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epidemiology

Health & Medical
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Which type of constant multiplier is most appropriate for calculating rates? (Points : 2) 100, 10,000, or 100,000 1,3,5,7,10 Multiples of 5 Multiples of 100 A and D are both correct   2. The first three interns you meet feel a lot better since they started taking a commonly prescribed antidepressant. You reluctantly draw the conclusion that internship is associated with depression; this is an example of: (Points : 2) Deductive reasoning Hypothesis testing Inductive reasoning Interpolation 3. The sum of the squared deviations from the mean, divided by the number of observations minus one is known as the: (Points : 2) Range Median Variance Standard Deviations 4. A most imposing formula used in medicine dealing with probability of a person having or not having a disease based on test results is: (Points : 2) Cramer V-value Theorem Plasmodium Theory Calmette-Guerin Theory Bayes Theorem 5. Reasoning which is learned from mathematics including geometry is known as: (Points : 2) Productive Inductive Deductive None of the above are correct 6. A Type II Error or false negative error is also known as a/an: (Points : 2) Alpha Error Beta Error Omega Error Delta Error 7. [A / (A + B)] / [C/( C + D)] is the formulas for: (Points : 2) Absolute Risk Relative Risk Risk Ratio Risk Difference 8. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the mean weight? (Points : 2) 76.8 79 86.7 91 9. The main difference between clinical and classical epidemiology are: (Points : 2) The time of the investigation The place of the investigation The population being studied A and c are correct B and c are correct 10. [A/(A + B)] – [C/ (C + D)] is the formula for: (Points : 2) Risk Ratio Risk Factor Attributable Risk Risk Difference 11. How many steps are included in the creating of a decision tree? (Points : 2) 4 5 6 7 12. The three stages of disease in the appropriate order from least to most detectable are: (Points : 2) Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease Symptomatic, latent, pre-disease Pre-disease, symptomatic, latent Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic 13. Which of the following is not a part of the procedure for investigating a suspected epidemic? (Points : 2) Name the epidemic Establish a diagnosis Establish the case definition Define time, place and person Develop a hypothesis 14. Calculate Attributable Risk using the following data: A=1346, B= 100,000-1346, C=200, D=100,000-200; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2) 1146/10,000 1146/100,000 146/10,000 146/1000 15. Developing a list of possible candidates for the causes of the disease and obtaining initial evidence that supports one or more of the candidates is known as: (Points : 2) Research Design Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Generating Descriptive Research 16. An example of a nominal variable is: (Points : 2) 1,2,3 Yes/No Male/Female Both B and C are correct All are correct 17. The definition of the word epidemiology includes: (Points : 2) The study of determining factors of disease in a population A way in which disease, injury and clinical practice are studied Neither of the above is correct Both a and b are correct 18. A false positive error is also known as __________ and a false negative error is known as _____________. (Points : 2) Alpha/beta Type I/Type II Neither is correct Both are correct 19. A histogram minus the bars which are replaced by dots which are connected is known as a/an: (Points : 2) Bar Graph Frequency Distribution Stem and Leaf Diagram Frequency Polygon 20. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 2,8,10,21,46,58,31,2,9,141. (Points : 2) 3.28 328.0 .328 32.8 21. Another name for “bias” is: (Points : 2) Synergism Differential Error Syndrome Error 22. An investigator studying the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids in subjects with arthritis tends to assign enthusiastic participants to the intervention and skeptics to the placebo. The best way to avoid this form of bias is: (Points : 2) “Intention to treat” analysis Random Sampling Randomization Self-selection Statistical Regression 23. Calculate the Attributable Risk using the following data: A= 191, B=99,809, C=8.70, D= 99,991.30; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2) 182.3/100,000 183.2/100,000 99,991/100,000 191/100,000 24. Of the following numbers please evaluate to arrive at the correct mode: 28, 39, 39,41, 41, 41, 59, 65, 21, 28, 39, 39 (Points : 2) 41 59 39 28 25. The Decision Node: (Points : 2) Is a point where clinicians await outcomes Is a point where clinicians have to make a decision Is only related to undesirable outcomes Is only related to desirable outcome interpretation 26. Calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) using the following data: A= 191, B= 99,809, C=8.7, D= 99,991.30; then select the correct answer from below: (Points : 2) 2.000 1.952 2.195 21.95 27. What is an example of tertiary prevention? (Points : 2) Hospice care Occupational therapy after a stroke (cerebrovascular accident) Post exposure prophylaxis for rabies Treatment for essential hypertension 28. When developing a decision tree, which comes first: (Points : 2) Chance Node Neither A or B are correct Decision node Doesn’t Matter 29. If the cost of preventing a hip fracture is greater than the cost of surgical repair, which of the following is true: (Points : 2) A preventative strategy still may be indicated If a hip fracture occurs, it should be managed non-surgically No attempt should be made to prevent hip fracture until a more cost-effective strategy is devised The least costly preventative strategy should be chosen 30. A clearly identified group of people who are going to be studied is known as a/an: (Points : 2) Cohort Population Neyman Group None of the above 31. One way in which a researcher can judge how useful a screening or testing procedure is involves: (Points : 2) Evaluation of number of correct test results seen This cannot be done This statement is false except in cohort studies of 200 or more individuals Testing conducted in opposite areas of a geographic location 32. The ability of a measurement to be correct on the average is known as: (Points : 2) Precision Accuracy Reproducibility Reliability 33. A nurse is taking a health history on a sick infant in the local emergency room. She asked how long the child has been throwing up and the mother answers twenty-four hours while the father contradicts her and says the child started throwing up three hours ago. What common pitfall of causal research is this an example of: (Points : 2) Random Error Bias Effect Modification Interaction 34. If a researcher is operating at a 95% CI, his margin of error is: (Points : 2) 5% 10% .5% 1% 35. What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA? (Points : 2) The type of variance The type of variable The number of variables Nothing is different 36. What is the defining difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study? (Points : 2) Time Dose None of the above All of the above 37. A Type I error is also known as a: (Points : 2) False Positive Error False Negative Error Alpha Error A and C are correct   38. The natural history or stages of a disease are three in number; which of the following is the correct stages in the correct order or occurrence? (Points : 2) Latent, pre-disease, symptomatic Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease Symptomatic, pre-disease, latent Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic 39. When observing a Gaussian Distribution (or Bell Curve), of one tail is longer and has more observations than the other tail, it is called: (Points : 2) Kurtosis Skewness Variance Mode 40. A vector of disease may be all of the following except: (Points : 2) Arthropods Insects Animals Man 41. The delivery of the conceptual product (i.e. baby) that shows any sign of life after being expelled from the mother is known as: (Points : 2) Postnatal Death Live Birth Neonatal Death Miscarriage 42. An immune system that is deemed normal at birth and suffers no damage from a disease such as HIV is termed a/an: (Points : 2) Innate immunity Herd immunity Intact immunity Objective immunity   43. When vaccines are used to confer an immunity such as with children it is known as: (Points : 2) Passive immunity Active immunity Individual immunity Globular immunity 44. When looking at a Gaussian distribution and it appears flattened what is this a characteristic sign of? (Points : 2) Kurtosis Skewness Variability Mode Dispersion 45. The value of alpha serves as protection against which of the following: (Points : 2) False negative results Inadequate sample size Selection bias Type I Error Type II Error 46. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the median? (Points : 2) 79 112 80 92 47. Which of the following is not a common type of intervention? (Points : 2) Modification of environment Putting a barrier to the infection within the hosts Treatment of diagnosed individuals Eradication and control of vectors Identification of surveillance methods 48. The __________ is used to determine the probability of two things being true. (Points : 2) Addition Rule Independence Rule Product Rule Subtraction Rule 49. The application of Bayes Theorem to patient care generally results in: (Points : 2) Greater Sensitivity Greater Specificity Higher costs Improved selection of diagnostic studies 50. An estimate of the amount of risk which is attributed to the risk factor is: (Points : 2) Odds Ratio Absolute Ratio Attributable Risk Attributable Ratio 51. How many steps are there in the process of testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance? (Points : 2) 4 5 6 7 52. Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is most likely to raise ethical concerns: (Points : 2) Dietary intake Genetic susceptibility Immunization status Smoking history Social support network 53. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2) 25.7 27.0 2.70 27.7   54. The _________ is used to determine the probability of one thing being true under all possible conditions. (Points : 2) Addition Rule Independence Rule Product Rule Subtraction Rule 55. The case that introduced the organism into the population is known as: (Points : 2) Epidemic time curve Route of spread Primary exposure case Index case None of the above
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