MGT 325 Saudi Electronic University Strategic Management Worksheet

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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences MGT325: Management of Technology Assignment 1 Deadline: 06/03/2020 @ 23:59 Course Name: Management of Technology Student’s Name: Course Code:MGT325 Student’s ID Number: Semester: 2nd CRN: Academic Year: 2020-2021 For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). • Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Course Learning Outcomes-Covered ✓ Demonstrate the dynamics of technological innovation concepts in technologyintensive business enterprises. (Lo 1.1) Case Study Weight: 5 Marks Students are supposed to read the Opening Case of Chapter-3 ‘Innovation in India: The Chotukool Project’ (Page Number-43) of their e-textbook. Based on your understanding of the case and concepts studied until now answer the following question in 300-500 words each. QUESTIONS 1. What were the pros and cons of attempting to develop a refrigerator for India’s rural poor? (1 marks) 2. What product and process innovations did the Chotukool entail? Would you consider these incremental or radical? Architectural or Component Competence enhancing or competence destroying? (1 marks) 3. Did the Chotukool pose a threat of disrupting the traditional refrigerator market? Why or why not? (1 marks) 4. Is there anything you think Godrej should have done differently to penetrate the market of rural poor families in India? (1 marks) 5. What other products might the lessons Godrej learned which chotukool apply to? (1 marks) Note: It is mandatory to support each answer with at least two scholarly, peerreviewed journal. Directions: ✓ All students are encouraged to use their own words. ✓ Be three to five pages in length (1000-1500words), which does not include the title page, abstract or required reference page, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements. ✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines. ✓ Use proper referencing (APA style) to reference, other styles will not be accepted. ✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles unless the assignment calls for more. ✓ It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments into the safe assignment Originality Check prior to submitting it to your instructor for grading and review the grading rubric to understand how you will be graded for this assignment. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF Technological Innovation Sixth Edition Melissa A. Schilling ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 1 Introduction 1-2 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Importance of Technological Innovation 1 Technological innovation now the single most important driver of competitive success in many industries. • Many firms earn over one-third of sales on products developed within last five years. • Product innovations help firms protect margins by offering new, differentiated features. • Process innovations help make manufacturing more efficient. 1-3 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Importance of Technological Innovation 2 Advances in information technology have enabled faster innovation. • CAD/CAM systems enable rapid design and shorter production runs. Importance of innovation and advances in information technology have lead to: • Shorter product lifecycles (more rapid product obsolescence). • More rapid new product introductions. • Greater market segmentation. 1-4 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Impact on Society Innovation enables a wider range of goods and services to be delivered to people worldwide. • More efficient food production, improved medical technologies, better transportation, etc. • Increases Gross Domestic Product by making labor and capital more effective and efficient. • However, may result in negative externalities. • For example, pollution, erosion, antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 1-5 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Innovation by Industry: The Importance of Strategy Successful innovation requires carefully crafted strategies and implementation processes. Innovation funnel. • Most innovative ideas do not become successful new products. • For example, The New Product Development Funnel in Pharmaceuticals. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 1-6 The Strategic Management of Technological Innovation 1 Part One: The foundations of technological Innovation. • Sources of innovation. • Types and patterns of innovation. • Standards battles and design dominance. • Timing of Entry. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 1-7 The Strategic Management of Technological Innovation 2 Part Two: Formulating Technological Innovation Strategy. • • • • Defining the organization’s strategic direction. Choosing innovation projects. Collaboration strategies. Protecting innovation. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 1-8 The Strategic Management of Technological Innovation 3 Part Three: Implementing Technological Innovation Strategy. • Organizing for innovation. • Managing the new product development process. • Managing new product development teams. • Crafting a deployment strategy. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 1-9 Discussion Questions 1. Why is innovation so important for firms to compete in many industries? 2. What are some of the advantages of technological innovation? Disadvantages? 3. Why do you think so many innovation projects fail to generate an economic return? 1-10 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Part One: Industry Dynamics of Technological Innovation The sources from which innovation arises, including the role of individuals, organizations, government institutions, and networks. Types of innovations, and common industry patterns of technological evolution and diffusion. The factors that determine whether industries experience pressure to select a dominant design, and what drives which technologies dominate others. Effects of timing of entry, and how firms can identify (and manage) their entry options. 1-11 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF Technological Innovation Sixth Edition Melissa A. Schilling ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 2 Sources of Innovation 2-2 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education The Rise of “Clean Meat” 1 In late 2017, Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos, Jack Ma and others began funding efforts to grow “clean meat”. • Growth in demand for meat expected to outpace supply. • Animal production has large negative impacts environment: greenhouse gasses, heavy water and energy use. • Animal production is inefficient: 1 calorie of beef requires 23 calories of inputs versus 3 required for one calorie of “clean meat”. Developing clean meat. • Jason Matheny founded New Harvest to promote research; collaborated with Dutch scientist and government. • Early efforts were very expensive ($1200 for first meatball). • By 2016 there were several startups and Tyson and Cargill were investing in it. 2-3 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education The Rise of “Clean Meat” 2 Discussion Questions: 1. What were the potential advantages of developing clean meat? 2. What were the challenges of developing it and bringing it to market? 3. What kinds of organizations were involved in developing clean meat? 4. What were the different resources that each kind of organization brought to the innovation? 5. Do you think people will be willing to eat clean meat? Can you think of other products or services that faced similar adoption challenges? 2-4 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Overview Innovation can arise from many different sources and the linkages between them. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 2-5 Creativity 1 Creativity: The ability to produce work that is useful and novel. • Individual creativity is a function of: • Intellectual abilities (for example, ability to articulate ideas). • Knowledge (for example, understand field, but not wed to paradigms). • Personality (for example, confidence in own capabilities). • Motivation (for example, rely on intrinsic motivation). • Environment (for example, support and rewards for creative ideas). 2-6 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Creativity 2 • Organizational Creativity is a function of: • Creativity of individuals within the organization. • Social processes and contextual factors that shape how those individuals interact and behave. • Methods of encouraging/tapping organizational creativity: • Idea collection systems (for example, suggestion box; Google’s idea management system). • Creativity training programs. • Culture that encourages (but doesn’t directly pay for) creativity. 2-7 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Theory in Action 1 Inspiring Innovation at Google. • Google uses a range of formal and informal mechanisms to encourage its employees to innovate, including: • 20% Time (all engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their time working on their own projects). • Recognition awards. • Google Founders’ Awards. • Ad sense Ideas Contest. • Innovation reviews. 2-8 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Translating Creativity into Innovation Innovation is the implementation of creative ideas into some new device or process. Requires combining creativity with resources and expertise. Inventors. • One ten-year study found that inventors typically: 1. Have mastered the basic tools and operations of the field in which they invent, but they will have not specialized solely on that field. 2. Are curious, and more interested in problems than solutions. 3. Question the assumptions made in previous work in the field. 4. Often have the sense that all knowledge is unified. They will seek global solutions rather than local solutions, and will be generalists by nature. • Such individuals may develop many new devices or processes but commercialize few. 2-9 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Theory in Action 2 Dean Kamen. • The Segway HT: A self-balancing, two-wheeled scooter. • Invented by Dean Kamen. • Described as tireless and eclectic. • Kamen held more than 150 U.S. and foreign patents. • Has received numerous awards and honorary degrees. • Never graduated from college. • To Kamen, the solution was not to come up with a new answer to a known problem, but to instead reformulate the problem. 2-10 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 1 Innovation by Users. • Users have a deep understanding of their own needs, and motivation to fulfill them. • While manufacturers typically create innovations to profit from their sale, user innovators often initially create innovations purely for their own use. • For example, Laser sailboat developed by Olympic sailors; Indermil tissue adhesive based on Superglue; early snowboards. 2-11 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 2 Research and Development by Firms. • Research refers to both basic and applied research. • Basic research aims at increasing understanding of a topic or field without an immediate commercial application in mind. • Applied research aims at increasing understanding of a topic or field to meet a specific need. • Development refers to activities that apply knowledge to produce useful devices, materials, or processes. 2-12 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 3 Research and Development by Firms. • Science Push approaches suggest that innovation proceeds linearly: • Scientific discovery  inventionmanufacturing  marketing. • Demand Pull approaches argued that innovation originates with unmet customer need: • Customer suggestions  invention  manufacturing. • Most current research argues that innovation is not so simple, and may originate from a variety of sources and follow a variety of paths. 2-13 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 4 Firm Linkages with Customers, Suppliers, Competitors, and Complementors. • Most frequent collaborations are between firm and their customers, suppliers, and local universities. NA North America (%) Europe (%) Japan (%) Collaborates with: NA NA NA Customers 44 38 52 Suppliers 45 45 41 Universities 34 32 34 2-14 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 5 Firm Linkages with Customers, Suppliers, Competitors, and Complementors. • External versus Internal Sourcing of Innovation. • External and internal sources are complements. • Firms with in-house R&D also heaviest users of external collaboration networks. • In-house R&D may help firm build absorptive capacity that enables it to better use information obtained externally. 2-15 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 6 Universities and Government-Funded Research. • Universities. • Many universities encourage research that leads to useful innovations. • Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 allows universities to collect royalties on inventions funded with taxpayer dollars. • Led to rapid increase in establishment of technology-transfer offices. • Revenues from university inventions are still very small, but universities also contribute to innovation through publication of research results. 2-16 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 7 Universities and Government-Funded Research. • Governments invest in research through: • Their own laboratories. • Science parks and incubators. • Grants for other public or private research organizations. 2-17 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Transforming Creativity into Innovation 8 Private Nonprofit Organizations. • Many nonprofit organizations do in-house R&D, fund R&D by others, or both. • The top nonprofit organizations that conduct a significant amount of R&D include organizations such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Mayo Foundation, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and SEMATECH. 2-18 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Total R&D Expenditures and Percent of R&D Funds by Performing Sector, by Country 2015 Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 2-19 Innovation in Collaborative Networks 1 Collaborations include (but are not limited to): • Joint ventures. • Licensing and second-sourcing agreements. • Research associations. • Government-sponsored joint research programs. • Value-added networks for technical and scientific exchange • Informal networks. Collaborative research is especially important in hightechnology sectors where individual firms rarely possess all necessary resources and capabilities. 2-20 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Innovation in Collaborative Networks 2 As firms forge collaborative relationships, they weave a larger network that influences the diffusion of information and other resources. The size and structure of this network changes over time due to changes in alliance activity. Access the text alternative for these images ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education 2-21 Innovation in Collaborative Networks 3 Technology Clusters are regional clusters of firms that have a connection to a common technology. • May work with the same suppliers, customers, or complements. • Agglomeration Economies: • Proximity facilitates knowledge exchange. • Cluster of firms can attract other firms to area. • Supplier and distributor markets grow to service the cluster. • Cluster of firms may make local labor pool more valuable by giving them experience. • Cluster can lead to infrastructure improvements (for example, better roads, utilities, schools, etc.). • Agglomeration downsides: • Increased competition, knowledge leakage, congestion and pollution. 2-22 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Innovation in Collaborative Networks 4 Likelihood of innovation activities being geographically clustered depends on: • The nature of the technology. • For example, its underlying knowledge base or the degree to which it can be protected by patents or copyright, the degree to which its communication requires close and frequent interaction; • Industry characteristics. • For example, degree of market concentration or stage of the industry lifecycle, transportation costs, availability of supplier and distributor markets; and. • The cultural context of the technology. • For example, population density of labor or customers, infrastructure development, national differences in how technology development is funded or protected. 2-23 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Innovation in Collaborative Networks 5 Technological spillovers occur when the benefits from the research activities of one entity spill over to other entities. • Likelihood of spillovers is a function of: • Strength of protection mechanisms (for example, patents, copyright, trade secrets). • Nature of underlying knowledge base (for example, tacit, complex). • Mobility of the labor pool. 2-24 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Research Brief Knowledge Brokers. • Hargadon and Sutton point out that some firms (or individuals) play a pivotal role in the innovation network – that of knowledge brokers. • Knowledge brokers are individuals or firms that transfer information from one domain to another in which it can be usefully applied. Thomas Edison is a good example. • By serving as a bridge between two separate groups of firms, brokers can find unique combinations of knowledge possessed by the two groups. 2-25 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education Discussion Questions 1. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of a) individuals as innovators, b) firms as innovators, c) universities as innovators, d) government institutions as innovators, e) nonprofit organizations as innovators? 2. What traits appear to make individuals most creative? Are these the same traits that lead to successful inventions? 3. Could firms identify people with greater capacity for creativity or inventiveness in their hiring procedures? 4. To what degree do you think the creativity of the firm is a function of the creativity of individuals, versus the structure, routines, incentives, and culture of the firm? Can you give an example of a firm that does a particularly good job at nurturing and leveraging the creativity of its individuals? 2-26 ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF Technological Innovation Sixth Edition Melissa A. Schilling ©2020 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only f...
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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
MGT325: Management of Technology

Assignment 1
Deadline: 06/03/2020 @ 23:59

Course Name: Management of
Technology

Student’s Name:

Course Code:MGT325

Student’s ID Number:

Semester: 2nd

CRN:
Academic Year: 2020-2021

For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of

Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low

Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or
other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.
No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.

Course Learning Outcomes-Covered
✓ Demonstrate the dynamics of technological innovation concepts in technologyintensive business enterprises. (Lo 1.1)

Case Study

Weight: 5 Marks

Students are supposed to read the Opening Case of Chapter-3 ‘Innovation in
India: The Chotukool Project’ (Page Number-43) of their e-textbook. Based on
your understanding of the case and concepts studied until now answer the
following question in 300-500 words each.
QUESTIONS
1. What were the pros and cons of attempting to develop a refrigerator for India’s
rural poor? (1 marks)
2. What product and process innovations did the Chotukool entail? Would you
consider these incremental or radical? Architectural or Component Competence
enhancing or competence destroying? (1 marks)
3. Did the Chotukool pose a threat of disrupting the traditional refrigerator
market? Why or why not? (1 marks) yes due to targeting the wrong audience
4. Is there anything you think Godrej should have done differently to penetrate the
market of rural poor families in India? (1 marks) yes different positioning
strategy, proper targeting, reach the audience
5. What other products might the lessons Godrej learned which chotukool apply to?
(1 marks)

Note: It is mandatory to support each answer with at least two scholarly, peerreviewed journal.

Directions:
✓ All students are encouraged to use their own words.
✓ Be three to five pages in length (1000-1500words), which does not include the title
page, abstract or required reference page, which are never a part of the content
minimum requirements.
✓ Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style
guidelines.
✓ Use proper referencing (APA style) to reference, other styles will not be accepted.
✓ Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from
the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles unless the
assignment calls for more.
✓ It is stro...


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