PORG 200 ACU Porosity Measurement by Digital Helium Porosimeter Lab Report

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Yna23

Engineering

PORG 200

Arizona Christian University

PORG

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Sample 3C Sample 3D Disk 1,2,3 P1 psi Disk +core P1 psi P2 psi 105.7 5 14.6 P2 psi 105.6 26.6 Disk 1,2 P1 psi Disk +core P1 psi 105.6 4 105.5 P2 psi 12.6 P2 psi 21 Objectives The main purpose of this experiment is to find the porosity of plug 3A and 3B using Digital Helium Porosimeter (PORG-200). In this experiment, the volume of lines and cup must be calculated unlike in the last week experiment. However, the porosity values of this week should be compared with the last week values and they must be close to each other. Theory In this experiment, the porosity must be measured using Digital Helium Porosimeter (PORG200) which is based on the Boyle’s law (𝑃1 𝑣1 = 𝑃2 𝑣2 ). Boyle’s law had been derived from the gas equation of state between two points ( 𝑧 𝑃1 𝑉1 1 𝑛1 𝑇1 =𝑧 𝑃2 𝑉2 2 𝑛2 𝑇2 ) using the following assumption: 1. The system is closed, so the number of moles will be the same at the two points. 2. The system is isothermal, so the temperature is going to be constant all the time. 3. The pressure will be minimized in order to make few collisions. As a result, the gas deviation factor can be ignored. In the previous experiment, the equation of the grain volume had been rearranged in a way that the volume of cup and lines are not required to obtain. However, the volume of cup and lines are required to obtain in order to solve for the grain volume of the plugs in this experiment. Here is the general equation: 𝑃1 𝑉𝐿 = 𝑃2 (𝑉𝐿 + 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ) Where: - 𝑃1 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝑃2 can be measured. - βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  are given in the lab manual. - There are two unknowns, and they are the volume of cup and lines. In order to solve this, two equations are needed and that can be obtained by using two different numbers of disks. The important question here is that what two different numbers of disks must be used. The linearization is very important in petroleum and natural gas engineering and it solved many problems, it will be used in order to determine the volume of cup and lines but first the equation needs to be rearranged using the following steps: - Divide both sides by 𝑃2 𝑃1 𝑉𝐿 = (𝑉𝐿 + 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ) 𝑃2 - Move the volume of lines and cup from the left side to the right side and multiply both sides by negative one: βˆ’ - 𝑃1 𝑉𝐿 + 𝑉𝐿 + 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 = βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ) 𝑃2 Take 𝑉𝐿 as a common factor of the first two parameters in the left side: (1 βˆ’ - 𝑃1 ) 𝑉 + 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 = βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ) 𝑃2 𝐿 By doing that, the equation had been linearized: 𝑃 (𝑃1 βˆ’ 1) 𝑉𝐿 + 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 = βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ) 2 𝑦 π‘₯ - π‘Ž, (π‘‘β„Žπ‘’ π‘ π‘™π‘œπ‘π‘’) (π‘‘β„Žπ‘’ π‘–π‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘π‘’π‘π‘‘) The 𝑉𝐿 which is the slope and 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 which is the𝑏,intercept are going to be solved using eight values of 𝑃1 , 𝑃2 , π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  . After that, a graph must be made which has the x𝑃 axis as (1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 ) and the y-axis as βˆ‘ π‘‰π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  ). Then, Using Excel; marks the eight values 2 and draw a straight line that pass through these points, then display the linearized equation. Use math skills to solve for the slope and the intercept which are 𝑉𝐿 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 respectively. Use the following equation to solve for the grain volume: 𝑉𝑔 = (1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 ) (𝑉𝐿 ) + (𝑉𝐢𝑒𝑝 ) βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π‘ˆπ‘ π‘’π‘‘ π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  𝑃2 Since the bulk volume of the plugs had been determined from the first experiment, use it with the grain volume in the porosity equation in order to solve for the porosity: βˆ…=1βˆ’( 𝑉𝑔 ) 𝑉𝐡 Procedure In this experiment, there are two parts. The first part is to get 𝑃1 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝑃2 that are associated with the signed disk volumes in order to get the volume of cup and lines, and the procedure for that: 1. Put the assigned disks on the cup and make sure that that the edge of the cup is aligned with the core holder. 2. Open the valve then close it. Record 𝑃1 . 3. Open the expand valve to allow the cell volume to expand and record 𝑃2 . 4. Empty the cell from the gas by closing the expand valve. The second part is to record 𝑃1 π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ 𝑃2 that are associated with the 3A and 3B core plug volume and the associated disk volumes in order to calculate the grain volume of the plug and the procedure for that: 1. Put Plug 3A and on the cup and try to fill the cup as much as possible but be sure not to overload it and make sure that that the edge of the cup is aligned with the core holder. 2. Open the valve then close it. Record 𝑃1 . 3. Open the expand valve to allow the cell volume to expand and record 𝑃2 . 4. Empty the cell from the gas by closing the expand valve. 5. Put Plug 3B and on the cup and try to fill the cup as much as possible but be sure not to overload it and make sure that that the edge of the cup is aligned with the core holder. 6. Open the valve then close it. Record 𝑃1 . 7. Open the expand valve to allow the cell volume to expand and record 𝑃2 . 8. Empty the cell from the gas by closing the expand valve. Results and Calculations β€’ The next table, shows 𝑃1 , 𝑃2 , the assigned disk volumes, and 1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 for each group: 𝑃 2 # G1 G1 G2 G2 G3 G3 P1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100 100 P2 38.5 34.7 26.7 26.7 24.8 20.4 17.3 15.1 Disks 1,2,3,4,5 2,3,4,5 3,4,5 1,2,4,5 2,4,5 4,5 2,3,4 5 Disks Volume, cc 38.54882 36.95018 32.14085 32.13748 30.53884 25.72951 20.85659 16.09359 1 - P1/P2 -1.60000 -1.88473 -2.74906 -2.74906 -3.03629 -3.90686 -4.78035 -5.62252 𝑃 β€’ The next figure, shows the disk volumes versus 1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 for each group: 2 Disk Volumes VS 1 - P1/P2 45 40 Disk Volumes, cc 35 30 y = 5.5725x + 47.464 RΒ² = 1 25 20 15 10 5 -6.00000 -5.00000 -4.00000 -3.00000 -2.00000 1 - P1/P2 o From Figure 1: β–ͺ 𝑉𝐿 = π‘ π‘™π‘œπ‘π‘’ = 5.5725 𝑐𝑐. β–ͺ 𝑉𝑐𝑒𝑝 = π‘–π‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘π‘’π‘π‘‘ = 47.464 𝑐𝑐. -1.00000 0 0.00000 β€’ The next table, shows 𝑃1 , 𝑃2 , the used disk volumes for Plug 6A and 6B: Plug Number P1 P2 Used Disk Numbers Used Disk Volumes 3A 100.4 29.2 2 and 4 14.44525 3B 100.3 26.8 2 and 4 14.44525 Disk # 1 2 3 4 5 Disk Volume, cc 1.59864 4.80933 6.41134 9.63592 16.09359 β€’ Plug 63A: 𝑉𝑔 = (1 βˆ’ 𝑉𝑔 = (1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 ) (𝑉𝐿 ) + (𝑉𝐢𝑒𝑝 ) βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π‘ˆπ‘ π‘’π‘‘ π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  𝑃2 100.4 ) (5.5725) + (47.464) βˆ’ 14.4453 = 19.431 𝑐𝑐. 29.2 βˆ…=1βˆ’( 𝑉𝑔 ) 𝑉𝐡 19.431 ) = πŸπŸ—. πŸπŸ‘πŸ— % βˆ…=1βˆ’( 24.03 β€’ Plug 3B: 𝑉𝑔 = (1 βˆ’ 𝑉𝑔 = (1 βˆ’ 𝑃1 ) (𝑉𝐿 ) + (𝑉𝐢𝑒𝑝 ) βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π‘ˆπ‘ π‘’π‘‘ π·π‘–π‘ π‘˜π‘  𝑃2 100.3 ) (5.5725) + (47.464) βˆ’ 14.4453 = 17.736 𝑐𝑐. 26.8 βˆ…=1βˆ’( 𝑉𝑔 ) 𝑉𝐡 17.736 ) = πŸπŸ”. πŸ’πŸ– % βˆ…=1βˆ’( 24.124 Conclusions The porosity of plug 3A and 3B had been measured using the Digital Helium Porosimeter (PORG-200) which is based in the Boyle’s law. In this experiment, the volume of cup and lines had been calculated using the idea of linearization unlike the previous experiment. The experiment had been done successively and here are the answers to the questions. Answers to questions The plug 3A and 3B porosity values measured in this experiment are consistent with the porosity values of the same plugs that had been measured last week. The porosity value of plug 3A that had been measured in this experiment had a slightly lower value of 0.321% than the porosity value of the same plug that had been measured in the last experiment. However, the porosity value of plug 3B that had been measured in this experiment had a slightly higher value of 0.07% than the porosity value of the same plug that had been measured in the last experiment. Nevertheless, they should be the same but due to the errors that human make during measurements make such a tiny difference. The next table shows the porosity of plug 6A and 6B that had been measured in this experiment and the last experiment. β€’ Experiment # Porosity of plug 6A Porosity of Plug 6B 2 πŸπŸ—. πŸ’πŸ”% πŸπŸ”. πŸ’πŸ% 3 πŸπŸ—. πŸπŸ‘πŸ— % πŸπŸ”. πŸ’πŸ– % Answer to the Second Question: The compressibility and porosity are two important properties and they are related to each other by the following mathematical formula (Geomechanical Reservoir Models): 1 𝑑𝑉𝑝 ) 𝑐𝑓 = ( ) ( 𝑉𝑝 𝑑𝑝 The rock compressibility can be measured in the lab using the following steps. First, the experimenter ensures that the core plug is 100 percent saturated with brine and then put it in a velvety copper sleeve. As the experimenter continually intensifies the pressure without the copper sleeve, the pore volume diminishes continuously, allowing the experimenter to gauge the volume of the expelled brine and uses it to estimate rock compressibility (Crain). References Crain, Ross. β€œCompressibility of Rocks.” CPH, 1 January 2015, https://www.spec2000.net/09compress.htm. β€œGeomechanical Reservoir Models.” Geomechanical, http://www.fekete.com/SAN/WebHelp/FeketeHarmony/Harmony_WebHelp/Content/HTML_Fil es/Reference_Material/General_Concepts/Geomechanical_Reservoir_Models.htm PNGE 432 Lab Manual: Porosity Measurement by Digital Helium Porosimeter. β€œLaboratory M Experiment No. 3”. Summer 2018. Shale Wells 1. Example of Hard data vs. Soft Data Context of Shake Wells Hard data gets referred to as activities involving field measurements usually achieved during operation, while soft data refers to estimated variables and interpretations. Shale Wells operates on hard data and soft data, which gets evidenced in operations. Examples of hard data in Shale Wells hydraulic fracturing include variables like fluid type, injection rate, closure pressure, breakdown, injection and proppant type, and amount (Mohaghegh, 2017). The listed variables about hard data get measured by Shale Wells during operations. Soft data gets used in operation by other firms, unlike Shale Wells, which specializes in applying hard data. As said earlier, soft data refers to the data related to hydraulic fracturing that cannot get measured and is only estimated, interpreted, or guesses (Mohaghegh, 2017). Perfect examples of soft data about Shale Wells hydraulic fractures include fracture half-length, width, height, and conductivity that cannot get measured during operations (Mohaghegh, 2017). Soft data aids in the determination and estimation of variables at Shake Wells. 2. Three Conventional Technologies that are Currently Used in Modeling Production from Shale Shale invests in running activities using the hard data strategy over the soft data in hydraulic fractures. The oil company uses a set of conventional technologies in production, including the Simulated Reservoir Volume, Explicit Hydraulic Fracture and the Decline Curve Analysis (Mohaghegh, 2017). The Decline Curve analysis is famous and well known in the industry due to its ease of use. The technology, when used at Shale Wells, provides many shortcomings. On the other hand, the Simulated Reservoir Volume gets advocated in the collection and interpretation of microseismic data and identifying events. The usage of the specialized technique presents uncertainties with forecasts. The third technique, Explicit Hydraulic Fracture, shows the most significant hydraulic fracturing impact at Shale Wells (Mohaghegh, 2017). However, the procedure is by far the most tedious, complex, and very comprehensive in modeling. β€’ Provide the best set of examples of hard data vs. Soft data in the context of shale wells. β€’ Name of the three conventional technologies that are currently used in modeling production from shale. Please provide a one sentence explanation of each of the technologies and in one sentence please provide what you think weakest point of the technology.
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Explanation & Answer

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Porosity Measurement by Digital Helium Porosimeter (PORG-200)
Objective
This lab was conducted to measure the porosity of core samples using PORG-200.
Theory
In experiment 2, we saw the estimation of rock porosity using the concept of Boyle’s Law. The Boyle’s
law states that for a given mass of gas, the volume of the gas is inversely proportional to absolute
pressure. The Boyle’s Law is expressed using Equation 1 which was derived in Experiment 2. Just to
recap, the derivation of the Law assumes constant number of moles of the gas, isothermal condition,
and low pressure.

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2……………………………………….Equation 1
In experiment 3, the same concept (Boyle’s Law) is used to determine the porosity of a core sample.
Porosity is still defined as the ratio of the pore volume in a rock mass to the total volume of the rock. It
can also be determined by subtracting the ratio of grain volume to the total volume from one. The
difference between experiment 2 and experiment 3 was on the handling of line volume and cup volume.
Experiment 2 as evident in Equation 2 relied on measured volume to determine the grain volume. This
enabled the line and cup volume to be removed in the equation. On the other hand, Experiment 3 relies
on measured pressure and calculates the line volume and cup volume. One significance of this is that it
accounts for volumes that might be omitted in experiment 2, e.g., volume in the connecting pipe.

𝑉1 βˆ’ 𝑉2 = 𝑉𝑔 + π‘‰π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘˜ βˆ’ βˆ‘ π‘‰π‘‘π‘–π‘ π‘˜ ……………………………….Equation 2
The design and working of the porosimeter in experiment 3 is the same as that used in experiment 2.
The only difference being that, for experiment 3, a pressure gauge is connected to obtain the pressure
readings. The volume readings are not obtained. The porosimeter comprised of two chambers, that is
the reference chamber and the test chamber. The two were connected using a pipe with a valve
separating the two chambers. The reference chamber was again connected to a gas source tank via a
pipe fitted with a valve. The reference chamber was also fitted with a pressure gauge to measure the
pressure variable. Before the experiment, the equipment is adjusted for zero error and all valves closed.
The reference chamber is then charged to 100 psia by opening the valve between the source tank and
reference chamber after which it is closed. The pressure gauge reading is recorded as P1. The valve
between the test chamber and the reference chamber is then opened to allow expansion and flow of
gas into the test chamber. The new pressure is recorded as P2. To calibrate the porosimeter, various
disks are used in combination at the cup in the test chamber. A graph of ratio of summation of volume
of disks used against P2 to P1 is plotted to determine the volume of the line and volume of the cup. The
volumes o...


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