Policy Brief, political science assignment help

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5 page assignment that does not require citation or research( it might require a little bit of research to get a better understanding) anyway, I will attach a research paper that has been done about the subject.

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Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 1 Middle East Conflict; A look on Iran’s Security Position in the Region Abdulmajeed Nasib PSCI-362 University of Evansville 12-OCT-2016 INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 2 Introduction Understanding what constitutes to a full blown war between countries can be intriguing from every point of view. Yes, many differences exist between different populations and society, but the concept of engaging in combat, fully aware of the costs associated with war, takes more than just anger provocations. In every war, there are benefits, although they may be one-sided, the overall cost of war leaves benefits behind. A rational leader would most refrain from engaging in war battles when the world is competing in an economy platform. However, even in governments led by rational leaders, there is a need to be ready for any match, given the volatility of some regions and the growing issue of terrorism.1 Understanding the position taken by Iran on international security policy This report will analysis the international security policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The theocracy led government represents the other source of issues in the Middle East. Still many are yet to acknowledge the villain status of the Islamic government, but many questions continue to loom scholar’s minds. The country has been experiencing peaceful moments, but it’s itself seen as a threat to the much-needed peace in the region. Seven sections have been used in researching the policy issues surrounding Iran’s security concerns. Foreign Policy Description: i. Institutions and leaders in Iran 1. Tucker, Robert W. "The Interpretation of War under Present International Law." The International Law Quarterly 4, no. 1 (1951): 11-38. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 3 Theocracy is exercised as the only form of government by the constitution of the Islamic State of Iran. The constitution of the land is entirely based on Islamic criterion in every aspect. The Supreme Leader is the overall overseer of the state of Iran, with the current incumbent Ayatollah Ali Khamenei holding the position since the death of his predecessor, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Iran’s Islamic government is entirely formed by the majority Shia Muslims, who have had control of the state right from its Persian Empire era. The system in Iran’s government is leaned towards conservatism, which gives it much strictness as per the Sharia law. The Supreme leader has the final say it matters to do with international security. As the commander in chief of the staff, Ayatollah Khamenei has the highest authority, granted to him in the country’s constitution. However, the supreme leader has a guardian council which assists him in formulating policies at the interest of the State. Iran’s position on international security has been a hot discussion topic amongst western diplomats. The country’s ambitions within the Middle East region are not well defined, and other western powers seem to be at doubts with Iran’s approach and the state’s desire to gain nuclear weapons.2 Iran’s security policy is envisioned under the position of its supreme leader. His views about the state's interest are taken keen of, with no limits to pursue his desires, which are treated as the desires of the state. Although Khamenei is directly assisted down the ranks by special representatives, his voice and say remains the ultimate path the state has to follow. The president in Iran is more of a subordinate to the Supreme leader, whose powers are tied within the 2. Dorman, William A., and Mansour Farhang. The US press and Iran: Foreign policy and the journalism of deference. Univ of California Press, 1988. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 4 constitution. Being an Islamic state, Iran has no other organizations which can influence policy, save the Shia Muslims view on how the country should be represented. ii. Iran’s International Relationships The relationship existing between Iran and other countries is heavily based on religious faction alienation. Almost every other Shia organization or country becomes an automatically of the Middle East state. The enmity exhibited by Shia and Sunni towards each other is rooted in their view of their own religion. This view has grown to reflect huge differences attract conflicts. However, it is the State of Israel that has been touted the real enemy to Iran’s theocracy government. However, the bruise with Israel has grown outwards to attract the Jewish state’ allies in the United Kingdom and the United States respectively. Military rivalry in the Middle East region has fueled conflict with other regions top players, especially the Western-backed Saudi Arabia. The relationship between Israel; and Iran has been detraining, with claims of Iran funding terror groups acting offensively to the Jewish state.3 Iran’s security policy is structured on the need to protect the Islamic people of Iran from aggressors within the region. The country’s war with Iraq gives the state the rights to offer adequate security to the population. Iran aims at coming to the aid of those who are oppressed for their religious stand, particularly the treatment of Shia Muslims across the regions. Iraq went to war with Iran for fearing of possible annexation by Iran for its Shia majority northern regions. 3. Baumgartner, Jody C., Peter L. Francia, and Jonathan S. Morris. "A clash of civilizations? The influence of religion on public opinion of US foreign policy in the Middle East." Political Research Quarterly (2008). INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 5 This frankly tells you the objective of war, ‘To protect or gain territories’. The volatile nature in the region has created tensions from all corners, with superpowers keen to protect their allies from possible invasions.4 The security policy measures pursued by the Iran government have been shaped by the situation, right from the states formation in 1979, as the everlasting dislike between Iran and Israel do not seem to get out of the picture very soon. Unfortunately, Iran’s enemies are well cushioned by the western world, with the US and NATO backing both Saudi Arabia and Israel. iii. Military Capabilities The Islamic state’s military consist of two units, with the regular; navy, army and air force, and the Revolutionary Guards. The latter is considered more loyal to the administration. With a combined number of all armed forces well off the half-a-million mark, it would be safe to say that Iran has the military personnel at disposal. Major General Ataollah Salehi is the armed forces chief. Some of the notable military powers are evidence from the country’s equipment of war lists. With long-range missiles being the latest to join the long list. Missiles Iran has been making intense strides towards nuclear weapon acquisition capacity. This can be attested through their latest advancements in missile technology. Some of the missiles can go as far as 2,000 km distance, enabling a possible attack on Israel and other US gulf bases. 4. Shultz, George P., William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger, and Sam Nunn. "A world free of nuclear weapons." Wall Street Journal 4 (2007): A15. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 6 Army The 500,000 plus army is well equipped with over 1,600 tanks, most acquired either from North Korea or China, who both happen to be strategic partners. The army boats of more than 10,000 pieces of artillery, some with the capability for self-propelling. About 2,000 of all artillery is towed. Navy Iran needs to keep watch of the Persian Gulf at all time. For that purpose, they have roughly 20,000 navy personnel to strengthen the country’s security. The navy also has three Russian-made submarines and several corvettes. However, Iran’s technological and industrial advancements have propelled the beginning of homemade weapons, featuring a new locally made submarine unveiled in 2007. Air force About 30,000 men serve the Iran Air Force. The force is equipped with about 300 aircraft. As of July 2010, Iran confirms testing of a locally manufactured jet fighter, signaling the start of a sophisticated army activities in the region. The air force is also equipped with an aircraft carrier. Comparing Iran’s army forces with other Middle East rivals shows a greater advantage, but also a lack of more economically sound allies.5 Comparing Iran’s military capabilities with that of Israel 5. Bahgat, Gawdat. "Nuclear Proliferation: The Islamic Republic of Iran." Iranian Studies 39, no. 3 (2006): 307-327. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY Iran’s military strength has enabled the Islamic state to withstand the region's high tensions between the two religious factions of Islam. Comparing the military capabilities of Iran and Israel may indicate a stronger military pack on Israel side, but the issue of nuclear weapon capabilities should send the region at tension. Israel advantage lies in its ally and strategist US. Iran outweighs Israel on the number of service men at all demographic view parameters. The latest long-range missile project puts Iran in line to counter or response to any risk posed by its strategic enemies. The missiles are feared to have been created as a response to weakening the presence of US bases around the gulf region. Goals and policies Iran has had a grueling past since the Revolutionary era. The Islam democracy ruled country has not gone well with the anti-religion based democracy crusaders. The state has found itself at the center of pinpoints from western countries for supporting and promoting terror groups. The state has affirmed its efforts to go non-military, rather multilateralism ways as the policy for the last two decades. The war with Iraq was literally ignited by Saddam Hussein, further indicating the peaceful willingness of Iran in promoting unity between the two Muslim religious factions. The Shia are considered more of hardliners than the Sunni, but most of the unstable regions in middle are those which have a Sunni majority government at power.6 The foreign policy of Iran has received not only attention but concern for their nuclear capabilities. However, the Islamic state can contribute to bringing lasting peace and economy in the Middle East. The position of the Iran government on foreign policy has remained similar for 6. Chubin, Shahram. Iran's nuclear ambitions. Brookings Institution Press, 2010. 7 INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 8 the last two decades. Iran wants to retain its form of government while exercising democracy under the Islamic constitution of the land. Iran has forged forward in trying to bring peace and stabilize the region, their quest is chiefly influenced by the treatment of Shia Muslims across the Sunni-ruled countries. Iran peaceful approach to the issues surrounding their own security and that of the Middle East region at large can help international organizations in understanding the states take on security policy. Iran’s key-security goal is to neutralize any possible threat in the region, given its unique existence and center of the opposite religious Faction-Shia. Iran has recently come under scrutiny from UN for its involvements in nuclear weapons manufacture. The recently signed deal between the US and Iran has helped ratify some issues in question, but not everyone was left satisfied with the deal. Iran can be the game changer in the region, especially having grown so much in a region where destruction is the norm. The state of Iran’s pursuit of nuclear power is the quest to transform its people’s way of life and offer protection from possible attack. Iran has one of the oldest traditional democracy to exist in the modern days. Through its strict following of Islamic teachings, the country has seen domestic stability for more than two decades now. Iran is bordered by seven countries, and it has to shares the waters of Caspian Sea with other 11 countries. This tells much about the plate size of issues the state has to deal with. Foreign Policy Analysis: Perspective Iran has been a fallout nation to the western world since the Revolution which brought the current government in place, subsequently doing away with the western friendly monarchical system. Iran has had to withstand challenges within the region, even without a key ally to support INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 9 her militarily. The form of democracy exercised in Iran does not go down well with the western policies, although it has been proved to consist of peace contributing elements. Iran involvement in the funding of Lebanon-based Hezbollah militia has made the state a permanent enemy of Israel and its western allies; US and UK. Iran views the US as the world greatest threat to peace. The Supreme leader frequently makes scratching attacks on the US strategies in the Middle East. Iran sees the US as the reason why Israel can exercise brutal oppression and occupation to the Alawites of Palestine region. The US and NATO failure in recognizing Palestine as a sovereign state are some of the intriguing issues facing the relationship between the western world and Iran. The Islamic State has for long now been branded the bad ‘guys’ in the ongoing search for peace in the middle east. Even Israel Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, was quoted saying that following Saddam Hussein’s death, Iran’s Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei remains the biggest threat to the world peace.7 Iran has remained open for talks over a very long and well document period. The countries government has not chosen the aggressor path in solving security issues facing the Islamic state. Iran’s foreign policy advocates for peaceful negotiations and mutual respect for all parties involved. 7. Zarif, Mohammad Javad. "What Iran really wants: Iranian foreign policy in the Rouhani Era." Foreign Aff. 93 (2014): 49. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 10 War Expected benefits of fighting do not outweigh the expected costs The majority of the talk surrounding Iran’s take on war situations is based on mere hot air talk. There is no aggression behavior indicated by Iran, although its atomic power quest has raised eyebrows among diplomats. In fact, Iran has been the state that never and would not seem to engage in annexation or oppressive strategy towards its adversaries. Iran is accredited with the defeat of Saddam Hussein’s aggressive ambitions in the region, and by standing with Syria, it has once again proved pivotal in stabilizing the region. Iran wants to be recognized as a sovereign state and also extends its outreach in support of other Shia groups including Alawites from suppression.8 Although Iran boats of large able military numbers, the state has ruled out excessive use of force against other countries but will be ready to retaliate if its sovereignty was threatened. In a state where the economy is not that much great and still operating under sanctions, entering into a war would reflect a huge cost, barely sustainable in this economically oriented times. Iran’s administration is not led by irrational leadership, meaning any plunge into the war zone would not be quickly forthcoming. This can attest with the strategies employed during the IranIraq war in the late eighties. Ayatollah Khomeini was attacked first after Iraq troops crossed the north-eastern border into the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran has grown tremendously over the past decades, utilizing on the instability of neighboring states to its advantage. 8. Farhang, Mansour. "The Iran-Iraq War: The feud, the tragedy, the spoils." World Policy Journal 2, no. 4 (1985): 659-680. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 11 Improvement It is my believe that the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei has contributed to the great awakening of Iran as a silent but strategic state in the Middle East region. The Islamic republic represents by far the most participatory governing across the region. Given an opportunity to represent Iran at the security policy structuring, I would ensure several instances are arrived at; ➢ Lobby the interests of Iran and generally the threat facing non-Sunni Muslim population in the Middle East. ➢ Join forces in eliminating the threat posed by the anti-Shia militia, Daesh (ISIS). Bringing the international community to an understanding of how Iran can use its position to bring peace in the region. ➢ Ratify Iran’s position as stated in its policies over the Middle East conflict zone. ➢ Questioning the role of Israel and Saudi Arabia in Palestine and Yemen respectively would not miss in my cards. Expected benefits of fighting outweighs the cost of wars Iran can be the determining factor for any peace in the Middle East to be realized. The country has heavily participated in promoting peace in the region, even when religion fractioning is breaking the region into two forces against each other. Iran’s support of Shiite militia groups would be reconsidered under my tenure. However, with continued suppression of Shiite affiliate factions across the region, Iran has the responsibility to enforce fairness and justice to the Shia people, who make up about 95% of the Islamic state’s population. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 12 Bibliography Bahgat, Gawdat. "Nuclear Proliferation: The Islamic Republic of Iran." Iranian Studies 39, no. 3 (2006): 307-327. Baumgartner, Jody C., Peter L. Francia, and Jonathan S. Morris. "A clash of civilizations? The influence of religion on public opinion of US foreign policy in the Middle East." Political Research Quarterly (2008). Chubin, Shahram. Iran's nuclear ambitions. Brookings Institution Press, 2010. Dorman, William A., and Mansour Farhang. The US press and Iran: Foreign policy and the journalism of deference. Univ of California Press, 1988. Farhang, Mansour. "The Iran-Iraq War: The feud, the tragedy, the spoils." World Policy Journal 2, no. 4 (1985): 659-680. Kuniholm, Bruce Robellet, “The origins of the Cold War in the Near East”: Great power conflict and diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece. Princeton University Press, 2014. Shultz, George P., William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger, and Sam Nunn. "A world free of nuclear weapons." Wall Street Journal 4 (2007): A15. Tucker, Robert W. "The Interpretation of War under Present International Law." The International Law Quarterly 4, no. 1 (1951): 11-38. Zarif, Mohammad Javad. "What Iran really wants: Iranian foreign policy in the Rouhani Era." Foreign Aff. 93 (2014): 49. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 1 Middle East Conflict; A look on Iran’s Security Position in the Region Introduction Understanding what constitutes to a full blown war between countries can be intriguing from every point of view. Yes, many differences exist between different populations and society, but the concept of engaging in combat, fully aware of the costs associated with war, takes more than just anger provocations. In every war, there are benefits, although they may be one-sided, INTERNATIONAL SECURITY POLICY 2 the overall cost of war leaves benefits behind. A rational leader would most refrain from engaging in war battles when the world is competing in an economy platform. However, even in governments led by rational leaders, there is a need to be ready for any match, given the volatility of some regions and the growing issue of terrorism.1 Understanding the position taken by Iran on international security policy This report will analysis the international security policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The theocracy led government represents the other source of issues in the Middle East. Still many are yet to acknowledge the villain status of the Islamic government, but many questions continue to loom scholar’s minds. The country has been experiencing peaceful moments, but it’s itself seen as a threat to the much-needed peace in the re ...
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