Forms of Behavioral Modification for Autism and Relationship Development Discussion

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I’d like this question answered for me. This is a WJEC exam board topic is autism methods of modifying behaviour. Should be on PECS and RDI.

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16:43 stuvia.co.uk treated as one being. This suggests that the concordance may be the result of environmental factors (-) There is often confusion between cause and effect. Many mothers experience depression, guilt and stress upon receiving a diagnosis of ASD for their child, which causes them to struggle to provide emotional support. Thus, blaming mothers for their child's diagnosis when they themselves are unwell is further damaging, as well as incorrect. Downloaded by: hermionetholder I hermionetholder@icloud.com Distribution of this document is illegal Stuvia.co.uk . The Marketplace for Revision Notes & Study Guides METHOD OF MODIFYING 1 - PECS (PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM) Developed by Andy Bondy and Lori Frost in 1985, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was introduced in response to the communication deficits experienced by individuals with ASD and Down's Syndrome, as this development can be delayed until an age beyond early childhood or may never occur at all without intervention. PECS aims to improve functional communication, enabling individuals to vocalise their needs, and instigate spontaneous conversation where ASD individuals often struggle to do so. In PECS, there are 6 stages, beginning at 0. 0 - Pre-programme preparation: the teacher and the learner establish areas of interest/enjoyment, before making picture cards featuring drawings of these items. 1 - Physical exchange: the 2 - Increased independence: the physical 3 - Learning to discriminate: learner must use the cards to distance between the teacher and learner is more picture cards are created, indicate their want for increased, encouraging the learner to give in order to encourage more something, giving it to the more effort to communicate what they want. effort in communicating a want, teacher in exchange for the i.e. specifying certain sweets, object like Smarties or Skittles, rather At this stage, a picture book is often created than just sweets. with Velcro strips to store the pictures, with the teacher regularly moving the pictures around so they cannot be found identically each time. 4- Sentence structuring: 5 - Answering direst questions: The 6 - Commenting: The teacher The Velcro book now comes teacher will now verbally ask questions begins to ask a wider range of into use, as learners begin to which the learner responds to through their questions, such as "What did structure their own Velcro books in full sentences. you do today?", to prompt more sentences using the cards, complex sentences. such as "I want...". METHOD OF MODIFYING, EVALUATION 1 - PECS (+) SOCIAL - there are significant benefits to families, as previous studies have found that many mothers often receive a diagnosis of depression, or experience huge guilt, when tasked with raising an autistic child, meaning that these communication improvements can remove some of the stress from the situation, lessening some communication difficulties. (-) SOCIAL - PECS is trademarked and administered by Pyramid Educational Consultants, who provide the materials and resources used in the programme. They advise that it is only carried out by teachers trained under them, making this an expensive therapy. Whilst it is usually covered by health bodies like the NHS or local councils, evidence from Flippin's meta-analysis suggests it is ineffective long-term, thus discouraging the funding. (-) ETHICAL - the aim of this therapy is to enable communication in response to the deficit seen in ASD individuals. However, if the learner cannot communicate effectively upon beginning PECS, then they are unable to utilise their right to withdraw. (-) ETHICAL - BARON-COHEN criticised PECS, stating that the withholding of a desired object in stages 1 and 2 is psychologically harmful for someone with socialisation or empathy difficulties, as they cannot communicate or understand their frustration. (+) EFFECTIVENESS - one study into the effectiveness of PECS looked at 3 boys with ASD who displayed almost no spontaneous speech. PECS sessions were 15 minutes long and used twice a week, with the results finding one boy improved from 28% to 100% in spontaneous speech. It was also noted in a 12-month follow-up that eye contact had also improved, and "problem behaviours" such as tantrums had also lessened. (+) EFFECTIVENESS - FLIPPIN conducted a meta-analysis of 12 studies into the effectiveness of PECS, with the findings suggesting that it had limited effectiveness on a Downloaded by: hermionetholder I hermionetholder@icloud.com Distribution of this document is illegal Stuvia.co.uk - The Marketplace for Revision Notes & Study Guides long-term scale, and that it may even be damaging to later communication developments. METHOD OF MODIFYING 2 - RDI (RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION) Developed by Sheely and Gutstein, Relationship Development Intervention aims to help the communicative and social difficulties faced by children with ASD. Gutstein argues that children with ASD have missed important develonmental blocks that would normally be developed without intervention, by missing skis such as beginning conversations, sharing and understanding) 16:43 Astuvia.co.uk (-) ETHICAL - BARON-COHEN criticised PECS, stating that the withholding of a desired object in stages 1 and 2 is psychologically harmful for someone with socialisation or empathy difficulties, as they cannot communicate or understand their frustration. (+) EFFECTIVENESS - one study into the effectiveness of PECS looked at 3 boys with ASD who displayed almost no spontaneous speech. PECS sessions were 15 minutes long and used twice a week, with the results finding one boy improved from 28% to 100% in spontaneous speech. It was also noted in a 12-month follow-up that eye contact had also improved, and "problem behaviours" such as tantrums had also lessened. (+) EFFECTIVENESS - FLIPPIN conducted a meta-analysis of 12 studies into the effectiveness of PECS, with the findings suggesting that it had limited effectiveness on a Downloaded by: hermionetholder I hermionetholder@icloud.com Distribution of this document is illegal Stuvia.co.uk - The Marketplace for Revision Notes & Study Guides long-term scale, and that it may even be damaging to later communication developments. METHOD OF MODIFYING 2 - RDI (RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION) Developed by Sheely and Gutstein, Relationship Development Intervention aims to help the communicative and social difficulties faced by children with ASD. Gutstein argues that children with ASD have missed important developmental blocks that would normally be developed without intervention, by missing skills such as beginning conversations, sharing (and understanding) jokes, and articulating feelings. RDI is based on Gutstein's notion of dynamic intelligence, which refers to adaptive thinking and the ability to appreciate others' perspectives. The therapy seeks to promote these skills to improve communication abilities and avoid later ASD issues such as emotional reciprocity or difficulties developing relationships. Thus, RDI aims to teach these developmental skills, but Sheely and Gutstein argue that parents alone cannot teach these skills: an RDI consultant is needed. The role of the consultant is to assess the child's progress, and to set out aims for improving communication skills whilst overseeing their development in regard to the 6 objectives. The parents' role in the therapy is to record their child developing their skills to discuss with the consultant for advice on further development. They will also meet other parents involved in the therapy to discuss their own skill techniques. The child's job in RDI is to eventually have a local partner who is also partaking in the therapy to become familiar making conversation with, before eventually joining a larger social group who also all partake. The aforementioned 6 objectives are as follows: 1. EMOTIONAL REFERENCING - the ability to describe and learn from your emotions. 2. SOCIAL COORDINATION - controlled behaviour to enable further social interaction. 3. DECLARATIVE LANGUAGE - using words to express curiosity and to engage further. 4. FLEXIBLE THINKING - being able to accept when plans/routines change. 5. RELATIONAL INFORMATIONAL PROCESSING - evaluating behaviour based on the context. 6. HINDSIGHT AND FORESIGHT - using knowledge from past situations to understand how to behave in future situations. METHOD OF MODIFYING. EVALUATION 2 - RDI (+) EFFECTIVENESS - GUTSTEIN et al. studied 16 children with ASD who partook in RDI. The study found that 15 of these were enrolled in special education, with only 3 of these remaining in special education following RDI. Additionally, 14 were considered to show significant autistic behaviours, with just 2 remaining after RDI. (+) However, researcher bias and low external validity weaken this study. (-) EFFECTIVENESS - This therapy lacks any gold standard research. The aforementioned research was carried out by RDI Connects, the group who administer RDI, lessening its validity through further researcher bias, and its lack of control groups, random allocations of conditions and single-blind designs. (-) SOCIAL - RDI is a time-costly therapy, meaning it may take over people's lives and leave little real-life opportunity for children to apply what they have learnt. This limits the effectiveness further, as there is no application for the therapy's aims. It also puts a strain on families who lose time together. (-) SOCIAL - RDI is an expensive therapy, with the first year estimating costs of $5000 / £4000. This limits its effectiveness through exclusive accessibility, as if the majority of individuals cannot access it, then it cannot have the desired impacts. (+) ETHICAL - whilst little evidence can account for effectiveness of RDI, many children describe its effects as "lifechanging", suggesting that the positive self-esteem it brings is a benefit to society we should consider, as this confidence promotes effectiveness and encourages further communicative skills. (-) ETHICAL – however, the lack of proven effectiveness could be psychologically- harmful, as families may get their hopes up for their child's lives to become easier, only to Downloaded by: hermionetholder I hermionetholder@icloud.com Distribution of this document is illegal Stuvia.co.uk - The Marketplace for Revision Notes & Study Guides learn that the therapy is not so effective. This could have lasting effects of resentment or anger in the family, creating a hostile environment for a child, thus risking them harm. METHOD OF MODIFYING 3 - DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION Deep Brain Stimulation refere to the nlacement of a batterv.nack in the patient's chest, attaching it to two electrodes. These electrodes are connected to the patient's brain,
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Forms of Behavioral Modification for Autism

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Forms of Behavioral Modification for Autism
Two major forms of modification for autism include Relationship Development
Intervention (RDI) and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Sheely an...


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