UC Irvine Influence of Climate Change on Aquatic Ecosystems and Organisms Essay

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Xrilakhhhh

Science

University of California Irvine

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For the ecology paper, it should preferably be on the effects of climate change on community interactions (no polar bears, no coral reef papers, please). For your evolution paper, you are welcome to consider the evolution/ecology of coronavirus BUT if you do, it must focus on the evolution and NOT on the biomedical treatments or other medical or social aspects. Assign. 5a and 6a each require two references.

A minimum of five references (4 primary source; 1 review ok) will be required. The paper should be 1500-2000 words. See detailed instructions (Review Paper Instructions and Checklist) posted on the class website on how to write the final review paper.

The initial two citations must be from 2019, 2020, or 2021. A minimum of five references will be needed for the paper, although other citations may be older.

Requirements: 1500 words+ total

I have wrote part of the essay develop my essay around the topic "Influences of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and organisms"

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Bio E106L Influences of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and organisms Climate change has both direct and indirect effects on the aquatic ecosystems and aquatic organisms. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change1 (IPCC) has been recording and updating the climate change data since 1988. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA) which is an American scientific agency also tracked the climate and conditions of oceans, waterways and atmosphere. According to the NOAA 2019 Global Climate Summary(https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201913), the annual surface temperature of land and ocean has increased at an average rate of 0.07°C (/0.13°F) per decade since 1880. However, since 1981, the annual surface temperature has increased at an average of 0.18°C (/0.32°F), which is more than twice the rate since 1880. Figure 1 showed the recent temperature trends globally from 1990 to 2019. The temperature increased in most areas of the Earth. The dramatic increased surface temperature in recent years affects the aquatic ecosystems and organisms by warming temperatures of water and Ocean acidification. Figure 1. Changes in global temperature from 1990 to 2019. Red represents the places where temperatures have raised up to 1° Fahrenheit and blue represents the places where surface temperatures have cooled up to 1° Fahrenheit.Light grey represents the places where do not have enough information to provide the data. NOAA Climate.gov map, based on NCEI data. (haven’t finish another graph of CO2 changes in climate change throughout years ) Ocean acidification is a big problem in affecting the aquatic ecosystem and organisms. Ocean acidification refers to a decrease of pH value in oceans, which is caused by the carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere. The main causes can be fossil fuels burning and adding/subtracting chemicals from the ocean by human activity. As an increase of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, more CO2 can dissolve into the ocean, causing the increase of the partial pressure of CO2 at the ocean surface. This will decrease the pH of the ocean water and calcite or aragonite– two mineral forms of calcium carbonate which are important for shell aquatic life (Pörtner et al., 2014). Many skeletons and shells of marine organisms like molluscs and tropical corals are made from mineral forms of calcium carbonate. If there are not enough carbonate ions in oceans, the shells or skeletons of those organisms are left unprotected and begin to dissolve. (+increasing surface water T affect the ecosystem and organisms) Reference Huang, M., Ding, L., Wang, J., Ding, C., & Tao, J. (2020, October 04). The impacts of climate change on fish growth: A summary of conducted studies and current knowledge. Retrieved February 05, 2021, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X20309158 Hollowed, A., Barange, M., Beamish, R., Brander, K., Cochrane, K., Drinkwater, K., . . . Yamanaka, Y. (2013, July 06). Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries. Retrieved February 05, 2021, from https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/70/5/1023/645653 The Intergovernmental panel on climate change. (n.d.). Retrieved February 05, 2021, from https://www.ipcc.ch/ Pörtner, H.-O., Karl, D.M., Boyd, P.W., Cheung, W.W.L., Lluch-Cota, S.E., Nojiri, Y., Schmidt, D.N. & Zavialov, P.O. 2014. Ocean systems. In C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee et al., eds. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK and New York, USA, Cambridge University Press. pp. 411–484. (also available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-Chap6_FINAL.pdf).
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Explanation & Answer

This would be the first version... It already complies with all the requirements but I think it might be better, especially because the introduction seems to be larger than the bodySo let me know if you want me to do the edits (which I highly recommend) and when would be the due date to finish it...

Influence of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and organisms
Student Name
Date
Email
E106L - Processes in Ecology and Evolution

1
Introduction
Climate change sometimes called global warming refers to the sudden rise of the temperature of
the Earth (Poff et al., 2002). Climate changes primarily due to the use of fossil fuels that release carbon
dioxide or greenhouse gases into the air. Heat is a trap in the atmosphere which can cause drastic effects.
Climatic changes are the most severe cause of misuse of the earth's resources. Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change1 (IPCC) has been recording and updating the climate change data since 1988. The
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is an American scientific agency also
tracked the climate and conditions of oceans, waterways and atmosphere. According to the NOAA (2019)
Global Climate Report, the annual surface temperature of land and ocean has increased at an average rate
of 0.07°C (/0.13°F) per decade since 1880. However, since 1981, the annual surface temperature has
increased at an average of 0.18°C (/0.32°F), which is more than twice the rate since 1880. Figure 1 shows
the recent temperature trends globally from 1990 to 2019. The temperature increased in most areas of the
Earth.

Figure 1. Changes in global temperature from 1990 to 2019 (Adapted from NOAA National Centers for
Environmental Information, State of the Climate, 2020). Red represents the places where temperatures
have raised up to 1° Fahrenheit and blue represents the places where surface temperatures have cooled up
to 1° Fahrenheit. Light grey represents the places where there is not enough information to provide the
data.
Climate change has both direct and indirect effects on the aquatic ecosystems and aquatic
organisms. Changes in water temperature can affect the environments where fish, shellfish, and other
marine species live. The dramatic increased surface temperature in recent years affects the aquatic
ecosystems and organisms by warming temperatures of water and through ocean acidification. As climate
change causes the oceans to become warmer year-round, populations of some species may adapt by
shifting toward cooler areas. (Whited, 2016). Other common effects of climate change are global
warming, melting of glaciers increased rate of lake evaporation, greenhouse effects, increased rates of
biological invasions and deteriorated biodiversity are the interacting variables (Poff et al., 2002). The

2
purpose of this paper is to illustrate these affectations by reviewing three cases of aquatic ecosystems and
organisms affected by climate change.
The effects of a sudden change in the climate do not only affect humans but also animals such as
aquatic organisms. Climate change is an extra stressor in an already threatened aquatic ecosystem. A
multitude of aquatic animals are being endangered and at the threat of being extinct due to an increase in
water temperatures and rising natural disasters such as floods and hurricanes. Aquatic animals are an
integral part of biodiversity and environmental profitability but have however been threatened by climate
change and their evolution thereof (Poff et al., 2002). An increase in water temperatures due to global
warming causes a change in the temperature suitability of aquatic territories for species that stay there.
Species that thrive in cool water i.e., salmon and trout are heavily impacted by this rise in sea water
temperatures.
Aquatic organisms are important components of the ecosystem. These organisms are the main
contributors to biodiversity and productivity of ecology. They provide varieties of services to humans
including water for drinking, habitat for economic fisheries, and also recreational opportunities. But
aquatic ecosystems are being threatened by these human activities. Due to these land-use changes
especially water pollution, aquatic systems suffered and caused an addition to stress in global warming or
climate change (Poff et al., 2002).
A very clear fact that a certain country can cause climate change however one must say it is an
issue in trans-continental. This catastrophic consequence of abrupt surge was derived primarily from
hydrologic changes in global water which continues to move to the land. This act highly impacts aquatic
species. Countries like Egypt, Lebanon, and Israel are an ongoing process of nonstop coastal land
erosions with succeeding fisheries recession due to critical damage of the breeding habitats of the native
fishes at such pristine areas of the world (Eissa & Zaki, 2011). Also a triggering force in the opening of
the historical Suez Canal in 1869 behind the development of many ecological changes in the Levantine
Mediterranean as well as the Egyptian territories from the Red Sea basin (Eissa & Zaki, 2011).
All of these issues are the essential circumstances that affect the specific ecosystems and
organisms reviewed through this paper. Rather than focusing on a single species, the present paper
portraits the overall effect of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and organisms. The first case presents
a small but very important organism, which has become threatened by the increasing levels of acidity in
...


Anonymous
Just what I needed…Fantastic!

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