical reports rarely undergo comprehensive independent peer review before publication. They may be considered as grey literature. Where there is a review process, it is often limited to within the originating organization. Similarly, there are no formal publishing procedures for such reports, except where established locally.

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Methods used in Cyber Warfare bharati1 ➢ Abstract ◆ Today, the world's dependence on computers and technology is increasing. That has resulted in the emergence of cyber warfare. Cyber warfare is the use of computer technology to disrupt an organization's activities or state. It is deliberate attacking information systems for strategic or military purposes. In this paper, various methods of cyber warfare will be discussed. ➢ Keywords ◆ Malware ◆ Denial of service ◆ Cyber warfare ➢ Introduction ◆ Advances in technology have changed our way of life today. Most things can be done online, ranging from banking to collaborating on projects. The advances in technology have changed the cyber world into a weapon. Thus, most governments have started research and preparing cyber defenses. ◼ Thesis Statement - Malware and denial of service are the most common methods of cyber warfare. ➢ Body ◼ Malware Methods used in Cyber Warfare bharati2 ◆ Malware is a collective name given to malicious software variants, including viruses, spyware, and ransomware. It causes extensive damage to systems and data. It is also used to gain unauthorized access to a network. ◼ Denial of Service ◆ Denial of Service is cyber warfare used to deny legitimate users assess to a system. A denial-of-service attack floods a server with messages, thus disabling the server or the network. A server or system may respond by crashing or rebooting, thus making it impossible for legitimate users to use the system. ➢ Conclusion ◆ In a nutshell, the most common cyber warfare methods are malware and denial of service attacks. Malware is used to cause damage to data or systems and gain unauthorized access to a network. On the other hand, a denial-of-service attack is used to prevent legitimate users of a system from accessing it. Methods used in Cyber Warfare bharati3 References Acton, J. M. (2020). Cyber warfare & inadvertent escalation. Dædalus, 149(2), 133149. Duddu, V. (2018). A survey of adversarial machine learning in cyber warfare. Defence Science Journal, 68(4), 356. Lucas, G. R. (2017). Ethics and cyber warfare: the quest for responsible security in the age of digital warfare. Oxford university press. Whyte, C., & Mazanec, B. (2018). Understanding cyber warfare: Politics, policy and strategy. Routledge. Digital Security Threats to Information Student’s Name, Department and University Information. Abstract In the current digital world, information is faced with numerous security threats. Basically, there are several sources of digital security threats which are exposed to information. Some of these sources include the rapid growth of the hacker community, weaknesses in communication protocols as well as information and network infrastructure, rapid cyberspace growth, and social engineering, among others. Notably, there are different vulnerabilities that play a role in exposing the information to digital security attacks. Additionally, there are different motives such as greed, hatred, and terrorism, which drive the digital security threat. Also, this paper offers a recommendation on the most effective solutions that can be used to deal with the problem of the digital security threat. This recommendation involves the use of access control systems, disaster recovery plans, as well as always being prepared for the threats. Keywords: information system, hackers, vulnerabilities, computer virus, Information technology Introduction Technology is rapidly changing the world and how information is stored and transferred. Some decades back, information was stored in physical files, cabinets, hardcopy papers as well as other physical forms. This created a lot of paperwork in the office and other places where information is used. This problem was later solved by technology, whereby it became far much easier to store and retrieve information. Additionally, different information systems and infrastructures have been advanced to make the handling of information more effective. According to Banham (2017), a large percentage of information in most parts of the world is stored in digital form rather than in physical form. This was a great step in information management provided a solution to several decade's problem that was being experienced by humanity. However, this particular solution came with its package of drawbacks, which have posed a great problem at the end. The problem is the digital security threat to information. According to different past studies, it has been established that many people capitalize on the storage and transfer of information in digital format to cause great losses and negative impacts on the unknowing victims (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). Such practices have seen the rise and rapid growth of the hackers' community and their malicious activities. Also, different viruses have been invented which destroy and manipulate the information stored or being transmitted by different computer users. Sources of Digital Security Threats The digital security threats to information arising from several factors, which include communication protocols as well as weaknesses in the information network infrastructure which develop an appetite as well as a challenge in the mind of a hacker (Information Resources Management Association, 2018). The major sources of security threats are discussed below. 1. Weaknesses in Communication Protocols and Information Network Infrastructure The internet works through breaking down data, which is to be transmitted into a small package that can easily be downloaded on the network. Remarkably, every small package of data in one way or the other finds its route through the network. Later in the transmission processes, the data packets are reassembled at the receiving point to make the original message that was sent by the sender. It is worth noting that for packet networks to work effectively in the transmission of information, a strong trust relationship should be well established among the elements involved in the transmission of the information (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). In order for the information packets to be effectively disassembled, transmitted, and later reassembled, it is necessary to ensure that the security of each information packet is guaranteed. However, such is not the case all the time in the existing cyberspace protocols. Besides, there have been areas and instances whereby through port scans, unauthorized individuals or users have been able to successfully penetrate, intrude as well as intercept the information packets (Al-Charchafchi et al., 2019). There are two primary communication protocols in every server, and they are the TCP as well as the UDP (Information Resources Management Association, 2018). Both of them utilize port numbers in the identification of higher-layer services. Each of these higher layer services on the side of the client utilizes a port number that is unique in requesting any service from the server. Additionally, in order for the server to be able to establish the service which each client wants, they also utilize port numbers. The guiding principle in the security of a communication protocol is to ensure that in a server, there is no port that is ever left open at any given time when there is no useful service needed. If the server is not providing any useful information to the client, then its port should never be left open at any time unless it is being used legitimately (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). If any port is left open, then it becomes a major threat to information since intruders can easily request services from the server. A three-way handshake refers to the process that is used in the communication between the client and the server whereby the client in the process passes information to the server through a unique port number. When this process is effective, it creates a TCP virtual connection between both the client and the server. Notably, the virtual connection is necessary prior to the commencement of communication between the client and the server (Banham, 2017). When the server develops a lot of trust for the client, the three-way handshake is affected by the problem of a half-open socket whereby the server leaves the port door open with the objective of receiving further communication. Such compromises the security of the information being transmitted via the communication channel, since it leaves room for unauthorized intruders. This is because as far as the half-open port stays open, the server can still allow other three-way handshakes, which may even come from intruders. Figure 1: Three way handshake. Source: (Kizza, 2015). Other information network weaknesses that compromise the security of information include the weaknesses linked to packet data transmission. This allows interception by other parties who can alter the content s of the packets such as in the case of initial sequence number attack (Tang, 2019). It is essential to note that sequence numbers are defined as integer numbers, which are linked to every data packet transmitted and shows the order in which they arrive at the receiving point. In the initial sequence attack, the intruder intercepts the session of communication between the elements which are communicating and then through guesswork, determines the next sequence number. The attacker is then able to intrude on the spoofed IP addresses and gain access to the information packets that are being transmitted. Other security threats attached to the network infrastructure are session hijacking, buffer offer flow, and session attacks, among others. 2. Rapid Growth of Hacker Community. According to the view of the general public, the leading contributor to digital security threats is the rapid growth of the hacker community. Hackers so far have been successful in spreading this through both to people’s living rooms as well as to news headlines. This has been via devastating and ever-increasing attacks to information systems using worms and viruses, among other attacks. In the past, hackers worked underground in communities and formed global groups (Brett et al., 2019). Also, in the past, hackers were seen as the worst enemy to information systems. However, this trend has changed with time, and currently, they are being used by both organizations as well as governments to do the exact opposite of what they were doing originally. This involves the hardening of a company’s communication networks and critical information databases of countries. On the contrary, for a long period, computer users and the general public have watched in despair as the security of their information is being compromised by hackers. In some instances, the fear and despair of the attacks have hot hysterical proportions, as shown in the major attacks explained below. 1. The internet worm This was unintentionally created by Robert Morris back in the year 1988. He was a student at Cornell University, where he was studying computer science (Brett et al., 2019). He released the internet worm using a computer, which he initially thought was a self-propagating and self-replicating program. However, he made a big mistake by not debugging the program effectively before he released it. Unfortunately, the program went out of control and began replicating itself while also infecting other computers that were in the network at a rapid rate than he had initially anticipated. Later, he was apprehended and legally punished for his mistakes 2. Michelangelo virus This virus was first heard in the world in the year 1991. The personal computers that were most affected by this virus are those running on the DOS, MS-DOS as well as UNIX (Brett et al., 2019). Once it entered into a computer, it infected the master boot record of the hard disk as well as the boot sectors of the floppy disk. After that, it would install itself in the computer memory from where it could infect the partition table of other computer disks such as the hard or floppy disk. Due to the widespread publicity the Michelangelo virus received, it ended up being among the most disastrous viruses ever witnessed in the world, and the damages it caused ran up to millions of US dollars. 3. Smeg, Queeg and Pathogen Virus All these three viruses were written by a 26-year-old British named Christopher Pile between 1993 and 1994 (Ludwig & Noah, 2017). Smeg was applied as a camouflage of both queeg as well as pathogen. Due to the camouflage of two programs, it became very difficult for any antiviruses to detect the virus easily. The smeg was very dangerous as it was created in a manner that would be compatible with other viruses and being used to camouflage them. During those times, these were the most deadly virus. In order to ensure a fast spread of the virus, Pile utilized freely downloadable internet software as well as bulletin boards, which were often used by most computer users in the cyberspace. However, he was arrested in the year 18995 and legally charged (Ludwig & Noah, 2017). 4. Melissa Virus The virus was written back in the year 1999 by a computer programmer based in New Jersey named David Smith (Ludwig & Noah, 2017). The spread of the virus was mainly via word programs as well as Microsoft’s outlook. The virus took advantage of a computer user’s word documents and acted as a surrogate as well as the email address book of the user, whereby it propagated it. The virus then spread to other computer users whose emails were contained in the address book in the original word document of the initial user or in future word documents. The virus affected approximately 100,000 email users. 5. Love Bug Virus This is a computer virus that was released by AMA computer college dropout named Onel de Guzman back in the year 2000. First, the virus spread to the global network via the ISP based in Manila and to computer networks in both Europe and Asia. A good number of firms have seriously been affected by this virus, and they include Asian wall street journal as well as Dow Jones Newswire. Additionally, in Europe, the virus had thousands of victims, which included parliaments as well as large firms. The House of Commons in Britain was also infected by this virus. Within a period of 12 hours after its release, it had spread in the North American continent where the senate computer system of the US was affected as well as the Danish parliament in Denmark (Ludwig & Noah, 2017). In its spread, the love bug virus utilizes the Microsoft outlook email systems as surrogates. One of the major factors that accelerated the spread of this virus is its use of a sinister technique whereby it tricked the computer user into opening an email sent by "someone known to them." The email requested the user to check a love letter that was attached, as illustrated in figure 1 below. It is vital to note that the attached file had the virus payload, and once it was opened, it became very destructive and harmed the computer. The virus duplicated itself to key system directories and also added triggers to registry windows such that it would run automatically once the computer was rebooted (Al-Charchafchi et al., 2019). The virus significantly destroyed information files such as MP3 and JPEG and also searched for logins and passwords from the address book of the user and consequently mailed itself to other computer users (Ludwig & Noah, 2017). Although De Guzman was arrested hours after the virus release, it caused great losses that are approximated to be between 7 billion and 20 billion US dollars. Figure 2: Monitor Display of Love Bug Source: (Kizza, 2015). 6. Anna Kournikova virus This was yet another computer virus that hit the global computer networks back in the year 2001. The virus spread through the mass emailing technique, just like the love bug. The virus was contained in a JPEG file that made the user believe it was a picture of Anna Kournikova, a Russian tennis star. Remarkably, the speed at which this virus spread was two times that of the famous “I LOVE YOU” virus. This made it possible for the virus to spread very fast around the world. 3. The Insider Effect Security Threat Ernest & young, back in the year 1997, interviewed 4,226 information technology managers as well as other IT professionals from different parts of the world concerning the security of information and networks. The research findings showed that 75 percent of the respondents pointed to employees and authorized users as a major threat to the information and especially that stored in digital form. Forty-two percent of the respondents indicated that they were victims of external attacks, while 43 percent indicated employees' malicious activities (Banham, 2017). This digital security threat involves a scenario where employees and other authorized users misuse the passwords and logins they have to the company’s information databases. In most cases, such individuals have access to very sensitive, classified, or priority information. Besides, they use this priority to obtain information from the company’s database and transfer it to third parties who may use such information to cause harm to the company. The CEO and president of Safecorp, Jack Strauss, stated that the greatest information security threat is a scenario where a firm's insiders accidentally or intentionally misuse the information at their disposal and especially in the current world organizations, which are internet-centric (Banham, 2017). 4. Social engineering Social engineering is also a major source of digital security threat to information and involves a group of techniques that are utilized by a hacker to acquire system authorization through posing as the system’s authorized user. Social engineering applies several approaches such as impersonification of someone who has access to the information system, telephone as well as writing. Remarkably, under social engineering, he hacker can use different skills to extract information from people such as passwords. 5. Rapid cyberspace growth Numbers always have a security threat attached to them. Therefore, the increased number of computer users pose a major threat to the security of information. Since when the internet was founded back in the 1960s, it has expanded tremendously to encompass more and more people and more, especially during the last decade. Research indicates that back in the year 1985, only less than 2,000 computers were connected to the internet. However, in the year 2001, the number had grown tremendously to 109 million computer users being connected to the internet (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). The growth in the number of internet users has brought on board more and more individuals who have diverse ethical standards, developed additional responsibilities as well as more services. As the number of internet users increased, more and more individuals who had dubious motives were brought onboard. This is because the internet can be a great source of wealth that most people search for. These people now pose a great threat to information found on the internet. Notably, research indicates that the number of internet attack activities is increasing at an alarmingly high rate, which stands at around 64 percent per annum. Further, statistics indicate that in the year 2001, firms with internet connection were attacked by intruders 25 times per week during the last six months of the year as opposed to 32 times per week in 2002 during the first six months (Brett et al., 2019). Also, there was a tremendous increase in the number of viruses, and approximately 400 to 500 new viruses are identified on a monthly basis. According to Brett et al. (2019). the rate of internet growth is turning out to be the major security threat to information. This has, in turn, resulted in digital security experts being involved in a deadly competition with malicious hackers. Unfortunately, the competition appears to be a losing battle and more especially to the security experts. 6. Design philosophy This refers to the manner in which different communication protocols, as well as computer network infrastructure, were designed. Although the design has been a great contributor to the fast development of cybersecurity, it has also been a primary source of the illnesses facing cyberspace and digital information. The growth and development of the internet involved the brightest minds who chose to contribute to the infrastructure despite the odds. The philosophy employed in this scenario was open architecture work in progress philosophy, and it played an important role in encouraging the spirit of adventurism as well as individualism (Tang, 2019). However, the philosophy was not laid on any clear blueprints, and this resulted in more additions as well as developments coming up based on the changing requirements of the constantly growing infrastructure as well as the available shortfalls. The absence of a welldefined blueprint has resulted in the creation of loopholes and weak points in the protocols and infrastructure. The developer of the protocols and infrastructure were guided by a policy to come up with a transparent and user-friendly interface that can serve as many individuals as it can be possible. This policy ended up attracting diverse individuals who care less (Rak et al., 2017). Such individuals have ended up exploiting all the weak points and vulnerabilities as they search for fun, adventurism challenge, and all types of personal satisfaction. Remarkably, the major vulnerabilities and weak points exploited by the intruders. Computer and Network Vulnerabilities According to Kizza (2015), there are many types of network and computer vulnerabilities that are utilized by hackers to pose a threat to the information stored or being transmitted in these systems. Besides, hackers use these vulnerabilities to introduce foreign data into systems, penetrate and destroy systems, alter data, or even disable the systems (Rak et al., 2017). This poses a great digital threat to information. It is worth noting that software and equipment manufacturers over the years have been very effective in issuing circulars and alerts immediately a vulnerability or loophole has been established. However, some network administrators and other computer users never comply or follow the advisories they receive from the software producers as well as manufacturers of equipment (Kizza, 2015). Apart from the known vulnerabilities, more new vulnerabilities are being discovered through hackers exposing them or by the users of new software and hardware. Hackers sometimes expose new vulnerabilities as an attempt to show off their developing and high skills in attacking systems. 1. Routing Algorithm Vulnerabilities It is worth noting that an attack on the routing process can lead to severe service degradation or the crashing of the router. Further, there are a number of attacks that are attached to the routing algorithm vulnerabilities, and they include excess or malformed packets being sent to a routing protocol service (Kizza, 2015). Another attack method is the modification of a valid message which is already on transit or the spoofing of a routing protocol message, which is already valid. Also, there is the configuration modification of the routers which are already in existence. Another significant attack method is whereby a rogue router is introduced in order to be involved in routing together with the legitimate routers. Besides, sequence number spoofing involves the sequence numbers which are used by connections of TCP/IP networks. A hacker can monitor a network connection and record the sequence numbers being exchanges as well as be able to predict correctly the next sequence numbers set (Kizza, 2015). By so doing, the hacker is able to place herself or himself in the network connection and successfully insert misinformation or take control of the entire connection. Such possess a great threat to the information being shared by the authorized users in that particular connection 2. TCP/UDP Vulnerabilities Transmission control protocol (TCP) refers to a connection-based protocol whereby there must be a formal connection between the receiver and the sender in order for data to be effectively passed between the two (Kizza, 2015). TCP vulnerabilities come in whereby an attacker is able to predict the TCP sequences effectively. This is made possible through diligently applying the correct kind of algorithms in guessing the sequence of numbers that are assigned by TCP to a data packets stream. When an attacker knows the next number in the sequence of transmission, he or she is able to enter into the ongoing communication and pose to be the message's sender and hence distorting the information sent by the original or authorized sender (Cabaj et al., 2018). By so doing, he or she can take over and control the communication hence resulting in a disastrous threat to information transfer. 3. ICMP Redirect Hazard Under Internet ICMP vulnerability, there is the denial of services (DDoS). DDoS attacks refer to those attacks which are categorized as nuisance attacks, and this is because they mainly interrupt the services of the system. Interruption of the system results in the hard disk of the computer being destroyed and hence the destruction of all information stored in it or all the available system memory being used up (Kizza, 2015). In addition, DDoS attacks come in several forms, but the common ones include; ping of death, ICMP protocol, and smurfing attacks. Smurfing attacks usually utilize the trust relationship breakdown, which is developed by the IP spoofing (Kizza, 2015). 4. ARP Hazard Address resolution protocol (ARP) is involved in the mapping of IP addresses to either physical or Ethernet addresses. There are a number of ARP attacks that are used by hackers to exploit a user's system and temper with the user’s information. When the intruder or hacker gains access to a system, he or she can use it in the manner he or she pleases (Kizza, 2015). Some ARP attacks include; session hijacking, broadcast attacks, sniffing, and 'man in the middle.' Under session hijacking, an intruder either listens or sees a TCP connection between two hosts, which is active, and then by inserting forged packets, he or she is able to take over the connection. Such opens a loophole, which poses a great threat to the information being shared under that connection. 5. Fragmentation Vulnerabilities The fragmentation vulnerabilities are usually based on the manner in which the IP address requires data to be processed or transmitted. Under fragmentation attack, an intruder may send a stream of small fragments to the host resulting in collapsing of the target (JangJaccard & Nepal, 2014). Also, the attacker may even send overlapping fragments that do not have any aligned offsets, and this results in the crashing of the vulnerable operating systems as they no longer know what exactly to do. It is worth noting that fragmentation is very important in the transmission of data since each network has a unique limit for the datagrams it's able to process. Further, under ICMP echo overrun, the attack usually involves fraudulent ICMP packets being transmitted, which are larger than the MTU of the network (Kizza, 2015). This results in the resources of the target server being consumed hence leading to server unavailability. This is because the packets are fake and can't be reassembled. Therefore, this is a weak point that is utilized by hackers to pose a security threat to information and its transfer. 6. Internet Technology Vulnerability The fast development of telecommunication and computer technologies has led to security experts being very much concerned about the side effects which may be attached to these booming technologies (Rak et al., 2017). Reports indicate that internet information technology is very vulnerable due to gaping holes, weaknesses, and loopholes in the hardware as well as software technologies. It is worth noting that system vulnerabilities rose by 26.81 percent from 1989 when they were only 3 to 2011 when they were 1,113 (Kizza, 2015). This figure only indicates the vulnerabilities which have been identified and reported by the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). However, there are many other vulnerabilities that have been established and were never reported due to various reasons. It is worth noting that software vulnerabilities can be categorized into four. These include; port-based vulnerabilities, operating system vulnerabilities, system protocol software, and errors based on software application (Kizza, 2015). All these vulnerabilities pose a significant security threat to information being transmitted over network systems. 7. Design Flaws The design flaws are mainly found in computer software and hardware, which are the two primary elements of the computer system. It is worth noting that the computer system is the primary base for the storage and transfer of information. Besides, the software systems are more susceptible to design flaws, and this is due to overlooking of security issues. On the other hand, their counterparts, the hardware systems, are not highly susceptible, and this is because of their low complexity. In addition, they are less susceptible due to in-depth hardware engineering that has been done over many years (Jang-Jaccard & Nepal, 2014). However, design flaws continue to be common even among the hardware systems since new computer systems are usually complex. One of the greatest contributors of software design flaws is human factors, and this comprises of malice, complacency, attentional failure, and memory lapses as well as rush to finish (Kizza, 2015). Other contributors include trustworthy software sources and software complexity. 8. Incorrect Implementation It is mainly due to incompatible interfaces since two or more product modules cannot work together if they are not compatible. Besides, an incompatible interface implies that the other module introduced alters the existing interface such that the existing references to the module or interface will behave incorrectly or fail (Kizza, 2015). This is to mean that addition or removal of software from an existing module can result in an imbalanced interface. It worth noting that there are many causes of the incorrect implementation vulnerability and system interface incompatibility. They include; too much detail, manual entry errors, ignorance of integration issues, failure to understand underlying parameters, among others (Kizza, 2015). Remarkably, this vulnerability exposes information to a big security threat. 9. Changing Nature of Hacker Activities as Well as Technologies It is important to note that "bad" technology develops concurrently with "useful" technology (Kizza, 2015). The "bad" technology refers to the one utilized by system intruders to attack computer systems. On the other hand, useful technology refers to the technology of both telecommunication and computers, which drives the web and the internet. The hacker technologies which are developing very first is a great vulnerability to computers and networks as well as the information being transmitted through these networks. Besides, there are a number of factors that have contributed to the widespread of hacker technology. They include; hackers' ability to hide identities, availability of hacker tools, easy acquisition of hacker knowledge, and automation of attack technology (Peng, 2015). Notably, Hacker technologies, as well as activities, pose the deadliest security threat to information 10. Poor Security Management Security management refers to a security process that is both administrative and technical and incorporates both security controls and policies in providing protection (Kizza, 2015). Additionally, poor security management arises due to little control over security administration, implementation as well as monitoring. Another network and computer vulnerability attached to poor security management is poor administration team dealing with security (Kizza, 2015). It is worth noting that the fast development of wireless communication has resulted in the growth of more security problems. A poor security administration can result in many things going wrong, resulting in the security of an organization’s information being compromised. Digital Security Threat Motives Although there are some digital security threats that arise from unintentional activities of people as well as natural disasters, a vast majority of the security threats to information and attacks arise from people’s criminal and illegal acts. That is the reason why most of the individuals who wrote different computer viruses were arrested and charged in a court of law as their acts were both illegal and criminal (Peng, 2015). Therefore, this section discusses the motives that drive people to be involved in different security threats to information. These motives are discussed below. 1. Targeting the National information database or infrastructure The threat is most sponsored or coordinated by a foreign power and is aimed at a particular target country or organization. The different facilities, telecommunication systems, or information targeted is mostly attached to the national information database. Activities involved under this threat motive include manipulating computer, or communications services and hence resulting in fraud, loss of finances as well as other criminal offenses. 2. Revenge or vendetta There are several causes that result in revenge, which encompasses an unhappy group trying to hit back to another group, country, or organization. For instance, the discontent among people about the activities of multinationals may result to a rebellious group hitting back to systems which they view not to be beneficial to mankind (Cabaj et al., 2018). This results in attacks on the information systems of such organizations as the rebellious groups consider the activities of the firms as an injustice that deserves to be avenged. Remarkably, other vendetta attacks are attached to other reasons, such as punishing an individual who has wronged the attacker in one way or the other. Basically, the threat to information systems is stimulated by the desire to punish the wrongs committed by others. 3. Hate Another motive that poses a significant security threat is hate or dislike that may be based on race, national origin, and gender, among other factors. It is essential to note that the security threat is based on a strong dislike towards another person or group of people. Due to hatred, the attacker threatens and even at some point attack the information systems of the other party. 4. Greed Most of the attackers who intrude onto the information systems of different organizations or firms are encouraged by the desire to acquire financial gain from such malicious acts (Von Solms & Van Niekerk, 2015). For example, an attacker may intrude into a company’s information system with the aim of siphoning money from the company. 5. Notoriety This motive involves the hijackers breaking into the information systems of different organizations as a way of proving how competent they are (Cabaj et al., 2018). This motive is common among young hackers who want to show off to their peers how intelligent they are with the aim of acquiring some respect from their friends. 6. Terrorism A considerable number of digital security threats to information are motivated by acts of terrorism. The type of terrorism which is mostly involved in this case is electronic terrorism, which encompasses the use of numerous worms (Von Solms & Van Niekerk, 2015). Electronic terrorism is usually used in attacking diverse banking systems, installation of the military as well as other identified targets. Individuals who are utilizing this form of terrorism are a new brand of hackers who do not view the act of cracking different information systems as an exercise of intelligence but as a channel of gaining from their malicious activities (Peng, 2015). The new brand of hackers has a deep understanding of the value of the information which they are attempting to compromise or obtain. Moreover, cyber terrorism encompasses the instillation of doubt and fear among the victims as well as compromising data integrity. Some of these hackers are coordinated or sponsored by third parties for various reasons. Solution for Digital Security Threats to Information Having discussed the sources of digital security threats, the different loopholes or vulnerabilities as well as different motives which drive the threats, it is vital to discuss how these threats can be dealt with or managed. Basically, if the digital security threats are not addressed effectively, they may result in countless adverse effects to the victims, such as financial losses, violent acts, criminal laws violation, and exposure of governmental or organizational secrets, among others. 1. Disaster Recovery Organizations should come up with disaster recovery plans, which will be a great show of the organizations’ readiness for any digital security threat. For this approach to work effectively, three elements must be in place, and they include planned procedures, highly skilled and informed staff and well as disaster suppliers. Notably, the disaster recovery plan involves different steps such as the identification and prioritization of disaster, identification, and prioritization of the key information systems and functions of the organization. Other steps include the creation of an effective notification plan, the designation of different responsibilities as well as establishing a damage assessment plan (Von Solms & Van Niekerk, 2015). Also, the employees need to be well trained on how to identify the slightest disaster signs in the information system. 2. An Organization Always Being Ready For Digital Security Threats Since attacks to information systems can occur at any time, it is necessary to be always ready for such acts. Besides, not all the clients or customers will understand that the attack was out of the company’s control and will end up joining rival firms. Readiness can be ensured through regular testing as well as checking the information systems for any doubtable issues. Additionally, it is necessary to often check as well as review transaction logs and system logs. Another approach is always to ensure that all information is well backed up (Von Solms & Van Niekerk, 2015). Backup is the best way of handling security threats to information. Besides, individuals should conduct scheduled revisits of the backed-up information and effectively determine the best place to store the information. 3. Access Authorization and Control This approach involves users who have access to the information and how their access is guaranteed. It is always important to determine the individuals who have access to certain information and how the access of other individuals will be restricted. Table 1 shown below shows how the access of medical records information is controlled. Under this technique or approach, different access control systems can be applied. Such systems include access cards, as well as biometrics, which encompass voice recognition, fingerprint readers, iris scan, and hand geometry. Notably, passwords can be used to control access to information. Table 1: Clinical Information System Access Control Lists Domain Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ramzi_Haraty/publication/287187944/figure/tbl4/AS:6695 09274828810@1536634858815/Clinical-Information-System-Access-Control-Lists-Domain.png 4. Remedies of fragmentation vulnerabilities Some of the remedies of fragmentation vulnerabilities include inspection of incoming packets by use of a secured proxy or router for any violation of the rules of fragmentation. Another remedy is the whitelisting or blacklisting mechanisms to filter traffic based on rate patterns and IP reputation. Conclusion In conclusion, the different digital threats to information pose a great problem to individuals, organizations as well as governments. This is because the originators of such threats target these three groups. Therefore, it is necessary for this problem to be addressed the soonest possible to avoid its continued harm to the victims. Some of the remedies which can be utilized in addressing the problem presented in this paper include the use of access control systems that encompass different technologies such as fingerprint readers, iris scan, as well as voice recognition. If such technologies are effectively utilized, then it will be possible to control the people who access a particular piece of information. Another remedy for this problem is for individuals, governments, and organizations being always prepared to tackle the problem when it arises. Some of the approaches that can be applied to show preparedness include the use of backup systems for backing up all vital information. Another remedy is for the government to come up with more strict laws and regulations that will control the activities of hackers. Also, software developers should develop more advanced software for detecting viruses and controlling their impact on information systems. References Al-Charchafchi, A., Manickam, S., & Alqattan, Z. N. (2019, July). Threats Against Information Privacy and Security in Social Networks: A Review. In International Conference on Advances in Cyber Security (pp. 358-372). Springer, Singapore. Banham, R. (2017). Cybersecurity threats proliferating for midsize and smaller businesses. Journal of Accountancy, 224(1), 75. Brett, T., Loukas, G., Moreno, Y., & Perra, N. (2019). Spreading of computer viruses on timevarying networks. Physical Review E, 99(5), 050303. Cabaj, K., Caviglione, L., Mazurczyk, W., Wendzel, S., Woodward, A., & Zander, S. (2018). The new threats of information hiding: The road ahead. IT Professional, 20(3), 31-39. Information Resources Management Association. (2018). Cyber security and threats: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. IGI Global. Jang-Jaccard, J., & Nepal, S. (2014). A survey of emerging threats in cybersecurity. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 80(5), 973-993. Kizza, J. M. (2015). Guide to computer network security. London: Springer. Ludwig, M., & Noah, D. (2017). The giant black book of computer viruses. American Eagle Books. Peng, S. Y. (2015). Cybersecurity threats and the WTO national security exceptions. Journal of International Economic Law, 18(2), 449-478. Rak, J., Bay, J., Kotenko, I., Popyack, L., Skormin, V., & Szczypiorski, K. (2017). Computer Network Security. In 7th International Conference on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, MMM-ACNS 2017, Warsaw, Poland, August (pp. 28-30). Tang, J. (2019, July). Network and Information Security Characters and Threats. In 2019 International Conference on Communications, Information System and Computer Engineering (CISCE) (pp. 407-410). IEEE Von Solms, R., & Van Niekerk, J. (2013). From information security to cyber security. computers & security, 38, 97-102. bharati1 Methods Used in Cyber Warfare Bhaskar Bharati Daniel Crider CSCI303 2/13/2021 Methods Used in Cyber Warfare Abstract The invention and the constant development in the field of technology have made us dependent on computers more than ever. And that in turn has led to Cyber Warfare. Cyber warfare is completely different from the conventional kind of war involving the military or any such sort of physical confrontation. It is the use of computer/network systems and technologies to disrupt an organization or a country’s state through a digital attack. Sometimes these attacks are politically motivated and are targeted at a nation-state. The most common intent of cyber warfare is the disruption of a nation’s state and is performed for strategic or military purposes including cyber espionage. Unlike traditional warlike world war 1 or 2, modern wars are not fought with weapons, it is fought with information, the country who has the latest information would win. For example, military planning, enemy country’s planning and intent, their attack strategy, if a country could collect all this information, they would always be in the front of the war. In this paper, we will be going through various methods used in cyber warfare. Keywords bharati2 Methods Used in Cyber Warfare ▪ Cyber warfare ▪ Espionage ▪ Sabotage ▪ Propaganda ▪ Malware ▪ Stuxnet ▪ Cyber Attack ▪ Denial of Service ▪ DDoS ▪ Distributed DOS Introduction This is the century of technology and with the advancement in resources and technological innovation; cyber warfare has been constantly rising. Information Technology has changed the way we get things done unlike before 1990 where if one has t get information, they had to be present in the physical space. Now with all the internet and technology, things can be done with the click of a button. This has been referred to as ‘Digital Migration’. The internet has changed the way business is commenced, how the institutions run, how we connect, how a nation deals with an enemy nation, and so forth. It has also changed the way of war, earlier in World War 1 and war 2, it was all about the military. The country with better military and strategic resources will have a better likelihood but now it is all about information. Collection of information Methods Used in Cyber Warfare bharati3 through planning, investigation, and technological resources is referred to as Cyber Warfare; Use of modern technologies to launch a deliberate attack on a government or nation. These attacks can cause comparable harm as to actual warfare carried out via the use of ammunitions and weaponry (Kostyuk & Zhukov. 2019). Usually, the term ‘war’ or ‘warfare’ is associated with violence, killing, murder, but that may not be the actual case with cyber warfare. Even though there is no direct killing or violence, but cyber warfare can disrupt an entire organization or a nation, or a government, and the extreme repercussions can be easily felt. Almost every country in the past has been known to be associated with at least 1 cyber-attack. However, it has not necessarily worked for everyone, for a few it has been successful as expected, for a few it did not pan out. And, in this paper, we will comprehensively discuss the various aspects, purposes, intent, and methods used in cyber warfare. We will also see how it has been so relevant for countries like the US to gather Intel on enemy countries and improve their strategic and military planning. Change is inevitable and we have entered the technological era replacing the conventional war of manpower and weaponry with deliberately planned cyber-attacks. Now there is no other way but to adapt to the changes in this era where almost everything is on the internet, every piece of information one can ask for is somewhere readily available and it has completely changed the way we used to do things. This is a change that has taken the world by storm and no single government or private institutions can perform without adapting to these changes (Collins & McCombie. 2016). In fact, with the growing fierce competition, everyone wants to be ahead in the race, be it the race of financial status, military status, or social status and there is no other way but to adapt to modern systems and technologies to do so. Many countries are relying on the use of the internet and modern system to keep their influence over the world. One such is the US, Methods Used in Cyber Warfare bharati4 a superpower nation, and the country’s defence sector relies on Cyber warfare to not just protect their borders but also to ensure peace and harmony in the world. Cyber warfare isn’t necessarily to harm someone, it could be used as a tool for reconnaissance to gather Intel on enemy states. That is what the US does and there are many similar scenarios where it can be of paramount importance. One such scenario is the case where a rogue state or an enemy country is planning to launch an attack, could be a terrorist attack, in the United States or in any nation where the country has a political interest. The United States as a nation has ties with many other countries, it could be because the country has heavily invested in that nation, or has the government has some political interest or invested in some way that makes them a close interest for the U.S. Now if a terrorist attack were to happen, United States would suffer losses terribly either in political investment or its reputation. To protect the nation, its citizens, and the country’s investment in the nation, United States government will be forced to intervene to ensure harmony and avoid any form of terror attacks in a foreign nation (Aucsmith. 2015). But being ahead in this game to protect itself or a foreign nation isn’t easy and requires a lot of information and gathering Intel to know any of such malicious plan being planned anywhere in the world. That, in turn, requires very deliberately planned and launched cyber nets as a reconnaissance tool on enemy’s system to collect information and work on a mitigation plan. Also, there are several nations with the capability of a nuclear weapon, or some countries has already a fully functional nuclear weapon. And, if a nuclear weapon were to be launched, it wouldn’t just be the next world war, but it would be the end of the world. So, to keep a check on the nation’s nuclear capability, cyberattacks became a vital tool to finding a way into an enemy state’s system and gather information on nuclear weapons. bharati5 Methods Used in Cyber Warfare What makes cyber warfare most dangerous is not the violence but the power of anonymity. Most of the cyber-attacks are launched remotely and, in some cases, anonymously. We do not even where the attack came from until it is claimed by a party/organization/country. To date, there have been many cyber-attacks that remain a mystery on where they came from or who launched them. Anonymously launched cyber-attacks are very difficult to be tracked of its source until it is claimed by an attacker (Green. 2015). There is not much way to track the source of a cyberattack for a country but speculation based on history, enemy states, geographic factors, etc. If one thing we have learned about cyber warfare is that very few of them comes from the private organization and they even, make a claim later but many attacks are state-sponsored and often remain a mystery on where these attacks came from. Government agencies and institutions are always different strategies and tactics to combat cyberattacks. Some countries like U.S, Russia, China, they deploy heavy secretive organization and institutions to be ahead of attacks and keep the country prepared for one. Combating with cybercrime requires a mitigation plan in place, infiltration of cyber vulnerabilities, and strong digital infrastructure among many others. Different methods can damage the computer or network system of a nation/organization. The paper will discuss a few of the methods used by attackers to infiltrate the enemy’s system and computer networks. Later, the paper will also discuss in brief the motivation behind the launch of a cyber-attack. Conclusion Methods Used in Cyber Warfare bharati6 Cyber-attacks are going to happen; no one can stop them. They are almost-anonymous, cheap, and have been proven to be very effective. And, when it is used in the interest of military or propaganda, the effect is severe. We are currently living in a world where things have changed a lot in the last couple of years, and the changes could be seen in almost every industry, be it for military, government, large corporations, small start-ups, technology has its impact everywhere. Even the most conventional of institutions are going online and have migrated to computers and modern systems. Every data is available online, from a simple child’s browsing material to academic information to military and weaponry information. That in turn increases the risk of misuse of technology to alter/corrupt data to support propaganda or aid a terrorism activity. Despite the lists of consequences of technology and the internet including cyber warfare, we can never stop using it. What we can do is be prepared for what may come. For an individual, it is to protect personal data, for corporations, it is to prevent data theft like financial data, prevent its assets and resources from cyber-attacks, and for the government, it is to protect from propaganda, enemy state’s terror planning, counter-terrorism activities among many others. bharati7 Methods Used in Cyber Warfare References Kostyuk & Zhukov. 2019. Invisible Digital Front: Can cyber-attacks shape battlefield events?. P317-347 Collins & McCombie. 2016. Stuxnet: The emergence of a new Cyber Weapon and its implications Green. 2015. Cyber warfare: A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis Porter. 2018. Military Implications of Cyber Warfare: What’s in store for the Cyber Threat Landscape Broad. 2011. Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay. P.1-4 https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html
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Technical Report
On
Methods Used in Cyber Warfare
By
Your Name/Group Name

Abstract
The invention and the constant development in the field of technology have made us
dependent on computers more than ever. And, that in turn has led to Cyber Warfare. Cyber
warfare is completely different from the conventional kind of war involving the military or
any such sort of physical confrontation. It is the use of computer/network systems and
technologies to disrupt an organization or a country’s state through a digital attack.
Sometimes these attacks are politically motivated and are targeted at a nation-state. The most
common intent of cyber warfare is the disruption of a nation’s state and is performed for
strategic or military purposes including cyber espionage. Unlike traditional warlike world war
1 or 2, modern wars aren’t fought with weapons, it is fought with information, the country
who has the latest information would win. For example, military planning, enemy country’s
planning and intent, their attack strategy, if a country could collect all this information, they
would always be in the front of the war. In this paper, we will be going through various
methods used in cyber warfare,

Keywords


Cyber warfare



Espionage



Sabotage



Propaganda



Malware



Stuxnet



Cyber Attack



Denial of Service



DDoS



Distributed DOS

Introduction
This is the century of technology and with the advancement in resources and technological
innovation; cyber warfare has been constantly rising. Information Technology has changed
the way we get things done unlike before 1990 where if one has t get information, they had to
be present in the physical space. Now with all the internet and technology, things can be done
with the click of a button. This has been referred to as ‘Digital Migration’. The internet has
changed the way business is commenced, how the institutions run, how we connect, how a
nation deals with an enemy nation, and so forth. It has also changed the way of war, earlier in
World War 1 and war 2, it was all about the military. The country with better military and
strategic resources will have a better likelihood but now it is all about information. Collection
of information through planning, investigation, and technological resources is referred to as
Cyber Warfare; Use of modern technologies to launch a deliberate attack on a government or
nation. These attacks can cause comparable harm as to actual warfare carried out via the use
of ammunitions and weaponry (Kostyuk & Zhukov. 2019). Usually, the term ‘war’ or
‘warfare’ is associated with violence, killing, murder, but that may not be the actual case with
cyber warfare. Even though there is no direct killing or violence but cyber warfare can disrupt
an entire organization or a nation, or a government, and the extreme repercussions can be
easily felt. Almost every country in the past has been known to be associated with at least 1
cyber attack. However, it has not necessarily worked for everyone, for a few it has been

successful as expected, for a few it didn’t pan out. And, in this paper, we will
comprehensively discuss the various aspects, purposes, intent, and methods used in cyber
warfare. We will also see how it has been so relevant for countries like the US to gather Intel
on enemy countries and improve their strategic and military planning.
Change is inevitable and we have entered into the technological era replacing the
conventional war of manpower and weaponry with deliberately planned cyber attacks. Now
there’s no other way but to adapt to the changes in this era where almost everything is on the
internet, every piece of information one can ask for is somewhere readily available and it has
completely changed the way we used to do things. This is a change that has taken the world
by storm and no single government or private institutions can perform without adapting to
these changes (Collins & McCombie. 2016). In fact, with the growing fierce competition,
everyone wants to be ahead in the race, be it the race of financial status, military status, or
social status and there’s no other way but to adapt to modern systems and technologies to do
so. Many countries are relying on the use of the internet and modern system to keep their
influence over the world. One such is the US, a superpower nation, and the country’s defense
sector relies on Cyber warfare to not just protect their borders but also to ensure peace and
harmony in the world.
Cyber warfare isn’t necessarily to harm someone, it could be used as a tool for
reconnaissance to gather Intel on enemy states. That’s what the US does and there are many
similar scenarios where it can be of paramount importance. One such scenario is the case
where a rogue state or an enemy country is planning to launch an attack, could be a terrorist
attack, in the United States or in any nation where the country has a political interest. The
United States as a nation has ties with many other countries, it could be because the country
has heavily invested in that nation, or has the government has some political interest or
invested in some way that makes them a close interest for the U.S. Now if a terrorist attack

were to happen, United States would suffer losses terribly either in political investment or its
reputation. To protect the nation, its citizens, and the country’s investment in the nation,
United State’s government will be forced to intervene to ensure harmony and avoid any form
of terror attacks in a foreign nation (Aucsmith. 2015). But being ahead in this game to protect
itself or a foreign nation isn’t easy and requires a lot of information and gathering Intel to
know any of such malicious plan being planned anywhere in the world. That, in turn, requir...


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