10 empirical articles, writing assignment help

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Question Description

Read at least 10 empirical articles

In the "Literature Review Resources" (See attached) document that you submitted in the previous course, provide the following for each source that you are adding to the document:

  1. The APA-formatted citation.
  2. A brief annotation of the key points of the source (200 to 250 words for each)

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Teacher Understanding of Classroom Management and Application of Methods for Dealing with Student Misbehavior Submitted by Deonte’ Jamar Alexander A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctorate of Education Grand Canyon University Phoenix, Arizona September 30, 2014 © by Deonte’ Jamar Alexander, 2014 All rights reserved. Abstract The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how elementary school teachers selected, developed, and implemented classroom management strategies. An additional focus was on how teachers defined an effective classroom manager, and the training and support that teachers perceived they need in order to feel more confident in their approach to classroom management. The theoretical framework used for this study was based on social cognitive theory, person-centered theory, and the stimulus-response theory. The central question guiding this research focused on how elementary teachers selected, developed, and implemented classroom management strategies to use in class. Data collection consisted of questionnaires and interviews as well as a researcher’s observations and focus groups over the course of four to six weeks in elementary classrooms at one school located in southern North Carolina. The results of the study included four key themes - noncompliant behavior, preparation, emotion, and training which helped to identify successful strategies and various obstacles in classroom management and student misbehaviors of these seven elementary school teachers. The results of this study provided education practitioners with ideas regarding how to benefit from helpful classroom management techniques and behavior approaches in order to increase the students’ success and effectiveness in the classroom of elementary school teachers. Overall, the study increased awareness, development, and implementation of classroom management techniques from the personal accounts of a sample of elementary school teachers and their perception of classroom management and dedication to improve the current situation and approach options. Key words: classroom management, elementary school, teachers, North Carolina v Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to numerous individuals, for all of them played an intricate part in the vision that has finally become a manifestation. I dedicate this dissertation to my mother and father, Arrita Alexander and Walter Patterson Jr.; they are the reason that I am the strong, consistent worker that I have become. I also dedicate this dissertation to my grandmothers, Sylvia Alexander and Mary Patterson. They instilled great value into me and have continued to be my life guide since I was born. I dedicate this dissertation to my sister and brother, Shaquana Alexander and Walter Malik Patterson III, who made me appreciate being a big brother. I dedicate this dissertation to all my aunts and uncles: Sutalia, Willette, Mary Jane, JoAnn, Lee, Marlon, and Malcolm. They always gave me encouraging words and were top supporters in whatever I decided to do. I dedicate this dissertation to my best friends, Tristan Williams and Danielle Allen. They both have always believed in who I was, not only to them, but who I was to the world. I dedicate this to my god brothers and sister Kimont, Kendrick, Otis, and Amanda. This group was by my side through my every high and my every low. I also dedicate this dissertation to my one and only niece, Malia, who is the light of my world. I dedicate this dissertation to all my spiritual leaders: Bishop Aaron and Lady Riley, Pastor Leroy and Lady Hamilton, Dr. James and 1st Lady Spence, and Dr. Pamela Herndon. I cannot forget Charles Caldwell who has been one of my best friends, wonderful inspiration, ideal example, and consistent leader in many ways. Finally, I dedicate this dissertation to all elementary school teachers striving to become better and more effective educators, but have not due to the lack of opportunity or information. We are a team! As one of my pastors would always say, “We do it better when we do it together!” vi Acknowledgments I have had such a wonderful support system throughout the doctoral process. First, I must thank God for all He was and still is in my life. There is no way I could have made it without the mercy and grace of God, especially during the time when I wanted to give up. I want to acknowledge a wonderful committee chair and members, Dr. Jason Ward, Dr. Gayle Grant, and Dr. Daniel Smith! They were definitely a group exuding excellence, knowledge, patience and wisdom. I wanted to also recognize those former chair and committee member on my team when I first began this journey: Dr. Cristie McClendon and Dr. Deborah Rickey. The doctoral team, as a team, pushed and stretched me in ways I did not think was possible. I must acknowledge my family praying for me and talking me through. I appreciate my friends as well as associates for having the patience with me and understanding when I could not participate in the normal ‘leisure’ activities. I must also acknowledge my former church families: Word Empowerment Church and Sacrifice of Praise Ministries. These two church families supported me and became listening ears when needed. I must also acknowledge Bright Horizons Family Solutions, who allowed extended break to prepare for my initial defense call and time off, if needed for research. Finally, I must acknowledge all the members of my cohort. Some of my colleagues have become doctors and some are almost at the finish line. Through this doctoral journey, I adopted an extended family and bond like never before. When no one around me understood what I was going through during the doctoral journey, this group knew hands on what to do and say to give me that push I needed to continue. This group will always be a part of my life, educational journey and I am forever appreciative for having people to walk this journey with me. vii It was an honor and privilege to have this opportunity to see other educators with such integrity, passion, character, and strength. It was interesting to hear various situations of behavior issues and how that dealt with them. However, it was even better to hear how they all were transparent and willing to learn from others. If I had to select one thing from this study to apply to my life now, it would certainly be that regardless how long I remain an educator and obtain various degrees, there is always something else to learn. viii Table of Contents List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... xi Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study....................................................................................1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................1 Background of the Study ...............................................................................................2 Problem Statement .........................................................................................................5 Purpose of the Study ......................................................................................................6 Research Questions ........................................................................................................7 Advancing Scientific Knowledge ..................................................................................8 Significance of the Study ...............................................................................................9 Rationale for Methodology ..........................................................................................10 Nature of the Research Design for the Study...............................................................11 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................12 Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations ....................................................................14 Summary and Organization of the Remainder of the Study ........................................15 Chapter 2: Literature Review .............................................................................................16 Introduction to the Chapter and Background to the Problem ......................................16 Theoretical Foundations...............................................................................................18 Review of the Literature ..............................................................................................22 Classroom management defined. ...................................................................23 Components of classroom management. .......................................................25 Types of student misbehaviors .......................................................................29 Reasons students misbehave...........................................................................30 Ethnicity, gender, and student misbehavior ...................................................33 ix Teacher views on student misbehavior...........................................................35 Student misbehavior strategies .......................................................................37 Classroom environment ..................................................................................43 Understanding diversity in the classroom ......................................................47 Summary ......................................................................................................................49 Chapter 3: Methodology ....................................................................................................52 Introduction ..................................................................................................................52 Statement of the Problem .............................................................................................52 Research Questions ......................................................................................................53 Research Methodology ................................................................................................54 Research Design...........................................................................................................55 Population and Sample Selection.................................................................................57 Sources of Data ............................................................................................................59 Validity ........................................................................................................................60 Reliability.....................................................................................................................61 Data Collection Procedures..........................................................................................61 Data Analysis Procedures ............................................................................................62 Ethical Considerations .................................................................................................64 Limitations and Delimitations......................................................................................65 Summary ......................................................................................................................65 Chapter 4: Data Collection and Analyses ..........................................................................67 Introduction ..................................................................................................................67 Descriptive Data...........................................................................................................68 Data Analysis Procedures ............................................................................................70 x Results ..........................................................................................................................73 Research Questions ......................................................................................................79 Summary ....................................................................................................................106 Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations ............................................108 Introduction ................................................................................................................108 Summary of the Study ...............................................................................................108 Summary of Findings and Conclusion.......................................................................110 Key Themes ...............................................................................................................112 Implications................................................................................................................114 Theoretical implications...............................................................................114 Practical implications. ..................................................................................115 Future implications. .....................................................................................116 Recommendations ......................................................................................................117 Recommendations for future research. ........................................................118 Recommendations for practice.....................................................................121 References ........................................................................................................................125 Appendix A: Questionnaire .............................................................................................147 Appendix B: Interview Questions ....................................................................................151 Appendix C: Classroom Management Observation Checklist ........................................152 Appendix D: Focus Group Session Protocol ...................................................................153 Appendix E: Site Approval Letter ...................................................................................154 Appendix F: Author Permission Letter 1 .........................................................................155 Appendix G: Author Permission Letter 2 ........................................................................156 Appendix H: Informed Consent Form .............................................................................157 xi List of Tables Table 1. Participants’ Education and Experience ..............................................................71 Table 2. Key Themes .........................................................................................................73 Table 3. Percentage of Students Identified as Noncomplaint Students ............................ 74 Table 4. Noncompliant Behaviors within the Class.......................................................... 75 Table 5. Number of Times Noncompliant Behaviors are Addressed ................................76 Table 6. Is your Response to Item #3 Reflective of the Past Year as well? ......................77 Table 7. Rated top Three Strategies ...................................................................................82 Table 8. Rate the Effectiveness of Classroom Management Strategies in General ...........83 Table 9. Indicate the Classroom Strategies used in the Classroom ...................................84 Table 10. How Teachers Develop their Classroom Strategies used in the Classroom ......85 Table 11. Opinions on Classroom Management Strategies and Behavior Approaches ....88 Table 12. Scores from classroom Management Observation Checklist ............................90 Table 13. Data in Correspondence to Selection, Development, and Implementation .....104 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study Introduction An understanding of proper classroom management techniques is a critical tool for teachers to possess in order to be successful within the classroom in regard to the effectiveness of their instruction as well as to deter student misconduct that might interfere with that objective. Effective classroom management is an ongoing process that can be difficult to sustain because it requires attention to detail on a daily basis (Guercio, 2011). Teachers use diverse means to promote positive and appropriate conduct in the classroom; however, there is still a question as to which methods are the most appropriate (Guercio, 2011). By collecting data on student engagement during instruction, disruptive behavior, and teacher observations, teachers can determine if changes are needed in the physical arrangement of their respective classrooms. Changing the classroom environment can increase academic engagement and decrease disruptive behavior (Guardino & Fullerton, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how elementary school teachers select, develop, and implement classroom management strategies. This study was a replication of a study conducted by Westbrook-Spaniel (2008) and focused on a diverse sample population and grade-level group that differed from Westbrook-Spaniel’s study. Targeting a younger grade-level group diversified the scope of information and offered a different set of approaches to controlling student behavior through classroom management. Guiding research questions spotlighted how teachers discovered, chose, expanded, and executed the classroom-management techniques they use. Additional questions focused on how teachers defined an effective classroom manager, and the training and support that teachers perceived they needed in order to feel more confident 2 in their approach to classroom management. The results of the study added to the existing body of knowledge by providing teachers with information that went beyond current classroom management research in the field of education. The results offered practitioners an understanding of how effective classroom strategies are implemented and who could implement them effectively. Additionally, the study provided information on how teachers defined an effective classroom manager and what training they need in order to continue to develop their skills (Westbrook-Spaniel, 2008). Data collection in this study included the use of questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations. Participants included teachers in elementary classrooms at one school located in southern North Carolina. In this study, some questions were answered regarding what classroom management methods were known to work best in reducing incidences of misbehavior in elementary-school classrooms. Teacher awareness of the specific strategies that work at the school targeted for this study was heightened and may have helped teachers and leaders in other elementary-school settings. It was not clear how educators were using and applying current research on classroom management to their own instructional environments. This study helped fill a gap in the existing literature and research on classroom management to illuminate how teachers learn, select, develop, and implement effective classroom-management strategies. Background of the Study Classroom management is the ongoing process by which teachers seek to enhance students’ affective growth by creating and maintaining an orderly environment (Jones, Jones & Vermete, 2013). In education, teachers and administrators are obligated to remain aware of innovative classroom management techniques that will prevent or reduce ...

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