2. Predicates such as “triangular”, “divine”, and “temperate” do not exist except in the minds of intelligent beings. Whatever exists in reality is an individual thing and can be named. This characterization represents the key thought of: (1 point)
A. William Ockham
3. The criticism of President Obama that he lied to the American public when he said: “If you like your health plan you can keep it.” is completely unjustified because it has not been proven that he acted fraudulently.
This is most clearly an example of: (1 point)
A. against the person
B. argument from ignorance
C. red herring
D. hasty generalization
4. The philosophy of Aquinas is nonsense. He was a Catholic theologian who would say anything as long as it agreed with Rome, and he was fat as a hog besides.
This is most clearly an example of: (1 point)
A. argument from ignorance
B. appeal to authority
C. ad hominem
D. petitio principii
5. “Paranthropus boisei was discovered by Mary Leakey on July 17, 1959, at the FLK Bed I site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania (specimen OH 5). She rushed back to camp and at the news Louis made a remarkable recovery. They refrained from excavating until Des Bartlett had photographed the site. In his notes Louis recorded a first name,Titanohomo mirabilis, reflecting an initial impression of close human affinity.” [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinjanthropus] The name and definition Titanohomo mirabilis best illustrates which of the following definition types: (1 point)
A. operational definition
B. persuasive definition
C. lexical definition
D. stipulative definition
6. Assess this definition: Logic is the science of the laws of thought. (2 points)
A. the definiens is “logic” and is too broad for the definiendum
B. the definiens is “logic” and is just right for the definiendum
C. the definiens is “the science of the laws of thought” and is just right for the definiendum
D. the definiens is “the science of the laws of thought” and is too broad for the definiendum
7. Which of the following is a better characterization of definition by genus and species. (1 point)
A. species concepts are narrower than genus concepts
B. genus concepts are narrower than species concepts
C. a species and a specific difference make a genus
D. definitions by genus and species are totally useless for modern science
All questions about Categorical Logic are to be answered from the Traditional or Aristotelian Logic of Categories, not the Boolean version.
8. What does Oab mean? (1 point)
9. Which, if any, of the terms in Oab are distributed? (1 point)
10. Identify 10 propositions that may be inferred by means of the square of opposition from it is false that Iab? Name the kind of inference in each case. In some of these you will follow a two-step process of inference (e.g. contradiction then contrariety). (20 points)
11. Suppose that Aab is false. Does that mean Eab is false too. Explain briefly. (2 points)
12. What is the difference between contrary statements and contradictory statements. Give two pairs as examples of each. (4 points)
13. What 5 statements can you deduce by immediate inference from “No fish are mammals”? (5 points)
14. Give 3 statements can you deduce by the Square of Opposition from “At least one kind of fish is not cold-blooded”? Name the kind of inference in each case. [Note this appears to be true of some sharks, such as Great Whites] (6 Points)
15. Consider the syllogism
No cats are fish.
All catfish are fish.
Therefore, No cats are catfish.
15a. What is the major term?
15b. What is the minor term?
15c. What is the middle term?
15d. Is the syllogism in standard form? If not, what has to change to make it so?
15e. What is the mood?
15f. What is the figure?
15g. What is the medieval name for this syllogism, if it has one?
15h. Is it valid? If not, why not?
16. Let’s change it around a little…
Consider the syllogism:
No catfish are cats.
Some fish are catfish.
Therefore, No fish are cats.
16a. What is the major term?
16b. What is the minor term?
16c. What is the middle term?
16d. Is the syllogism in standard form? If not, what has to change to make it so?
16e. What is the mood?
16f. What is the figure?
16g. What is the medieval name for this syllogism, if it has one?
16h. Is it valid? If not, why not?
17. What is the figure, mood, and give an example of Felapton. (3 points)
For 18-20, apply the six rules for checking syllogisms to validate or invalidate the following syllogisms.
Write Valid or Invalid, and write out the rule violated if invalid.
18. All sharks are fish. Some pelagic whitetips are fish. Therefore some sharks are pelagic whitetips.
19. Some zebras are albinos. All zebras are striped. Therefore no albinos are striped.
20. Some conditions caused by viruses are not dangerous. All cancers are dangerous. Therefore some cancers are not conditions caused by viruses.
21. Explain briefly the difference between inclusive and exclusive disjunction. (2 points)
22. How do we write the contradictory of (p v ~q)? Give an example in English (i.e. a substitution instance). (2 points)
23. Construct a truth-table for ~p v q . What other sentential formula has the identical values?
24. Write a truth table and evaluate the following:
If it is not the case that LAN connectivity is open between points A and B and Database X is open then Database X is not open or LAN connectivity is not open between points A and B. (10 points)
25. Explain briefly the difference between modus tollens and affirming the consequent. How are they both used in modern science? (5 points)
Extra Credit (3 points)
Construct a valid deductive argument with two true premises and a false conclusion