Course Project-Research Proposal, math homework help

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Course Project- Research Proposal

The research proposal will present the topic you have selected for your Course Project. The purpose of the proposal is to persuade your reader to believe that you are interested in the topic and ready to learn how to develop the topic into a project. The format of the proposal is a sentence outline. Use APA style to document any sources referenced in your proposal. When you are finished, save the document as your last name.Wk3 Proposal Assignment> and submit it to the Dropbox by the end of the week.

The Proposal is worth 50 points. See Doc Sharing for the following support documents.

  • An assignment template
  • A sample assignment
  • The assignment grading rubric

Week 3 APA Module Assignment

For this assignment, you will review materials in the DeVry library to help gain a better understanding of APA citations.

  1. Click https://hub2.devry.edu/node/272
  2. Listen to the tutorial or download and review the transcript on APA and answer the questions below

After reviewing the presentation, compose a 2-paragraph response in which you address each of the following points:

  1. Why is APA style used to document ideas in writing? What is the purpose of the in-text citation? Demonstrate your understanding of the in-text citation by providing an in-text citation for the article you summarized for the week 2 assignment. (15 points)
  2. In the article that you summarized in week 2, you may have found some information that you want to quote directly. To demonstrate the process for citing a direct quote, provide an example of properly quoted material. (20 points)



sample


Proposal Pitch for Standardized Tests

Sammy North

DeVry University

Proposal for Standardized Tests

I. Introduction

A. Topic

1) Research question: Have standardized tests in the United States improved schools or demonstrated stronger student learning achievement?

2) Working thesis: Standardized tests in the United States have not improved schools and should be abolished and replaced with end-of-year subject tests because they will save time and money, lead to increased mastery of core subjects, and diminish dropout rates.

3) Angle: Standardized testing has made the gap between developed nations and the United States wider. Taxpayers and employers are paying the price of poorly educated graduates. No Child Left Behind has left nobody ahead, least of all our country’s educational standing among other developed nations.

B. Context

1) Issues in education are in the news because budget cuts and school closures are tied to student performance on standardized tests.

2) Though I am a novice scholar, I am a parent and care deeply about education. I will refer to the expertise of several sources that will establish my credibility regarding standardized tests. The ideas of Hillocks (2002), McNeil and Valenzuela (2001), and Ravitch (2011), who are all experts on this topic, will help to establish my credibility.

C. Audience

1) My primary audience will be educational stakeholders who are teachers, parents, or administrators.

2) My secondary audience is my professor and fellow classmates, some of whom may have experienced standardized tests or have school-aged children and will relate to the topic.

3) My audience shares my opinions and values and will likely be on my side.

II. Evidence

A. Research collected so far

I have found support for the recommendation to remove poorly designed tests that don’t measure what they should. Federal mandates such as No Child Left Behind have spurred their growth and the reward-and-punishment system that serves nobody well, least of all the people these tests were intended to help: students.

B. Research to be collected

I will look for additional facts and statistics to demonstrate the gap between other nations and the United States. I will also look for experts who agree that there are implications for taxpayers and employers to show that the issues of schools affect the public at large. Finally, I will represent the opposing viewpoint and others who have suggested alternatives to standardized tests, including no testing at all. Yearly subject tests are better than other alternate recommendations that have been proposed, such as portfolios, because these tests would be objective determinants of learning rather than subject artifacts of courses.

III. Conclusion

I propose that end-of-year subject tests will be successful in raising the standards and expectations of our students while decentralizing control of students’ learning away from the government and politicians and in the control of teachers who know their students best. This solution is also better than having no assessments whatsoever, as that is unrealistic and does not prepare students for higher education or the workplace. The benefits of yearly subject tests include the time and money that will be saved by switching to end-of year subject tests; the collective energy of stakeholders in education—students, parents, teachers, administrators, and the public—will also be put to better use. I will develop my project to support these claims with research.

IV. References

Hillocks, G. (2002). The testing trap. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

McNeil, L., & Valenzuela, A. (2001). The harmful impact of the TAAS system of testing in Texas. In G. Ornfield & M. Kornhaber (Eds.), Raising standards or raising barriers? (pp. 127–150). New York, NY: Century Foundation.


FORMAT

Your Course Project Title Goes Here

First Last Name

Name of University

Your Course Project Title Goes Here

The purpose of a proposal is to highlight standout ideas, and to do so in a manner that can convince an audience to support a project. Proposals delivered in a workplace are often part of a competitive process in which the strongest proposal is offered the business. In these contexts, effective word choice and professional delivery define the effective communication of an idea. Your research proposal will be presented as a sentence outline. As the name suggests, the sentence outline presents complete thoughts in complete sentences as opposed to phrases. In each section of the proposal, choose ideas with the goal of persuading your reader to believe that you are interested in the topic and ready to learn how to develop the topic into a project. Use a complete sentence to provide the response to each of the questions below. You can use first person. Use APA documentation for the final section of the proposal to document any sources referenced in your proposal. Remember to put at least two items at any given level of the outline, as shown in this template and the sample proposal.

  • Introduction
    • Topic
      • What is your research question?
      • What is your working thesis? (It answers your research question and defines the direction of your argument.)
      • What is your angle on the topic? (Your angle is your unique perspective or view on the issue.)
    • Context
      • Justify for your reader why the topic is important.
      • Justify for your reader why you are the one to write about it. What do you bring to the topic?
    • Audience
      • Who is your primary audience? (These are the readers who would be best affected by what you have to say. They can be readers of an existing publication.)
      • Who is your secondary audience? (Identify this audience as your professor and fellow students.)
      • Does your audience share your opinions and values? (Determine if the audience is on your side or if they may be skeptical.)

II. Evidence

  • What research have you gathered so far? (What have you found that supports your purpose and angle?)
  • What research do you need to gather? (What other kinds of information will you need as support? What will you use to represent the opposing view?)
  • Conclusion (What are you proposing to achieve with your project? What would you like approval on in order to proceed with the project?)
References (must be correctly formatted according to


ARTICLE

Bullying in schools: why it happens, how it makes young people feel and what we can do about it Jeremy Sidea* and Kelley Johnsonb

aEducational Psychologist, Inclusion Services, Monkton Park, Winterborne Monkton, Dorchester, UK; bDirector of the Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

In spite of decades of research and more recent guidance by Government, bullying in schools remains a serious concern to young people and to educational practitioners. This two year qualitative study explored the meanings eight teenagers gave to bullying they had experienced, and related this to an analysis of previous research and school policies about bullying. The findings from the study revealed that bullying affected the subjectivity of young people, including how they positioned themselves and believed themselves to be positioned by others. It also found previous research and school policies focused on the behavioural aspects of bullying, neglecting the subjective meanings that it had for those who experienced it. The research findings suggested that a more open approach by adults to what bullying means to individuals, and clearer guidance to teachers on how to work with them about subjective meanings, may provide a new direction in supporting young people who have been bullied. Keywords: understanding bullying; bullying in schools; Foucault

Introduction Bullying in schools is an issue which, in spite of a strong body of research literature, and government guidance designed to reduce bullying, continues to affect an estimated 50–80% of young people (Department for Children Schools and Families, Special Educational Needs, 2010; Oliver & Candappa, 2003). Approximately 16 children each year in the UK commit suicide as a result of being bullied (Marr & Field, 2001). The serious nature of this problem has been recognised through a raft of national government strategies (Direct Gov Parents, 2010; Secondary SEAL, 2010) and non-government interventions (Beatbullying, 2010; Childline, 2010; Kidscape, 2010). Guidance and interventions have, in part, been informed by research which has sought to define bullying and to identify its effects on young people who have experienced it. To some extent definitions of bullying remain contested. For example, while most definitions stress the importance of the repetition of “hurtful” behaviours as a primary characteristic of bullying (Department for Children Schools and Families, 2007), others stress the importance of a power differential between those who bully and those who experience bullying (Baldry, 2003; Rigby, 1996; Woods & Wolke, 2004). Bullying has been characterised by a range of behaviours including

*Corresponding author. Email: j.side@dorsetcc.gov.uk

© 2014 Association of Educational Psychologists

Educational Psychology in Practice, 2014 Vol. 30, No. 3, 217–231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2014.915209

physical aggression, verbal abuse, cyber attacks and social rejection. In this paper the following working definition of bullying is used:

Behaviour by an individual or group, usually repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally. However, schools will wish to involve the whole school community in agreeing the definition of bullying that will be used in their own anti-bullying or behaviour policy … (Department for Children Schools and Families, 2007 summary) The authors are not uncritical of this definition but nonetheless have used it as a starting point because it is part of current government guidance to schools and therefore is likely to be the one most commonly used in school policies in relation to bullying. Much of the government guidance relies on the results of research undertaken to better understand bullying. Such research has revealed that those who are bullied are more likely than their non-bullied peers to: have difficulties in achieving academic success (Beran, Hughes, & Lupart, 2008), experience depression and anxiety (Peskin, Tortolero, Markham, Addy, & Baumler, 2007 see also Campell & Morrison, 2007), have suicidal feelings (Klomek et al., 2008) or chronic stress (Newman, Holden, & Delville, 2005 see also Dao et al., 2006) and experience physical symptoms of sleeplessness and helplessness (Due et al., 2005). While there is a growing body of research in relation to bullying there is little that focuses on the subjective meanings it has for young people who experience it (Hepburn, 1997). In spite of extensive research which has added to an understanding of the nature of bullying and its effects, bullying continues. The research reported in this paper sought to explore if there were other ways of understanding bullying which may provide new ways of managing it or supporting young people more effectively. The approach taken in the research was a discursive analysis drawing on Foucault’s work (Foucault, 1977, 1978, see also Rose, 1990) which allowed for a deconstruction of how bullying was constituted by research, school policy and by young people who had experienced it. Discourse is a contested but central part of Foucault’s ideas (see Alvesson, 2002; Gee, 2008; Potter & Wetherell, 2007; Weedon, 1987). In this paper discourse is defined in the following way:

… discourses specify truth as it is known at any particular time in history … they are concerned with the exercise of power in relation to the subjects which they constitute … discourses constitute and reveal the subjectivity of the people with whom they are concerned … discourses themselves are subject to change and challenge … (Johnson, 1998, p. 15) Discourses can be seen as combinations of knowledge and their use in practice through the exercise of power. Within the context of bullying, discourses are bodies of knowledge which construct bullying as a cultural object. They prescribe the ways in which it is understood and how it is managed in practice. They also focus on the way in which people are subject to power and knowledge and how they are positioned in relation to others (Henriques, Holloway, Urwin, Venn, & Walkerdine, 1998; Hollway, 1994; Kendall & Wickham, 2003).

218 J. Side and K. Johnson

Method Research questions The research questions used in this study were: How does previous research construct the subject of bullying? How far does policy and practice in schools address the subjective experience of bullying? What meanings do young people who have been bullied give to the experience? How does bullying affect the way young people position themselves in relation to others?

Design This research was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, and a literature and school anti-bullying policy analysis. A discursive approach was taken to identify existing discourses in relation to bullying. The policy and literature analyses were then considered in relation to discourses and meanings ascribed to bullying by eight young people who participated in the study.

Literature review A literature search was carried out to identify research studies undertaken over the last 15 years. It included both qualitative and quantitative studies relating to bullying in general, and bullying in schools in particular, in both the UK and internationally. The resulting 42 studies were then critically examined using the following questions: What is the meaning(s) given to bullying by these studies? What knowledge does it create? How are those who are bullied positioned by this knowledge?

School anti-bullying policy analysis An analysis of government guidance to schools in relation to bullying, and school policies on bullying from the three schools included in the study, was conducted. The following questions were used as a guide: What is the intention of the policy? How is its position justified? How clearly defined are the objectives? Who is seen as the subject of the policy? Who is the audience of the policy? What is missing from the policies? What is the meaning conveyed by the policies? How are those bullied positioned by the message in the policy?

Educational Psychology in Practice 219

This analysis was undertaken after the first interview with participants, and each participant was asked their views on the policy relevant to their school. Questions guiding this discussion were: Did you know about this policy? Were you involved in writing it? Did you use it or was it helpful in gaining support when you were bullied? Were the actions listed in the policy carried out when you were bullied? What else do you think should be included in the policy?

Interviews An interview guide was developed as a basis for the first of two semi-structured recorded interviews with participants. The guide included contextual questions such as age and family circumstances, as well as questions relating to their interests and feelings about school. These were followed by questions which focussed particularly on bullying as a subjective experience. This part of the interview was led primarily by participants but included questions about the nature of the bullying experience, how the participant felt about each part of the bullying they experienced, what they did about seeking support and how they felt about the support they sought. The interviews also included questions about what support the participants would have liked to have received. There were opportunities throughout the interview for the young person to introduce issues which they thought were important. The sensitivity of the issue of bullying was recognised by the researcher and self disclosure, time out of the interview situation and the identification of a trusted other person to whom the young person could go for additional support were included in the interviews. Interviews were administered on

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Attached.

Running head: BULLYING IN SCHOOLS RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Bullying In Schools Research Proposal
Name
Course
Tutor
Date

1

BULLYING IN SCHOOLS RESEARCH PROPOSAL

2

Bullying In Schools Research Proposal
I.

Introduction

Bullying has been a longer existing problem in schools many students have been brutally
subjected to these actions by their fellow students. Despite having been present in various learning
institutions, bullying remains an issue, and different policies and strategies that are usually
developed are unable to completely root out the problem. Therefore there is need to establish a
better mechanism on which these bullying cases can be identified and punished. Therefore this
proposal seeks to establish important, mechanism that can be considered for effective analysis of
the problem and develop better counter mechanism.
A. Topic
1) Research question: Has bullying in schools subsided over the years due to
high engagement levels between teachers and parents?
2) Working thesis: Despite numerous efforts to curb bul...


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