Farmers Protests in India and Neoliberalism Writing Question

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McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies Winter 2021 Online Version Instructor: McCarty, Philip C. Global and International Studies Office hours: Tu 2:00-3:00 pm Teaching Assistants: Pascal Dafinis, Gvantsa Gasviani, Randy Mengel, Alejandra Rocha, email: GOALS AND DESCRIPTION: The first section of the course seeks to answer the questions: What is Global and International Studies? How is this field different from other disciplines? Why is Global Studies important? This section introduces students to the basic analytical concepts, methodological strategies, and gives a brief outline of the substantive issues such as immigration, global climate change, human rights, global inequality and economic development, that are characteristic of the field. The second part of the course seeks to re-envision history, typically treated as distinct regional or national histories and periods, as an integrated and ongoing global history. This re-reading of history focuses on integrative processes such as long-distance trade, the diffusion of technologies, cultural exchange, the spread of global religions, conquest, colonialism and empire building. These processes have from the earliest civilizations tended to increase the social, economic and political interdependence of different regions, cultures and peoples. The goal of this section is to highlight the important continuities between historical processes of integration and the ongoing processes of globalization today. The third part of the course deals with the rise of modernity, and the early-modern, high modern and postmodern periods. Topics include the impact of the sciences, modern ideas of progress and development, nationalism, democratic revolutions, industrialization, and rise of modern imperialism and consumer society. The advent of modern warfare, the First World War, the Great Depression, the Second World War, and decades of decolonization mark the end of the modern period and the transition to the postWWII order that came to be governed by the bilateral logics of the Cold War. The fourth and final part of the course deals with the post-Cold War period and the broader recognition that processes of globalization are driving another period of rapid social transformation. The focus is on contemporary global issues that come out of the earlier historical processes including the post-colonial condition, inequality, immigration and displacement, global social movements, human rights, global women’s movements, regional conflict, terrorism, genocide, sectarian violence, climate change and sustainability. The course ends by examining the tension between the de-globalizing impulses of various populist nationalism movements around the world and the multilateral impulse toward global governance. REQUIRED READING: • McCarty, Philip. 2018. Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. San Diego, CA: Cognella. ISBN: 978-1-5165-3403-6. Please use the Second Newly Revised Edition only. If you order this text from the publisher Cognella you can download eBook option, McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 2 ONLINE CLASS For each class session on Tuesdays and Thursdays there is a required reading, a video and a short online quiz on the Canvas course website. There will also be a series of discussion threads. Additional materials including optional news articles, videos and links to other web resources are also available on the course website. Office hours will be held on Zoom. ASSESSMENT Discussions (30%): There will be a series of discussion topics on Canvas. You will be required to give a brief response to the discussion prompt. Quizzes (40%): Short online quizzes will cover the assigned videos and reading materials for each class session. You lowest quiz score will be dropped automatically. Final Paper (30%): The paper assignment will require students to use analytical concepts from course materials to make their own coherent argument about one or more current global issues. The global issues to be analyzed will vary from quarter to quarter. Papers should be uploaded on the course website. Please use msWord or .pdf formats only. Extra Credit (additional 5%): Students that participate in the course evaluation at the end of class will get five extra credit points toward their overall grade. RESPECT Please be considerate and respectful in class and discussion sections. I encourage active participation but ask you not to dominate the discussion. Let others speak and let them finish what they have to say without interruption. Our discussions may touch on sensitive topics such as race, class, gender, sexuality, religion, inequality, immigration and politics. To have productive discussions about pressing global issues it is essential that everyone feel welcome to participate and to express opposing views. Learn to talk about ideas without attacking people. Avoid resorting to gross stereotypes. Racist, sexist, and other hateful comments will not be tolerated in my class. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Learning, research, and scholarship depend upon an environment of academic integrity and honesty. This environment can be maintained only when all participants recognize the importance of upholding the highest ethical standards. All student work, including quizzes, exams, reports, and papers must be the work of the individual receiving credit. Academic dishonesty includes, for example, cheating on examinations or any assignment, plagiarism of any kind (including improper citation of sources), having someone else take an examination or complete an assignment for you (or doing this for someone else), or any activity in which you represent someone else's work as your own. Violations of academic integrity will be referred to the Office of Academic Integrity and Student Conduct. The impact on your grade will be determined by the individual instructor's policies. Please familiarize yourself with UCI's Academic Integrity Policy ( and speak to your instructor if you have any questions about what is and is not allowed in this course. McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 3 CAMPUS SUPPORT SERVICES Distressed Student Protocol How to report a COVID case Social Science Undergraduate Student Affairs Office (academic advising) Center for Excellence in Writing & Communication Learning and Academic Resource Center (LARC) Disability Services Center (DSC) UCI is committed to supporting and accommodating students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are invited to meet with me privately to discuss their needs. If you have questions, please visit the DSC website or contact them at (949) 824-7494, or email Counseling and Emergency Services McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 4 COURSE SCHEDULE WEEK 1 Jan 5. Introduction Please watch the introductory video on the course website. Jan 7. Global Perspectives What does it mean to think “globally”? This section introduces the kinds of substantive issues that global scholars are likely to engage including immigration, global climate change, human rights, global inequality and economic development, among others. What approaches do global scholars take to global issues? Required reading: “Introduction” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 2 Jan 12. Section 1 Thinking Globally about History Thinking globally about history means seeing important interconnections between places and periods that are often understood as separate and unrelated. We start by seeking to answer the questions “When did globalization begin?” And “How far back can we trace the underlying process of integration that still drive globalization today?” “What are the similarities and differences between past and present? Understanding the impact that globalization is having today requires one to contextualize the present in a deep and complex history of globalization, and learning to see both rapid change and deep historical continuities. Required reading: Section 1 “Thinking Globally about History” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Jan 14. Section 2 Empires, Religions and Crusades An exploration of ancient and medieval empires reveals processes of integration such as long-distance trade along the Silk Road, the diffusion of technologies, cultural exchange, the spread of global religions, conquest, and empire building. The great empires didn’t appear out of nowhere. They developed at the crossroads, where cultures of the world encountered each other. As far back as the historical record goes the processes of integration, often accompanied by conflict and exploitation, have been increasing the social, economic and political interdependence of different regions, cultures and peoples. Required reading: Section 2 “Empires and Crusades” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 3 Jan 19. Section 3 Early World Trade and Colonialism The focus is on connections between the rise of transoceanic trade, the conquest of the new world, and the spread of slavery and colonialism in the early modern period. Over the course of four centuries European colonial powers subjugated much of the world and gained access to raw mineral wealth, agricultural lands, as well as cheap foreign and slave labor. These resources produced enormously valuable McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 5 commodities such as sugar, flax, wheat, cotton, and rubber. The relationship between domination and resource extraction seen in the colonial period persists, carrying forward into the industrial revolution, modern imperialism, the development paradigm, and the ongoing divide between the global north and global south. Required reading: Section 3 “World Trade and Colonialism” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Jan 21. Section 4 The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Focuses on the transition from medieval to modern society. As the natural sciences began to make important advances in agriculture, medicine, physics and chemistry, these successes encouraged Enlightenment ideas such as humanism, individualism, individual rights, progress and development, that would become cornerstones of modernity and capitalism. Increasingly secular societies began to rely less on traditional forms of authority, religions and divine monarchs for their salvation in the afterlife, and more on human reason, science, empirical evidence, debate and criticism, and self-government to improve their lives in this world. The result was profound changes in understandings of the nature of the individual, the purpose of society, and of the role of the individual in society. Required reading: Section 4 “Science and Enlightenment” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 4 Jan 26. Section 5 Nationalism and Democratic Revolutions Following the Thirty Years War and the Treaties of Westphalia, Enlightenment ideas began to ignite political upheavals that eventually dethroned the ancient monarchies and replaced them with modern democratic nation-states. The nation-state became the primary political unit of a Westphalian international order that would govern international relations for the next 300 years. The inherent instability of a system built on intense international competition, and the rise of competing economic ideologies, combined to create major conflicts that have cyclically rocked the international order since its inception. In the current moment, globalization appears to be further destabilizing the geopolitical order. Required reading: Section 5 “Nationalism and Democratic Revolutions” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Jan 28. Section 6 Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution In the early 1800s the Industrial Revolution began transforming the lives of millions of Europeans. The relatively rapid transition from agrarian society to modern industrial society was the single most profound change in the social order since the agricultural revolution some 10,000 years before. The result was an industrial, urban, capitalist and consumer society that was in many ways nearly unrecognizable to previous generations of farmers. It is important to recognize that the Industrial Revolution never ended. All around the world today billions of people are still experiencing the upheaval that goes with industrialization and urbanization. Required reading: Section 6 “Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 6 WEEK 5 Feb 2. Section 7 Modern Empires and Imperialism Over a relatively short period, from about 1830 to 1914, the newly industrialized powers of Europe began to dominate the world in ways that 400 years of colonialism had not. The period includes the “Great Game” in Afghanistan and Central Asia, the “Scramble for Africa,” and the “Open Door” policy in China. In 1914, after decades of reckless expansionism that massacred of millions of non-Europeans, the industrial powers of Europe turned on each other. The Great War that followed was only the beginning. Required reading: Section 7 “Modern Imperialism” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Feb 4. Section 8 Modern Warfare: Industrial and Ideological The advent of modern warfare in the First World War began a period of transition that led to profound changes in the geo-political order. The Bolshevik Revolution and communism, the Great Depression, the rise of fascism, and the Second World War changed the nature of warfare, its goals, means and meaning. The societies that waged those wars were also profoundly changed. The end of World War II, marked as it was by the horrors of the holocaust and nuclear war, signaled the beginning of the nuclear age, the formation of the United Nations, decades of decolonization, and what came to be called the postmodern era. Required reading: Section 8 “Modern Warfare: Industrial and Ideological” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 6 Feb 9. Section 9 Multilateralism and Human Rights Focuses on two impulses coming out of WWII. The first is the push for international cooperation as seen in Bretton Woods, the United Nations, the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, establishment of universal human rights, and multilateral policies supporting economic development. The second is a contradictory impulse, the bilateral tension between capitalism and communism. The bilateral logic of the Cold War undermined concerns for human rights, multilateralism, economic development, and dominated the post WWII geopolitical order for 40 years. Required reading: Section 9 “Universalizing Human Rights” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Feb 11. Section 10 Decolonization, the Third World and Postcolonialism The violent processes of colonization and decolonization shaped the map as we know it. They also set up lasting struggles that still reverberate in our daily headlines. In the span of three decades, more than 100 former colonies became independent nations, tripling the membership of the United Nations. The decolonized countries became known as the Third World. The ideological conflict driving the Cold War, the failure of post-WWII development policies, and the impacts of neo-liberal globalization, left the majority of the world’s population still living in a world apart, underdeveloped, without effective representation in world affairs, subject to new forms of neo-imperialism, and with little hope of ever joining the First World. Required reading: Section 10 “Decolonization, Postcolonialism, and the Third World” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 7 WEEK 7 Feb 16. Section 11 Feminism and Global Women’s Movements This section traces the history of feminist thought beginning with the Enlightenment and the abolitionist and suffrage movements. Tracks changing women’s issues through first, second and third wave feminism, touching on standpoint and intersectional theories. Taking the analysis into the post-colonial context reveals that all three waves of feminism are still impacting huge portions of the world’s population, and focuses students’ attention on the largely overlooked role that women play in economic development. An analysis of global women’s movements highlights the crucial role that women play in the struggle for human rights, democracy, equality, peace, health, education, community and sustainable development. Required reading: Section 11 “Feminism and Global Women’s Movements” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Feb 18. Section 12 Environmentalism and the Blue Planet Traces the development of environmental thought from earliest days of the Industrial Revolution. Early ideas of conservation in the late 1800s and early 1900 focused on effective use and management of natural resources. The post-WWII period of the 1960s and 1970s saw the rise of preservation movements focused less on effective use and more on the protection and survival of key species and ecological systems. More contemporary concerns around the limits of natural resources and climate change focus attention on biodiversity, longer-term sustainability, and the survival of all species, including our own. Required reading: Section 12 “Environmentalism and the Blue Planet” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 8 Feb 23. Section 13 NGOs, Social Movements and Civil Societies Drawing on Habermas’ concept of national public spheres, this section asks, “Is there a global public sphere?” Do the multiple social movements around issues such as human rights, women’s rights and democratization, supported by economic globalization, the proliferation of international civil society organizations, and new forms of social media, create a transnational space where independent public debate can influence world affairs? Examples such as the anti-apartheid, anti-sweatshop, Arab Spring movements, and WikiLeaks are used to explore the possibilities and limitations for global public action. Required reading: Section 13 “NGOs and Civil Societies” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. Feb 25. Section 14 The Cold War and the "Clash of Civilizations" As happened at the end of WWII, the end of the Cold War and the Fall of the Berlin Wall brought a brief period of hope for multilateral cooperation and progress on issues such as Third World debt relief and the AIDS epidemic. Once again multilateral cooperation was soon overwhelmed by new divisions, civil wars, regional conflict, ethnic cleansing and genocide. Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” thesis was an early attempt to explain the new dynamics of regional conflict, non-state and sectarian violence. Huntington envisioned, and may have helped shape, a new world order riven by new kinds of conflict that undermine efforts towards multilateral cooperation. Required reading: Section 14 “The ‘Clash of Civilizations’” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. McCarty, Philip Introduction to Global Studies 8 WEEK 9 March 2. Section 15 Terror and Torture Along with contemporary processes of globalization, the world is experiencing new threats and new forms of conflict involving non-state and shadow-state actors that include terrorist groups, drug cartels, mercenary warlords, sectarian violence, ethnic cleansing and genocide. The “War on Drugs” and subsequent “War on Terror” marked a shift in US policy away from multilateral and bilateral security policies toward more unilateral and even preemptive responses. Following suit, other countries have begun to act more unilaterally and preemptively, bypassing the United Nations Security Council, ignoring human rights and international law for their own purposes. Required reading: Section 15 “Terror and Torture” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. March 4. Section 16 Global Inequalities Focuses on the impact of structural inequality at home and abroad. Includes factors such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, education and access to health care, immigration status and language. The factors that divide rich and poor within nations also divide the wealthiest countries from the poorest, colonizer from colonized, First and Third Worlds, the G20 nations from the G174 developing nations, the global north from south. Special attention is given to examples where poverty, disease, discrimination and violence intersect. Required reading: Section 16 “Global Inequality” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. WEEK 10 March 9. Section 17 Global Governance Contemporary global issues present new kinds of challenges that call for new kinds of global solutions. Since WWII the United States has played a leading role in developing systems of shared governance at the United Nations, World Bank, WTO, NATO, the European Union and beyond. However, in recent years the United States has shifted its policies rather dramatically toward unilateral action. There are increasing tensions between the need for shared governance and the de-globalizing impulses of populist nationalism that seek to withdraw from international commitments. What are the current effects and possible outcomes of these opposing impulses? Required reading: Section 17 “Global Governance” in Integrated Perspectives in Global Studies. March 11. Course Review and Closing Comments A brief review of the materials covered in the course. Discussion of the final paper assignment. Students are encouraged to participate in formal course evaluations. Extra Credit (additional 5%): Look for an email from the school about course evaluations in the last weeks of class. Course evaluations are anonymous. Students that participate in the course evaluation at the end of class will get five extra-credit points toward their overall grade. FINAL ASSIGNMENT DUE The final paper assignment is due online on Tuesday March 16th by 5 pm.
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Farmers Protests in India and Neoliberalism
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Farmers Protests in India and Neoliberalism
With continuous developments in technology and other innovations, the world is
progressively and rapidly becoming so interconnected that governments can no longer restrain
interactions between people across the world. There has been tremendous growth in technologies
related to communication, transportation, and finance, to the extent that the events occurring in
one location have an impact on people across the other end of the globe. The term globalization
refers to the process through which people, ideas, technology, products, and investments move
and interact beyond national borders and cultures leading to global consciousness (Lutkevich,
2020). After many centuries of technological progress, the world has come to a period where
there is growing interdependence among economies, cultures, and populations which have been
facilitated by the exchange of goods and services across borders, technology, investments,
movement of people, and information. This has influenced nations into building partnerships to
enable and expedite these exchanges (Kolb, 2019). The events going on in India, where farmers
have staged what is seen as the largest protest in history depict the effects of globalization,
particularly as far as neoliberal ideologies are concerned. This paper explores the concept of
neoliberal globalization and its effects on the policies of any given country by focusing on the
growing farmers’ protests in India and the protests connection to neoliberal globalization.
Neoliberal Globalization
One of the ideologies that have been spreading across the world is neoliberalism. This is
a policy model encompassing both politics and economics, with the main objective of the
transfer of economic factors from the public to the private sector (Kenton & Westfall, 2020). The



concept of neoliberalism pushes for minimal government interference into the economic issues
of individuals and society. This concept has since the 1970's grown globally while embracing
free and open markets, otherwise referred to as laissez-faire ("Neo-liberal Globalization," n.d.).
While hoping to make trade between nations easier, neoliberal policies support free trade, where
the production, exchange, and consumption of goods is not repressed but purely dictated by the
rules of demand and supply.
Under neoliberalism, governments' interference in trade through tariffs and other
regulations is discouraged ("Neo-liberal Globalization," n.d.). The proponents of this school of
thought argue that a largely unregulated capitalist system does not only embody free individual
choice ideals but also precipitates into the most ideal performance in terms of economics. It also
creates a space where there is efficiency, equity, technical progress, and economic growth (Kotz,
2000). The duties of the state under this ideology are reserved into enforcing contracts, defining
property rights, and regulating the supply of money.
Neoliberals push their governments into facilitating for space where individual investors
and banks can move their goods and services across national boundaries, can acquire properties
beyond national boundaries, but do not advocate for free cross-border movements (Kotz, 2000).
At the international level, neoliberalism advocates for free movement of goods, capital, money,
and services across national borders, but not people. Critics of this model however argue that it
kills collective bargaining, growth, productivity, and competition are presented as the only goals
for human actions, that wealth is reserved only for a few individuals, it destroys welfare state and
collective responsibility, it leads to the cutting of pensions and lifting of retirement age, it shifts
state functions to the civil society, public enterprises services are privatized, states withdraw
from all areas of social life, among many other demerits.



Farmers' Protests in India and the Connection with Neoliberalism
The minimum support price in India as introduced by the government was intended at
supporting the farmers from market uncertainties as well as other natural and unforeseen
challenges. This policy was introduced by the government to give farmers incentives to grow
crops so that they could move beyond the growing of wheat and paddy, which were laborintensive and did not fetch good markets. Through the introduction of the minimum support
price in 1960, farmers were able to grow a variety of crops and fetch better markets.
The government announces the minimum support price at the start of each cropping
season, after taking into consideration factors such as incurred costs, implicit family labor, fixed
assets, and rents paid by farmers. This policy has come under sharp criticism in that though it has
been providing minimum support prices for wheat and paddy farmers since the 1960s, it lacks a
proper legal structure. The government has also been accused of using this policy to dictate the
purchase of crops from farmers, and that it does not necessarily take into consideration the price
for the crops. Farmers in India have as a result of the introduction of what they refer to as 'three
controversial laws' staged a protest around New Delhi, in what they say is aimed at dissuading
the government from protecting farmers and corporatizing the country's agricultural sector
("Indian Farmers' Movement,” 2021).
The three laws were passed by parliament in September, to encourage farmers to sell
their products to private buyers as well as to enter into contracts with private companies ("India
farmers brave tear gas as they protest against 'black laws'," 2020). The intention behind this
move by the government is to involve the private sector in the process of growth stimulation.
This has elicited bile from among the farmers who feel that the purchase of crops by prices
guaranteed by the government will no longer be observed, which will leave them vulnerable to



the market. It is for this reason that farmers are seeking a guarantee from the government that
the minimum support price will be accorded a proper legal structure, and that the purchases of
their crops will only happen at or above the minimum support price ("Indian Farmers'
Movement,” 2021).
Research conducted by Kotz (2000) found out that the neo-liberal model is inferior to the
state regulation model for key dimensions of capitalist economic performance. Research further
states that the neoliberal model has continued to shift wealth towards the wealthy without regard
for the poor populations. Though the ideologies of neoliberalism may seem fit at the onset, lack
of controls will expose producers to unregulated markets where they might end up being
exploited. The effects of neoliberalism are not only being felt in India but across the world, and
have been attributed to many protests that have been seen in countries like Iran and the Latin
America region. In Chile, for example, there have been mass protests over what people termed as
the oppression of the poor by the rich due to decreased government regulation (Castro, 2019). In
India, farmers are calling for a guarantee by the government that they will sell their crops at or
above the minimum support price. This is a means of seeking protection from traders in a free
market, a danger that is not taken into consideration by the proponents of neoliberalism. The role
of the government as far as trade is concerned is to protect both producers and consumers from
exploitation by traders and middlemen, who buy goods from producers at minimum prices and
sell them to consumers at hiked prices. These traders take control over markets and dictate
prices, which is only beneficial to the wealthy, who accumulate more wealth and cripple the
efforts of producers. The protests in India seek a strict legal framework where farmers can sell
their crops and products...

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